• I evolved this way: examining nonmonosexuality as an evolutionary adaptation

      Baroni, Amanda K. (2018-05)
      The main evolutionary purpose of any living creature is to pass on its genes through reproduction, also referred to as reproductive success (Dawkins, 1976). Since successful reproduction requires the copulation of a male and a female of any given species, any sexual behavior which is not exclusively heterosexual is an enigma in evolutionary theory. The affiliation hypothesis advocates for the concept that homosexual behavior may have evolved as a way to maintain social bonds (Muscarella, 1999, 2000). It is generally accepted that sexual behavior is not dichotomous indicating that hominins would have exhibited both homosexual and heterosexual behavior (Muscarella, 2000). This theory would allow for the maintenance of social bonds but would not hinder the possibility of heterosexual reproduction. The current study tests this hypothesis using multiple measures of reproductive success and social connection.
    • I feel, therefore I am: generational differences in moral processing styles

      Rausch, Zachary M. (2021-05)
      Moral decision-making is a core feature of human life. We explored whether generational differences exist in the preference for two types of moral processing styles (the ways in which we integrate moral information and decide to take action): moral reasoning and moral intuition. We analyzed preferences for moral processing styles by using a modified version of the Rational-Experiental Inventory (REI) scale, which was broken down into the Faith in Moral Intuition and Need For Moral Cognition subscales. Preferences for moral intuition and moral reasoning were measured by averaging Faith in Moral Intuition scores and Need for Moral Cognition scores from 120 Generation Z (born after 1996) and 50 Generation X (born between 1965 - 1980) participants. A mediation analysis was also conducted to see if social media usage would explain the expected differences between generations. Gen Z participants scored lower than Gen X participants on Need For Moral Cognition, but no differences emerged on Faith in Moral Intuition. However, the mean difference between Faith in Moral Intuition and Need For Moral Cognition was much larger for Gen X than Gen Z. Social media usage did not mediate the relationship between generation and moral processing styles. It appears that there are generational preferences for moral processing styles, and that moral reasoning is less valued by this younger generation. The reason that these generational differences emerged must be examined in future research.
    • "I have been told that human beings seldom dream about cherubim" : unconventional representations of the divine in Madeleine L'Engle's Time Quartet

      Seitz, Jeffrey D. (2020-05)
      Madeleine L'Engle's writing is a kaleidoscope of science and theology, with an abundance of literary and spiritual insights. For decades, readers have been inspired by the familiar characters in her Time Quartet novels. Yet these readers are confounded by the supernatural beings she populated in the texts. One of the ways this mythopoeic writer indicated her spiritual inclinations was by her unconventional representations of the divine through her masterful use of the suspension of disbelief that serves as a possible spiritual vision. Decades after the publication of A Wrinkle in Time, her writing continues to inspire and puzzle readers. Madeleine L Engle Time Quartet novels continue to evoke curiosity among literary scholars because of her boldness for integrating spirituality with science.
    • If I had never met you : counterfactual thinking and romantic relationships

      Studer, Lauren E. (2016-05)
      The present study examined a sample of 260 individuals, between the ages of 18 and 29, in romantic relationships. The main focus of this research was to identify the ways in which individuals view the function of their relationships through counterfactual thinking and to delineate associations between counterfactual thinking, self-expansion and codependence. Content analysis of counterfactual responses was also conducted, and overarching themes were identified and compared with outcome measures. Findings revealed correlations between levels of codependency, relationship satisfaction, self-expansion and perceived interpersonal overlap between the self and partner. Common themes within the counterfactual thinking exercise included changes in personal characteristics, health related behavior and emotionality. Strengths of this study include the lack of formal direction in the counterfactual thinking exercise, which allowed participants to discuss any salient characteristics of the relationships and provided very robust findings in this sample. Implications for these findings are discussed.
    • The impact of gun prevalence and background race on racial bias in the first person shooter paradigm

