• Factor structure of OCD: toward an evolutionary neuro-cognitive model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

      Glass, Daniel (2012-06-28)
      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder characterized by its clinical heterogeneity, but also a commonality of symptom clusters that are known as “symptom dimensions.” Previous research among clinical samples using factor analysis has shown that the symptom-structure of OCD falls into four or five of these dimensions. The symptom dimensions can be conceptualized as representing impairment in several discrete brain systems which may meet the criteria for evolved mental “modules.” The current study uses confirmatory factor analysis in a community sample to test several competing models of OCD-like symptoms. These symptoms are discussed from the perspective of adaptive mental modules, and normal functions of OCD-like thoughts and behaviors are discussed. The four-factor model of OCD symptoms proposed in previous research was supported relative to competing one and five-factor models, and a positive correlation between OCD-like symptoms and mating success is demonstrated. Implications are discussed for the understanding and treatment of OCD, as well as our understanding of the brain’s evolved cognitive structure and organization during normal functioning.
    • Factors influencing career longevity of music therapists

      Doxsee, Lauren E. (2020-05)
      This survey study examined the factors that experienced music therapists identified as important in maintaining their careers in music therapy. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into how these music therapists combat burnout and stress to remain practicing in the field for 10 years or longer. Previous studies on burnout and career longevity have focused on whether music therapists have burnout, causes or factors leading to burnout and possible shortened careers, and the length of average careers in music therapy. The survey was sent out to 3,421 board-certified music therapists who were selected for longevity in the profession, 10 years or longer. There were a total of 439 responses with 11 responses meeting the requirements for participation. The survey results indicated that time off of work, exercise, and music are the main methods of self-care utilized by experienced professionals. Respondents also indicated that low salary, self-assessed burnout, and a perception of limited job opportunities were the main factors that could have led practitioners to consider leaving the field.
    • Factors influencing music therapists to join, or not join, the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA)

      Peterson, Sarah (2020-05)
      The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) is the membership organization for music therapists that strives to develop and support the music therapy profession. Professional membership in the AMTA has been declining in recent years, though the number of credentialed music therapists is increasing. The objective of this research study was to determine what factors influence music therapists to join, or not join, the AMTA. The survey consisted of close and open- ended questions to gather the demographics of participants; the factors that influenced their decision to purchase, or not purchase membership; how participants view the benefits that membership in AMTA provides; and what participants want to see AMTA accomplish to increase membership. Out of the 7,958 music therapists that were eligible to participate, 1,262 completed the survey. Current members, and individuals planning on renewing in 2020 accounted for 49.88% of the sample; former members accounted for 43.38% of the sample; and respondents who have never been members of AMTA accounted for 6.74% of the sample. Receiving member benefits was the most common factor that influenced membership for current members, individuals renewing, and former members. Former members and respondents who have never been members cited the cost of membership, the lack of cost-benefit, and the perceived lack of benefits as factors for not renewing, or not purchasing membership.
    • Factors influencing parental investment : does parental financial allocation vary as a function of perceived child sexual orientation?

      Trouton, Grant Thomas (2013-06-26)
      An evolutionary perspective on parental investment suggests that natural selection might have favored mechanisms by which parents can evaluate the likelihood of a given offspring’s chances of successful reproduction. Adopting such a perspective, an online survey-based monetary allocation task was employed to test the hypothesis that parental investment was positively related to likelihood of offspring heterosexuality, such that vignettes describing heterosexual offspring would receive more money than vignettes describing homosexual offspring. Results did not support this hypothesis, as investment in offspring was unrelated to perceived offspring sexual orientation. However, exploratory analyses revealed that increasingly negative attitudes towards lesbians and gays predicted decreased investment in offspring. Such findings could serve to embolden civil rights activists in their struggle for increased LGBT social rights. Future research in this area would benefit from correlational research examining real familial relationships and investment patterns, rather than experimentally simulated relationships, to increase the external validity of findings and to reduce social desirability bias.
    • Family-centered music therapy in the hospitalization treatment of children: a systematic review

      Simpson-Abrams, Eva C. (2018-05)
      A family-centered approach is becoming more widely used in the treatment of hospitalized children. In general, the involvement of the family is becoming more of a focus during the treatment process in music therapy. Medical music therapy research has grown that examines the benefits of using music therapy in medical settings. However, there are few studies that examine the individual perspectives of children and parents experiencing hospitalization, and how family-centered music therapy addresses these specific, expressed needs. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the needs of parents and children in order to support the use of family-centered music therapy care in children’s hospitals and to further family-centered music therapy research. Thorough database searches were used to gather data for this review, which was then synthesized in order to create common themes. These themes reflect how researchers should approach future endeavors to understand the hospitalization experience and how family-centered music therapy studies should be conducted.
    • Financial perspectives of emerging adults : similarities and differences between gen-zeds and millennials

