• Gender differences in intelligence theory, achievement, motivation, and attributional style: effects on choice of science, math, and technology careers

      Froehlich, Sharon Walling (2007-09-11)
      This study explores potential reasons for why more females become math avoidant than males during middle and high school and tend to skip all but the most necessary math classes in college, leading to a dearth of women who enter careers in mathematics, science, and technology. This web-based study examines gender differences in the way males and females self report views of their own personal math intelligence, their goal orientation in the mathematics learning environment, their demonstration of either mastery or learned helplessness orientation in the face of failure at a difficult math task, and gender differences in math self-efficacy before and after math failure. The author hypothesized that more females than males would demonstrate a learned maladaptive pattern in the mathematical learning environment. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the above factors will be consistent with females’ decision not to enter scientific and math based careers. Contrary to these predictions, the only significant findings were that women did tend to report lower math self-efficacy than men, and that consistent with previous research (e.g. Betz, 1985), low math self-efficacy is predictive of interest in careers in math, science, and technology. The results will be presented and discussed, along with some limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research in this important area.
    • Generational differences in work life balance attitudes

      Parker, Catherine C. (2008-05-13)
      A study was conducted with 543 SUNY New Paltz alumni representing three generations to determine if there were generational differences in attitudes about work life balance. A paper and pencil survey was mailed to 3000 potential participants containing questions regarding perception of work life balance, engagement in individual initiative behavior and work life balance program usage and perceived risk. Significant differences in engagement in individual initiative behavior, perceptions of risk and program usage were found between Baby Boomers and Millennials. Significant differences in program usage were found between Baby Boomers and Gen X’ers. Some surprising results were found. There were no significant results for gender differences for perceived work life balance across the generations and the result for work life balance by generation only approached significance. This result possibly suggests a more complex relationship between gender, age, and work life balance. Alternative explanations such as age, familial responsibility and gender are discussed. Implications for further research were discussed including possible barriers to usage of work life programs for Baby Boomers and men of all generations.
    • A generative chatbot with natural language processing

      Liebman, David (2020-12)
      The goal in this thesis is to create a chatbot, a computer program that can respond verbally to a human in the course of simple day-to-day conversations. A deep learning neural network model called the Transformer is used to develop the chatbot. A full description of a Transformer is provided. The use of a few different Transformer-based Natural Language Processing models to develop the chatbot, including Generative Pre-Training 2 (GPT2), are shown. For comparison a Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) based model is included. Each of these are explained below. The chatbot code is installed on a small device such as the Raspberry Pi with speech recognition and speech-to-text software. In this way a device that can carry out a verbal conversation with a human might be created. For the GRU-based model a Raspberry Pi 3B with 1GB RAM can be used. A Raspberry Pi 4B with 4GB of RAM is needed to run a chatbot with the GPT2.
    • The Golden Section and Attitudes Towards Mental Illness: How does Stigma Influence Golden Section Ratings?

      Harasym, Melanie T. (2010-03-18)
      Studies have shown that when people are asked to make judgments about others using a list of bipolar adjective pairs, they consistently produce ratings that are approximately 62% positive and 38% negative. The precise proportion of 61.8:38.2, known as the golden section, stems from Pythagorean principles that explain how people organize and make sense of the world around them. The current study examined how a stigmatized view of the mentally ill can affect golden section ratings of various diagnostic labels. One hundred and eighteen participants were tested on: (1) their view of the mentally ill (level of stigma), (2) how much contact they have had with the mentally ill, and (3) their golden section ratings of various medical and psychiatric labels. Results indicated that participants with a less stigmatizing view of the mentally ill did not exhibit a golden section pattern in rating all diagnostic labels, despite what was hypothesized. Participants with a stigmatizing view of the mentally ill did not exhibit a reverse golden section pattern in rating psychiatric labels as expected either. The results of the current study did show, however, that people who have more contact with the mentally ill also have a less stigmatizing view of the mentally ill.
    • A grounded theory exploration of how a song's musical characteristics affect lyric interpretation

      Colleran, Michael (2020-05)
      This study explored the effect of musical characteristics on processing and subsequent analysis and discussion of song lyrics. Clinical applications for this knowledge were explored and expanded upon, in order to gain insights into how song discussion can be better utilized in a clinical setting. This qualitative study utilized modified grounded theory research in order to better understand the experience of song discussion and the role musical characteristics play in interpretation.
    • A healthcare IoT prototype for responsive oxygen therapy treatment of COPD patients

