• Gender beyond the binary: computationally mapping gender to a spectrum using sex differences in the brain

      Williams, Reed (2022-05)
      Biological sex is far more complex than simply two categories: male and female. The mere existence of transgender and intersex individuals displays this complexity clearly on the surface, while the differences between cisgender people within their own respective categories brings this idea to a deeper level. While sex differences reveal themselves in many different scientific disciplines, this study will focus on findings in the field of neuroscience; specifically, it will narrow in on volumetric measurements of brain regions known to have differing trends across the male and female sexes. The construction of a surrogate data set driven by measurements extracted from existing literature will be used to fit a logistic regression model. The resulting probability function will be used to first create a base Biological Sex Spectrum; this refers to a representation of biological sex as a spectrum in the absence of societal influence. This probability function will then be modified to produce a Societally Influenced Gender Spectrum; this refers to a spectrum that has been influenced by the concept of the gender binary and more closely represents our current world. The comparison of these two spectra will reveal the space for an increase in gender diversity as societal views continue shifting further away from restricting gender stereotypes.
    • Mating Intelligence, Machiavellianism, and Self-Monitoring as Predictors of the Recognition of and Participation in Behaviors Associated with Mental Fitness Indicators

      Diffenderfer, Jason (2007-10-02)
      Miller (2000) and Buss (2004) suggest that the human mind has evolved its complex qualities to make beneficial mating decisions for the individual and, more generally, to attract and retain mates. According to Miller (2000), mental fitness indicators are the outward displays of the complexity of a person’s brain. Mental fitness indicators are expressed in the form of artistic, musical, communication, and altruistic behaviors. The present study examined mating intelligence, which is the ability of people to make adaptive mating choices (Geher, Murphy & Miller, 2007), Machiavellianism, and selfmonitoring as possible predictors of an individual’s ability to recognize potential fitness indicators that are valued by potential mates and his or her participation in behaviors associated with mental fitness indicators. It was hypothesized that mating intelligence, Machiavellianism and self-monitoring would be positively related to an individual’s recognition and engagement in behaviors associated with mental fitness indicators. The results suggest that mating intelligence is related to an individual’s ability to recognize the artistic, musical, communication, and altruistic behaviors that are desired by potential mates. Future studies should be conducted to examine the complex relationships between mental fitness indicators and personality constructs.