      D’Addario, Angelo (2018-08)
      Laboratory research on the first person shooter task (FPST), requiring participants to make a quick decision whether to shoot at a person who may be carrying a gun, consistently demonstrates a strong bias to shoot at Blacks more than at Whites. In order to enhance external validity, we manipulated the race of the bystander and the probability of the gun. 112 undergraduates were used in the FPST, in which the impact of four variables on Reaction Time and Error Rate were explored: Target Race (Black, White), Gun Prevalence (25%, 50% and 75%), Background Race (Black, White, half Black and half White), Object (Gun, No Gun). Results replicated a classically shown anti-Black bias. Bias was moderated, however, by both the prevalence of the gun and the race of the bystander. When there was no gun present, anti-Black bias was highest when the race of the bystander was all White. When there was a gun present, anti-Black bias was highest when there were any Black bystanders. Independent of background race, as the prevalence of the gun decreased, racial bias generally increased, as indicated by faster hits and fewer misses for Black targets. False alarms, on the other hand, generally decreased with decreased gun prevalence. In general, males made correct decisions faster than females, and the racial bias, limited to the decision to shoot someone holding a gun, hits, was greater for males than for females. These findings show that anti-Black bias in the decision to shoot must be explored under more externally valid circumstances.
    • The impact of music therapy on a young man on the autism spectrum : a case study

      Chute, Jennifer (2019-05)
      Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are faced with challenges as they progress through stages of human development. The client in this case study is a young man who desired the same things that typically developing young people do, namely to live in his own apartment. However, he had not yet acquired the daily living skills needed to accomplish this due to the challenges presented by his diagnoses of ASD. Music therapy was an important component of his habilitation. In these sessions, the music therapist accompanied the client on a journey of self-exploration and confidence building, which readied the client to learn and implement the needed independent living skills.
    • The implications of counterfactual thoughts on military members and veterans

      Blankstein, Melissa (2018-05)
      While there is a plethora of research conducted on therapeutic techniques for military service members and veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), there is little information about how certain cognitive processes may hinder participation in therapy or various mental health interventions. There remains a large problem within the military, in that many returning military service members and veterans are not seeking services when they need them. The cognitive mechanism of counterfactual thinking may play a role in hindering the treatment seeking process for service members and veterans. Counterfactual thinking has been defined as “mental representations of alternatives to the past.” Usually elicited by negative events, counterfactual thinking is produced when an individual creates hypothetical alternatives to their previous actions resulting in a different, hypothetical outcome. This graduate master’s thesis sought to explore if using different kinds of counterfactual thinking mechanisms can impact a military service member or veteran’s stigma against seeking psychological treatment and resulting meaning surrounding their military life. Findings show that there were no significant differences in different types of counterfactual thoughts on one’s internalized stigma of seeking help, or one’s meaning making. However, there may be changes in how counterfactuals are used regarding the intensity of one’s experiences within the military, and the intensity of their PTSD and depression symptoms. Implications of using counterfactual thoughts to reduce barriers to help-seeking are also discussed.
    • Implicit attitudes towards sexually and reproductively relevant stimuli : do female attitudes vary based on sexual orientation, conception-risk, and hormonal contraceptive use?

      Guitar, Amanda E. (2013-06-26)
      Previous research has suggested that females at high fertility may be more sensitive to cues of sexual-relevance as opposed to reproductive-relevance. The current study examined this issue by having females of varying sexual orientation complete two implicit association tasks (IAT) while they were in either a high-conception risk phase (i.e., fertile phase) or low-conception risk phase (i.e., non-fertile phase), as well as comparing this data to women who were currently taking hormonal contraceptives. The IAT is an implicit measure designed to detect the strength of a person's automatic association between mental representations of concepts in memory. The first IAT assessed attitudes towards cues of reproductively relevant stimuli (images of women who are or are not visibly pregnant) and the second IAT examined cues of sexually relevant stimuli (images of provocatively or conservatively dressed women). Results suggest that women did differ on implicit attitudes towards both stimuli; however, these differences were not statistically significant.
    • Implicit bias and moral responsibility: does ingroup membership matter?

      Greiser, Melissa (2021-05)
      Implicit bias seems to be at the heart of a number of pressing societal problems. Efforts have been made to reduce bias through spreading information about implicit attitudes and implementing bias training programs. To adequately address these issues, though, greater attention needs to be given to how individuals process and respond to information about implicit bias. The current study explored moral judgments of behaviors stemming from implicit bias judgments, with a focus on gender-based discrimination. We also considered how ingroup status (sharing the same gender as the perpetrator) may affect these judgments. Participants read a short scenario about a man or woman who exhibited either implicit or explicit bias toward the opposite gender; participants then reported their judgments of the perpetrator’s moral responsibility. Results revealed that less responsibility was attributed to behavior stemming from implicit (relative to explicit) bias. Implicit bias reduced responsibility regardless of whether or not the perpetrator was an ingroup member (same gender as the participant). Additionally, both male and female participants held the male perpetrator more responsible for his actions than the female perpetrator. This research provides a clearer picture of how people evaluate implicit bias, which is central to understanding why implicitly biased behaviors often result in minor consequences for the perpetrators. Future research should seek to more fully understand how individuals process and respond to information regarding implicit bias in an effort to reduce any potential negative consequences of spreading such information and construct the most effective methods for reducing bias.
    • The Influence of Body Art on Personnel Selection