      Khan, Azer (2020-12)
      Our final design offers oxygen therapy patients an IoT enabled, adaptable and small form-factor device offering potential for automatic detection and agile response to oxygen saturation readings. Our key components are a photodiode sensor, algorithm processor and micro- controller providing the foundation for future development for FDA approval, machine-learning and analytics, and feedback-loop oxygen tank controller tracks. Our device is cutting-edge in its communications, power consumption and efficiency. We have gained an understanding of the effort required to design an IoT enabled solution in the healthcare space. Integrating hardware and software designs are an exercise to understand the inner workings of many systems used today. It is estimated that there will be about 50 billion IoT-enabled devices in the world by 2030 [22]. Technologists who understand the underlying systems will be able to make well-informed decisions about the future of the connected world.
    • Hearts and hands music therapy program : a music therapy program proposal for The Hagedorn Little Village School

      Mullane, Thomas (2019-08)
      The Hearts and Hands Music Therapy Program will focus on addressing the individualized needs of students who would benefit from receiving music therapy services. Music therapy treatment will be designed to provide children with opportunities to achieve their highest developmental potential. Along with traditional music therapy interventions, this program will also provide students, staff, and family members with opportunities to become involved with music in context to the school community. This paper discusses a proposal for a music therapy program at Hagedorn Little Village School.
    • Heterosexual male’s attitudes and experiences of help seeking for dating violence

      Chitkara, Anjuli (2011-08-31)
      The present study sought to understand the degree to which conformity to masculine norms influenced heterosexual males (a) attitudes towards psychological help seeking in general, (b) attitudes towards physical common couple violence, (c) attitudes towards romantic relational aggression, (d) perceptions of masculinity for males who seek help for dating violence (physical and relational) and (e) help seeking experiences for those that have experienced some form of physical or relational victimization. The study focused on heterosexual male victims of physical common couple violence and romantic relational aggression because they are typically neglected in the mainstream culture. The findings of the present study suggests there is evidence that greater importance of conformity to masculine norms is related to (a) negative attitudes towards psychological help seeking (b) more accepting attitudes of intimate partner violence and (c) more tolerant attitudes towards romantic relational aggression. In addition to these findings, it was also found that males who have experienced some form of romantic relational victimization (a) were more likely to report more accepting attitudes towards romantic relational aggression, (b) and did not seek any form of help, were more likely to report higher levels of emotional control and risk-taking behaviors. The present results suggest more conformity to masculine norms is an important variable that should continue to be explored in help seeking and dating violence literature.
    • A heuristic study on music-centered supervision

      Doak, Timothy D. (2018-05)
      This first-person study investigated how a music-centered (Modified Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music) supervision contributed to understanding the role of music therapy when working with clients diagnosed with a Disorder of Consciousness during a Masters Fellowship. Data was collected from three sources; a) transcriptions from Dr. Heather Wagner and Ms. Madelaine Ventre, b) personal experience, c) and mandalas drawn during the supervision session. This data was analyzed to answer the following research questions; “How does music-centered supervision help deepen my understanding of working with children diagnosed with Disorders of Consciousness?” and “What do my mandalas reveal about my experience working with children diagnosed with Disorders of Consciousness?” Qualitative methods of interrogation, interpretation, and triangulation were utilized in order to discover the answers to the research questions. Through careful analysis of the data, four themes were present during the music-centered supervision process: nurturance and containment, preparation, discomfort, and new energy. Each theme provided a deeper understanding to the various stages of the supervision process. This study also provides evidence of the benefits of music-centered supervision for music therapists, especially during their studies and training.
    • An historical perspective of the unification of the american music therapy association: an oral history

      Hardy, Rachel A. (2018-12)
      This paper is an historical look at the unification of the National Association of Music Therapy (NAMT) and the American Association for Music Therapists (AAMT) to form the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA). Historical documents and existing literature were examined to set the context for the event, including the histories of both previous associations. Three individuals who played significant roles in the process of unification were interviewed about the process of unification as well as its comparison to present day decisions. Their perspectives and experiences are presented in this paper.
    • “Homespun” horror: Shirley Jackson’s domestic doubling

      Phillips, Hannah (2019-05)
      My argument will begin by situating Jackson’s writing among gender studies (considering the nineteenth century and midcentury), Gothic literature, domesticity, and horror. I plan to address three of Jackson’s novels, Hangsaman, The Sundial, and We Have Always Lived in the Castle, through close readings of home spaces in the texts, relying on a term I will establish later in this paper as the “domestic double.”
    • Hot stuff! : the evolutionary psychology behind the attractivness of volunteer firefighters