      Berg, Hunter J. (2020-05)
      Emerging adults (individuals ages 18-24) today are struggling with finance. In fact, financial factors make up four of the top five stressors of college students today (Sinha et al., 2018) while, at the same time, much research has shown these populations lack the financial skills necessary to make even the most basic financial decisions (Serido & Deenanath, 2016; Shim, Serido, Bosch, & Tang, 2013; Terriquez & Gurantz, 2014). The problem does not seem to be related to a lack of resources, as there are currently more tools to help one improve financial literacy than ever before (Sinha, Tan, & Zhan, 2018). Perhaps roots of the problem stem from development. In 2011, Gudmonson and Danes founded a theory of financial socialization, claiming that financial development stems primarily from implicit and explicit lessons provided by one’s parents or guardians. This study dives into the financial perspectives of Millennials and Generation Z, attempting to cypher out commonalities and differences in financial development, knowledge, value, and anxiety between and within the generations. Major findings include differences between financial perspectives based on gender, social class, and political orientation. Adding to Gudmonson and Danes’ (2011) financial socialization theory, major differences were found in financial literacy and anxiety based on sibling birth order. These results suggest that siblings may directly or indirectly affect one’s financial socialization by influencing or supplementing parents’ explicit and implicit financial lessons. The study concludes with ideas for future research.
    • Finding connections : a case study emphasizing therapuetuic relationship through the lens of relational music therapy

      Artus, Nicole (2017-10)
      This case study examines music therapy with Emily, a young adult female with developmental delays from a relational, intersubjective perspective. Emily’s therapy occurred while I was an intern at a holistic, integrative, residential treatment and education center for adults and children with significant intellectual disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and multiple disabilities. Six music therapy sessions are described in detail, examining the role that our therapeutic and musical relationship had in optimizing Emily’s clinical goals. The purpose of presenting this case study is to investigate how the core components of humanistic and relational theory, such as vitality (Stern, 2010), unconditional positive regard and empathy (Rogers & Stanford, 1984), intersubjectivity (Trondalen, 2016), relationship based approach (Greenspan & Wieder, 2003), and musicality (Nordoff & Robbins, 1992) impacted Emily’s treatment.
    • Flipped classrooms : advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of a practicing art teacher

      Rivera, Vanessa M. (2016-12)
      The following case study investigates the advantages and disadvantages perceived by a practicing art teacher who has used the “flipped classroom” method. Flipping the classroom is the practice of providing online lectures which students can watch from home as a way to replace lecturing in the classroom. Ideally this practice allows more class time to be dedicated to active learning rather than instruction (Bergmann & Sams, 2014). Proponents of the flipped classroom method believe that it provides many benefits including improvements in classroom efficiency and student engagement; others argue that it is difficult to implement and that unequal access to technological resources disadvantages certain populations (Smith, 2016; Tomlinson, 2015). Despite limitations which restricted the participant to a partially flipped classroom the data was interpreted as generally supportive of flipping. This case study suggests that the advantages of flipped classroom practices outweigh potential disadvantages. It also suggests that issues concerning student access to technology can be successfully mitigated through the use of a partially flipped classroom. In the future a comprehensive study of art teachers who work with different demographics could be conducted to include a wider range of opinions.
    • Friends, love, & tinder: an investigation of the effect of auditory social stimulation on sexual and romantic attraction toward potential mates

      Holler, Richard H (2017-07)
      Humans are social apes that adapted to social networks that were no larger than approximately 150 individuals (Dunbar, 1993). Today, the computer and internet provide humans the means to communicate with virtually anyone across the planet. To explore if using online social venues (e.g., tinder) versus physically attending social venues, such as a popular restaurant, facilitate sexual and romantic attraction toward others, participants were exposed to an auditory stimulus while evaluating 10 images of attractive target mates on 3 dependent measures: interest to have sex with target mates (sex-interest), interest to date target mates (date-interest), and sexual attractiveness of target mates. Of the 3 auditory stimuli--social stimulation (ambient sounds of a restaurant), controlled stimulation (sounds of flowing water), and no stimulation (silence)--sounds of flowing water, compared to silence, produced significantly higher date-interest ratings, t(60) = 2.00, p = .05, d = .51 and, marginally, significantly higher sex-interest ratings, t(57) = 2.00, p = .051, d = .52. Average spent hours per day using a computer significantly predicted date-interest and sex-interest among women and men, respectively. Additionally, the Asexual Identification Scale (AIS; Yule, Brotto, & Gorzalka, 2015) was applied to plot participants along the asexual spectrum. AIS scores significantly predicted (1) sex-interest, but only among men, and (2) date-interest, but only among women.
    • Gender differences in intelligence theory, achievement, motivation, and attributional style: effects on choice of science, math, and technology careers