      Dvorscak, Marissa L. (2010-03-18)
      Previous research on physical appearance and personnel selection suggests physical appearance significantly affects hiring decisions. With individuals dramatically changing their physical appearance with body art, such as tattoos and body piercings, this study was designed to examine the impact body art has on personnel selection and personorganization fit. Each applicant packet included a photograph of the same Caucasian male, a fabricated personal statement, with an attached resume creating three applicant packets. Application materials were identical in nature, with the exception of the photograph. The level of body art was manipulated in the photograph (Level One: pictured without visible body art, Level Two: pictured with a moderate amount of body art, and Level Three: pictured with excessive amounts of body art). Forty-five Management Professionals with Hiring Responsibilities (ranging in age from 25 years and up) and Forty-five Supervisory Professionals without Hiring Responsibilities (ranging in age from 18 years to 25 years) were asked to evaluate an applicant packet from one of the variable levels and rate the likelihood that they would be selected for an entry-level position, as well as perceived level of attractiveness. The male with no visible body art was viewed as the most attractive. The amount of visible body art did not appear to influence hiring decisions. Although age of the rater was predicted to be a potential moderator, did not moderate the effects of body art on attractiveness, person-organization fit, selection, or stereotyping.
    • Influence of career self-efficacy beliefes on career exploration behavior

      Nasta, Kristen A. (2007-09-11)
      The study involved 211 female and 47 male (259 total) college students from the State University of New York at New Paltz general population. All data were collected online. It was hypothesized that the sources of career self-efficacy would significantly correlate with and predict career exploration over and above career self-efficacy, and that past performance accomplishments would have the strongest influence. To measure the sources of career self-efficacy the Career Self-Efficacy Sources Scale was created. The Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale- Short Form (Betz, Klein, & Taylor, 1996) was used to measure career self-efficacy. To measure career exploration a revised version of the Career Exploration Survey (Stumpf, Colarelli, & Hartman, 1983) was used. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed a five factor solution with the factors Past Performance Accomplishments, Vicarious Learning, Verbal Persuasion, Emotional Arousal Negative, and Emotional Arousal Positive, was a good fit for the data. The career self-efficacy sources scales also correlated significantly with career self-efficacy. Results of the bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses supported the hypothesis that sources of career self-efficacy beliefs do in fact correlate with and predict career exploration. Performance accomplishments had the strongest influence on career self-efficacy, whereas verbal persuasion was the strongest predictor of career exploration. These results suggest that career counselors should incorporate verbal persuasion in their work with clients to enhance career self-efficacy and career exploration.
    • The influence of phonetic features on the perception of accented speech

      Cali, Richard (2015-07)
      When learning a second language, speakers often produce certain phonetic features of that language differently than native speakers, which results in accented speech. Between Spanish and English, there are a number of phonetic differences which may be produced differently by Spanish speaking learners of English. I focus on two specific features of Spanish-English accented speech. The first is the lack of aspiration in pre-vocalic voiceless consonants, which results in English listeners perceiving the voiced counterparts. The second is the devoicing of the post-vocalic voiced consonants, which results in English listeners perceiving the voiceless counterparts. To test whether these two features have a strong effect on the intelligibility of accented speech, participants were asked to perform a forced-choice word recognition task in which they were presented with an auditory token, spoken by a Spanish-English bilingual, and asked to identify which of two visually presented words the spoken word was. The auditory token differed on pre- and post-vocalic voicing. I predicted that English listeners’ accuracy would be worse when they listened to the pre-vocalic, voiceless tokens compared to the pre-vocalic, voiced tokens and that the opposite would occur in the post-vocalic position. As predicted, results indicated that the subjects’ accuracy was better in the pre-vocalic voiced condition and the post-vocalic voicing condition. This implies that these two dimensions might have a direct effect on English listeners’ perception of an accent, which suggests that at some level, individual segmental qualities can result in accent perception, independent of the presence of suprasegmental features, or even other phonetic differences.
    • An inquiry into sound healing and music therapy

      Erson, Rebecca D. (2020-05)
      Sound and music are powerful forces within the context of the subjective experience, the depths of which are underrepresented within traditional objectively focused research. This study delved into the internal experience of the practitioner when utilizing these forces in the therapeutic setting. As a music therapist who utilizes sound healing within my daily practice, I was interested in looking at my own experience of facilitating sound healing sessions and music therapy sessions. In comparing these two experiences I sought to draw some parallels as well as further define what is different about the two modalities.
    • Integration and meaning-making of peak experiences in Bonny method of guided imagery and music : an empirical phenomenological study