      Primavera, Nicholas J. (2019-08)
      Research has demonstrated a clear relationship between riskiness and reported levels of general attractiveness. Research has also explored the perceived attractiveness of altruistic behaviors of males and females. No previous study has examined if these same findings apply to members of the volunteer fire service. The current study sought to examine this question, by presenting heterosexual females with pictures and biographies of volunteer firefighters, manipulating the firefighter's riskiness and altruism to measure differences in their levels of perceived attraction. The pictures either showed the model in the traditional gear of the firefighter, the dress uniform, or plain clothes. The biography paired with these pictures either depicted a risky firefighter, an altruistic firefighter, or it simply included that they are a firefighter. Dispositional measures included personality assessment to account for potential individual differences in the relationship between these factors. In general, communal biography cues were found to be most attractive for a long-term relationship, and were rated highest on the Parenting Effort scale. Further, Risky biography cues were found to be most attractive for a brief sexual affair, and were rated highest on the Mating Effort scale
    • How culture informs hospice music therapy: a critical interpretive synthesis

      DeFeo, Nicholas J. (2017-05)
      This systematic review investigates hospice music therapy and the role culture plays in informing clinical practice. Due to the emphasis on cultural, contextual understanding in this review, the exploration of end-of-life care through qualitative inquiry, and the transformative nature of the implications yielded by the study, a critical interpretive synthesis was chosen as the best suited form of review. Studies in interdisciplinary fields of end-of-life care were also considered. The SUNY New Paltz library database Proquest was utilized in order to search articles from the following databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, VOICES, The Australian Journal of Music Therapy, and The New Zealand Journal of Music Therapy. The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) research database was also utilized in order to collect research articles from the Journal of Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. Exactly 10 studies met inclusion criteria. Results of this study indicated eight themes relevant to culturally-sensitive practice in hospice music therapy: perception of death and dying, appropriate level of sensitivity, spirituality/religiosity, expression of grief, family dynamics, legacy/life review, perceived role of music therapist, and perceived role of music. The themes presented in this study bolster the argument that culturally informed practice is crucial to effective implementation of music therapy. Implications for future music therapy research, education and training, and direction for treatment are discussed.
    • How do moments of insight in personal therapy impact the professional lives of music therapists?

      Starace, Jeffrey (2018-12)
      This study presents the findings of an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis on the professional impact of insight moments that occur in the personal therapy sessions of music therapists. Four board-certified music therapists participated in semi-structured interviews and described experiences in personal therapy that impacted their professional lives. In addition, participants described experiences from their own music therapy sessions that related to their personal therapy insights. Participants also shared how other methods of professional development compare with personal therapy. Other methods such as self-care and supervision were included in the literature review to support this comparison. It was observed that there is little literature in regards to the professional impact of personal therapy for music therapists. Therefore, literature from relevant therapeutic fields such as psychology and social work were included to help supplement the literature review. Four emergent themes were derived from the data: empathy for clients, therapeutic presence, clear boundaries, and learning new skills. The results of this research may inform music therapists about the potential professional benefits of personal therapy.
    • How singing helped me heal: a heuristic, arts based inquiry

      Nicholas, Emily (2021-05)
      This arts-based, heuristic inquiry explores how the act of singing throughout my lifetime helped facilitate the healing of my trauma and how recent vocal psychotherapy allowed for the recognition of this discovery. Reflexive journaling was used to uncover themes after each vocal psychotherapy session and songwriting was used to further explore these themes. This resulted in six songs based lyrically on the themes. These songs paired with the reflexive journals and data collected from journal analysis reflected a timeline of my life that examines how singing was a tool for protective dissociation, growth, healing, and self-discovery. Participation in vocal psychotherapy further examined my healing journey and acted to facilitate a new step in the process: forgiving myself for my perceived mistakes along the way. By re-examining how singing helped me heal in the past, I was able to gain a holistic understanding of my present ideology as a performer, songwriter, teacher, and music therapy student.
    • How to give or take anything: breaking the solipsism of Infinite Jest