      Froehlich, Sharon Walling (2007-09-11)
      This study explores potential reasons for why more females become math avoidant than males during middle and high school and tend to skip all but the most necessary math classes in college, leading to a dearth of women who enter careers in mathematics, science, and technology. This web-based study examines gender differences in the way males and females self report views of their own personal math intelligence, their goal orientation in the mathematics learning environment, their demonstration of either mastery or learned helplessness orientation in the face of failure at a difficult math task, and gender differences in math self-efficacy before and after math failure. The author hypothesized that more females than males would demonstrate a learned maladaptive pattern in the mathematical learning environment. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the above factors will be consistent with females’ decision not to enter scientific and math based careers. Contrary to these predictions, the only significant findings were that women did tend to report lower math self-efficacy than men, and that consistent with previous research (e.g. Betz, 1985), low math self-efficacy is predictive of interest in careers in math, science, and technology. The results will be presented and discussed, along with some limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research in this important area.
    • Generational differences in work life balance attitudes

      Parker, Catherine C. (2008-05-13)
      A study was conducted with 543 SUNY New Paltz alumni representing three generations to determine if there were generational differences in attitudes about work life balance. A paper and pencil survey was mailed to 3000 potential participants containing questions regarding perception of work life balance, engagement in individual initiative behavior and work life balance program usage and perceived risk. Significant differences in engagement in individual initiative behavior, perceptions of risk and program usage were found between Baby Boomers and Millennials. Significant differences in program usage were found between Baby Boomers and Gen X’ers. Some surprising results were found. There were no significant results for gender differences for perceived work life balance across the generations and the result for work life balance by generation only approached significance. This result possibly suggests a more complex relationship between gender, age, and work life balance. Alternative explanations such as age, familial responsibility and gender are discussed. Implications for further research were discussed including possible barriers to usage of work life programs for Baby Boomers and men of all generations.
    • A generative chatbot with natural language processing

      Liebman, David (2020-12)
      The goal in this thesis is to create a chatbot, a computer program that can respond verbally to a human in the course of simple day-to-day conversations. A deep learning neural network model called the Transformer is used to develop the chatbot. A full description of a Transformer is provided. The use of a few different Transformer-based Natural Language Processing models to develop the chatbot, including Generative Pre-Training 2 (GPT2), are shown. For comparison a Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) based model is included. Each of these are explained below. The chatbot code is installed on a small device such as the Raspberry Pi with speech recognition and speech-to-text software. In this way a device that can carry out a verbal conversation with a human might be created. For the GRU-based model a Raspberry Pi 3B with 1GB RAM can be used. A Raspberry Pi 4B with 4GB of RAM is needed to run a chatbot with the GPT2.
    • The Golden Section and Attitudes Towards Mental Illness: How does Stigma Influence Golden Section Ratings?

      Harasym, Melanie T. (2010-03-18)
      Studies have shown that when people are asked to make judgments about others using a list of bipolar adjective pairs, they consistently produce ratings that are approximately 62% positive and 38% negative. The precise proportion of 61.8:38.2, known as the golden section, stems from Pythagorean principles that explain how people organize and make sense of the world around them. The current study examined how a stigmatized view of the mentally ill can affect golden section ratings of various diagnostic labels. One hundred and eighteen participants were tested on: (1) their view of the mentally ill (level of stigma), (2) how much contact they have had with the mentally ill, and (3) their golden section ratings of various medical and psychiatric labels. Results indicated that participants with a less stigmatizing view of the mentally ill did not exhibit a golden section pattern in rating all diagnostic labels, despite what was hypothesized. Participants with a stigmatizing view of the mentally ill did not exhibit a reverse golden section pattern in rating psychiatric labels as expected either. The results of the current study did show, however, that people who have more contact with the mentally ill also have a less stigmatizing view of the mentally ill.
    • A grounded theory exploration of how a song's musical characteristics affect lyric interpretation

