• Gender differences in intelligence theory, achievement, motivation, and attributional style: effects on choice of science, math, and technology careers

      Froehlich, Sharon Walling (2007-09-11)
      This study explores potential reasons for why more females become math avoidant than males during middle and high school and tend to skip all but the most necessary math classes in college, leading to a dearth of women who enter careers in mathematics, science, and technology. This web-based study examines gender differences in the way males and females self report views of their own personal math intelligence, their goal orientation in the mathematics learning environment, their demonstration of either mastery or learned helplessness orientation in the face of failure at a difficult math task, and gender differences in math self-efficacy before and after math failure. The author hypothesized that more females than males would demonstrate a learned maladaptive pattern in the mathematical learning environment. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the above factors will be consistent with females’ decision not to enter scientific and math based careers. Contrary to these predictions, the only significant findings were that women did tend to report lower math self-efficacy than men, and that consistent with previous research (e.g. Betz, 1985), low math self-efficacy is predictive of interest in careers in math, science, and technology. The results will be presented and discussed, along with some limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research in this important area.
    • Self-Promotion and Gender in the Work Place

      Waterous, Kathleen (2010-03-18)
      Gender role attitudes are blamed for problems women have self-promoting in the workplace. This study examines the differences in the perceptions between men and women on self-promotion. It was expected that men would find it easier and more comfortable than women. Forty-five participants, twenty-three women and twenty-two men were interviewed in a survey that contained close-ended and open-ended items. The survey was designed to assess themes surrounding what would prompt a person to use self-promotion and their relative comfort in doing so. Findings of the study did not support the expectation that men would find it easier and more comfortable. For the majority of the survey, women reported being able to self-promote as easily as men. When asked what they thought self-promotion was, women and men differed in their definitions. Men tended to use a direct style highlighting and showcasing what they were currently doing to obtain benefits while women tended to perceive self-promotion with an inward slant. The women felt that self-promotion was bettering themselves and gaining more confidence. The results overall were not consistent with gender role expectancies for women and men, yet the qualitative results indicate some interesting avenues for future investigations.