      Berman, Eric (2018-12)
      In the course of this paper, I will be using [Infinite Jest] as an inflection point in literature, signaling a shift away from the postmodern era in an attempt to reinject meaning, truth, and trust into our society. Going beyond the New Sincerity movement that Wallace called for in his 1993 essay, IJ signals an attempt by fiction writers at the turn of the millennium to expose the ways our sociopolitical systems are failing to adapt to the social simulacra presented by new media. They warn of postmodernism’s ideology habituating its citizens into solipsistic loops, as this new cultural fabric wraps individuals ever more tightly into isolated existences. IJ on its own may fall short of providing clear answers as to how to escape the problems generated by this changing media landscape, but nonetheless establishes pivotal steps to rebuild the foundation of the social sphere. To prove IJ’s role as an inflection point in postmodern literature contextualized in new media, the paper has five parts that form an organizational trajectory of the changing ideology leading to the present. The first section will analyze how IJ participates in both the epic tradition and postmodernism in order to represent its characters as products of modern solipsistic American culture. The second will analyze Wallace’s satirical creation myth of a new American empire and political subplot behind the principle characters, as well as the ways individual behaviors initiate the apocalyptic crises of the novel. The third will argue that despite its protagonists receiving individual tragic endings within the text, IJ does explore treatment options for America in the form of strategies that the culture can enact to survive in toxic ideology. The fourth section will examine a positive case of post-postmodern literature, Ruth Ozeki’s A Tale for the Time Being, which carries the torch from Wallace’s diagnosis-and treatment in order to break its protagonists from their suffering. The fifth section will employ sociological data in order to contextualize how real-world cases of streaming entertainment, social media, and device usage have transformed American culture into and away from Wallace’s television-based project. Finally, the paper will synthesize the diagnoses and treatment options established in order to provide a summary of actionable steps the reader can take to begin mending the social crises confronting America today.
    • Hypothesized fitness indicators and mating success

      Camargo, Michael A. (2007-09-25)
      This study will attempt to create a valid measure of mating success (a proxy for reproductive success), which focuses on the quality of a person’s most recent long-term and short-term sexual relationship from an evolutionary perspective. Additionally, this thesis will test many hypotheses put forth by Miller’s (2000b) ‘fitness-indicator theory.’ Results suggest that this new measure of mating success is highly reliable and correlates with female fluctuating asymmetry. Furthermore, the data do not support Miller’s ‘fitness-indicator theory,’ and instead shows support for the ‘trade-off hypothesis.’ Finally, the data revealed that an individual’s self-perceived desirability is dependent upon one’s IQ level and one’s preference for either short or long-term sexual relationships.
    • I evolved this way: examining nonmonosexuality as an evolutionary adaptation

      Baroni, Amanda K. (2018-05)
      The main evolutionary purpose of any living creature is to pass on its genes through reproduction, also referred to as reproductive success (Dawkins, 1976). Since successful reproduction requires the copulation of a male and a female of any given species, any sexual behavior which is not exclusively heterosexual is an enigma in evolutionary theory. The affiliation hypothesis advocates for the concept that homosexual behavior may have evolved as a way to maintain social bonds (Muscarella, 1999, 2000). It is generally accepted that sexual behavior is not dichotomous indicating that hominins would have exhibited both homosexual and heterosexual behavior (Muscarella, 2000). This theory would allow for the maintenance of social bonds but would not hinder the possibility of heterosexual reproduction. The current study tests this hypothesis using multiple measures of reproductive success and social connection.
    • I feel, therefore I am: generational differences in moral processing styles

      Rausch, Zachary M. (2021-05)
      Moral decision-making is a core feature of human life. We explored whether generational differences exist in the preference for two types of moral processing styles (the ways in which we integrate moral information and decide to take action): moral reasoning and moral intuition. We analyzed preferences for moral processing styles by using a modified version of the Rational-Experiental Inventory (REI) scale, which was broken down into the Faith in Moral Intuition and Need For Moral Cognition subscales. Preferences for moral intuition and moral reasoning were measured by averaging Faith in Moral Intuition scores and Need for Moral Cognition scores from 120 Generation Z (born after 1996) and 50 Generation X (born between 1965 - 1980) participants. A mediation analysis was also conducted to see if social media usage would explain the expected differences between generations. Gen Z participants scored lower than Gen X participants on Need For Moral Cognition, but no differences emerged on Faith in Moral Intuition. However, the mean difference between Faith in Moral Intuition and Need For Moral Cognition was much larger for Gen X than Gen Z. Social media usage did not mediate the relationship between generation and moral processing styles. It appears that there are generational preferences for moral processing styles, and that moral reasoning is less valued by this younger generation. The reason that these generational differences emerged must be examined in future research.