      Colleran, Michael (2020-05)
      This study explored the effect of musical characteristics on processing and subsequent analysis and discussion of song lyrics. Clinical applications for this knowledge were explored and expanded upon, in order to gain insights into how song discussion can be better utilized in a clinical setting. This qualitative study utilized modified grounded theory research in order to better understand the experience of song discussion and the role musical characteristics play in interpretation.
    • A healthcare IoT prototype for responsive oxygen therapy treatment of COPD patients

      Khan, Azer (2020-12)
      Our final design offers oxygen therapy patients an IoT enabled, adaptable and small form-factor device offering potential for automatic detection and agile response to oxygen saturation readings. Our key components are a photodiode sensor, algorithm processor and micro- controller providing the foundation for future development for FDA approval, machine-learning and analytics, and feedback-loop oxygen tank controller tracks. Our device is cutting-edge in its communications, power consumption and efficiency. We have gained an understanding of the effort required to design an IoT enabled solution in the healthcare space. Integrating hardware and software designs are an exercise to understand the inner workings of many systems used today. It is estimated that there will be about 50 billion IoT-enabled devices in the world by 2030 [22]. Technologists who understand the underlying systems will be able to make well-informed decisions about the future of the connected world.
    • Hearts and hands music therapy program : a music therapy program proposal for The Hagedorn Little Village School

      Mullane, Thomas (2019-08)
      The Hearts and Hands Music Therapy Program will focus on addressing the individualized needs of students who would benefit from receiving music therapy services. Music therapy treatment will be designed to provide children with opportunities to achieve their highest developmental potential. Along with traditional music therapy interventions, this program will also provide students, staff, and family members with opportunities to become involved with music in context to the school community. This paper discusses a proposal for a music therapy program at Hagedorn Little Village School.
    • Heterosexual male’s attitudes and experiences of help seeking for dating violence

      Chitkara, Anjuli (2011-08-31)
      The present study sought to understand the degree to which conformity to masculine norms influenced heterosexual males (a) attitudes towards psychological help seeking in general, (b) attitudes towards physical common couple violence, (c) attitudes towards romantic relational aggression, (d) perceptions of masculinity for males who seek help for dating violence (physical and relational) and (e) help seeking experiences for those that have experienced some form of physical or relational victimization. The study focused on heterosexual male victims of physical common couple violence and romantic relational aggression because they are typically neglected in the mainstream culture. The findings of the present study suggests there is evidence that greater importance of conformity to masculine norms is related to (a) negative attitudes towards psychological help seeking (b) more accepting attitudes of intimate partner violence and (c) more tolerant attitudes towards romantic relational aggression. In addition to these findings, it was also found that males who have experienced some form of romantic relational victimization (a) were more likely to report more accepting attitudes towards romantic relational aggression, (b) and did not seek any form of help, were more likely to report higher levels of emotional control and risk-taking behaviors. The present results suggest more conformity to masculine norms is an important variable that should continue to be explored in help seeking and dating violence literature.
    • A heuristic study on music-centered supervision

      Doak, Timothy D. (2018-05)
      This first-person study investigated how a music-centered (Modified Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music) supervision contributed to understanding the role of music therapy when working with clients diagnosed with a Disorder of Consciousness during a Masters Fellowship. Data was collected from three sources; a) transcriptions from Dr. Heather Wagner and Ms. Madelaine Ventre, b) personal experience, c) and mandalas drawn during the supervision session. This data was analyzed to answer the following research questions; “How does music-centered supervision help deepen my understanding of working with children diagnosed with Disorders of Consciousness?” and “What do my mandalas reveal about my experience working with children diagnosed with Disorders of Consciousness?” Qualitative methods of interrogation, interpretation, and triangulation were utilized in order to discover the answers to the research questions. Through careful analysis of the data, four themes were present during the music-centered supervision process: nurturance and containment, preparation, discomfort, and new energy. Each theme provided a deeper understanding to the various stages of the supervision process. This study also provides evidence of the benefits of music-centered supervision for music therapists, especially during their studies and training.
    • An historical perspective of the unification of the american music therapy association: an oral history

      Hardy, Rachel A. (2018-12)
      This paper is an historical look at the unification of the National Association of Music Therapy (NAMT) and the American Association for Music Therapists (AAMT) to form the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA). Historical documents and existing literature were examined to set the context for the event, including the histories of both previous associations. Three individuals who played significant roles in the process of unification were interviewed about the process of unification as well as its comparison to present day decisions. Their perspectives and experiences are presented in this paper.