      Jones, Katie (2019-08)
      This study is an empirical phenomenological study that investigated the lived experience of meaning-making and integration of peak experiences in the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music. A total of four participants were enrolled in this study: two GIM Fellows and two GIM clients. All participants shared their own lived experiences of the phenomena through semi-structured interviews. Participants shared ways in which they made meaning of their experience, and then integrated it into their daily lives. This study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of how individuals bring these experiences back into their lifeworlds and whether they experience any life changes. This study found that all participants processed their experience by engaging in a creative process, i.e., drawing, writing, or other consciousness shifting meditations. Once meaning was derived, all participants expressed experiences of increased openness and expansion, as well as a greater awareness of spiritual oneness. All participants shared experiences of change and transformation following their experience, demonstrating the potential benefits of the Bonny Method of GIM for promoting experiences of self-actualization and spiritual wellness.
    • Is he the one?: courtship as a mechanism to predict male long-term commitment

      Freuman, Ari (2013-02-15)
      Human courtship is a process whereby one tries to seek the affections of another, usually with the intent of marriage (Merriam-Webster, 2012). In modern society, courtship appears to be a universal precursor to marriage: In nearly all marriages (or other formal romantic unions), males provide some form of courtship, lasting from several weeks to years (Surra, 1985). Courtship can take several forms, but in the context of long-term mating, it is nearly always characterized by a male who invests his time or resources toward a female (Surra, 1985). Although, in specific contexts females may court males though specific courtship display (Geher & Miller, 2007), this study focuses on the courtship of females by males.
    • Judgements of cross-sex infidelity responses as a component of mating intelligence

      Johnson, John D. (2007-04-26)
      Mating Intelligence (MI; (Geher, 2005) is operationally defined as the ability to correctly guess the mating relevant thoughts of mates or potential mates. This study focuses on one specific aspect of MI, known as infidelity mating intelligence. Infidelity mating intelligence or IMI is defined as the ability to make accurate predictions regarding what members of the opposite sex will judge as most distressing when faced with a variety of infidelity situations. Four-hundred-eighty-one participants (152 males and 329 females) participated in this research. Participants were asked to judge what types of infidelity they themselves felt would be more distressing in an intimate relationship. Participants were also asked to act as other-raters (make predictions about what types of infidelity they thought the opposite gender would identify as being more distressing in intimate relationships). All participants were also tested on several other mating intelligence (MI) variables as well as on several criterion variables. Infidelity mating intelligence (IMI) was significantly positively correlated with cognitive and emotional intelligence for females and cognitive intelligence for males. It was also found that males tended to report being more distressed by a mate’s sexual infidelity and females tended to report being more distressed over a mate’s emotional infidelity. Additionally, some interesting post hoc findings were found. Males and females differed in their overall responses to infidelity in systematic ways. Males tended to overestimate the degree to which females would choose emotional infidelity as more distressing based on Chi Square analysis. This is a stereotypical response of males according to research. Males assume that females will be more stressed by emotional aspects of infidelity to a greater extent than females typically are. Females tended to also overestimate the degree to which males would choose emotional infidelity as more distressing based on Chi Square analysis. In other words, females tended to show social projection when judging responses of men, meaning that females think that males would think more like females do when making judgments regarding infidelity. Implications for research in this area are discussed.
    • Lesbian and Bisexual Identity in Multiple Ecological Contexts

      Belmonte, Kimberly (2011-09-12)
      Although sexual minority individuals are embedded in a series of complex systems—legal, political, cultural, and institutional—little is known about how these diverse contexts affect sexual identity and well-being. Using Bronfenbrenner‘s Ecological Systems Model (1979) as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this study was to better understand how proximal (e.g.,,interpersonal relationships) and distal (e.g.,, policies) environments influence the development of homosexual and bisexual women living in the United States. In this mixed methods study, 367 lesbian and 495 bisexual women completed self-report questionnaires that measured: 1) feelings about sexual orientation; 2) degree of openness; 3) quality of life; and 4) biculturalism. Analyses revealed that lesbian women fared better than bisexual women on all measures. A thematic analysis of open-ended questions identified emergent themes that centered on experiences of inclusion (e.g.,, acceptance) and exclusion (e.g., legalized homophobia). The discussion focuses on similarities and differences within and between groups.