• Spritiuality as a coping mechanism for African-American college students facing bereavement

      Lewis, Nigel (2007-01-18)
      Research indicates that many African Americans rely on spirituality more than psychotherapy to deal with traumatic life experiences such as bereavement. This review explores the psychotherapeutic benefits of spirituality as a coping resource in the African American community. Justification for the use of spiritual-psychotherapy as a treatment methodology for bereaved African American college students is presented. Finally, ethical considerations for using spirituality when counseling with bereaved African American college students are posed.
    • The effects of family patterns on social anxiety and differentiation in emerging adulthood

      Colucci, Janine (2007-01-18)
      This research examined the relationships between family patterns, differentiation, and social anxiety. Cohesive, conflictive, and expressive patterns of family interaction were examined within a sample of 98 undergraduate students (M = 21 years). Differentiation was measured in terms of current residency of students, as measured by miles that students live from their families of origin and the amount of contact students have with their families. Although the specific hypotheses of this research were not supported, results indicated a relationship between expressive and cohesive family interactional patterns and a negative correlation between cohesive and conflictive family patterns. Significant differences emerged among white and minority families involving the amount of conflict and cohesion experienced in the family system. Implications are discussed.
    • Proto-Absurdist strides and leanings: Alfred Jarry’s Shakespearean spirit in Ubu Roi

      Mittenberg, Corey (2007-04-04)
      Although it is generally accepted that Alfred Jarry’s influential 1896 play, Ubu Roi, was revolutionary for its language, innovative staging, and use of black comedy, little has been written to analyze the work’s many Shakespearean connections. Plot devices, characters, dialogue, as well as production choices, display evidence of Jarry’s knowledge of Shakespeare; his appreciation and understanding of the dramatic pieces from which he borrows informs Jarry’s entire play. By incorporating specifically chosen Shakespearean elements, Ubu Roi--primogenitor of the Absurdist theater--continues in the Shakespearean dramatic tradition more thoroughly than most critics acknowledge, due in large part to the manner in which Jarry appropriates them. My paper addresses the issues of legitimate versus illegitimate adaptation as they relate to questions of authorship, style, and audience, as well as the historical background of both Jarry and Shakespeare in the context of French theater. As Shakespeare is an outside voice in France, the role of the other as a subject of spectacle (and the connotations of foreigners and foreign lands in relation to the choice of setting) is also discussed. Additionally, my paper examines the freedom of Shakespeare’s translators in France into the nineteenth century, Jarry’s critical battles over Ubu Roi, and a close study of Jarry’s reworking of Shakespearean characters, plot lines, themes, and staging choices.
    • Judgements of cross-sex infidelity responses as a component of mating intelligence

      Johnson, John D. (2007-04-26)
      Mating Intelligence (MI; (Geher, 2005) is operationally defined as the ability to correctly guess the mating relevant thoughts of mates or potential mates. This study focuses on one specific aspect of MI, known as infidelity mating intelligence. Infidelity mating intelligence or IMI is defined as the ability to make accurate predictions regarding what members of the opposite sex will judge as most distressing when faced with a variety of infidelity situations. Four-hundred-eighty-one participants (152 males and 329 females) participated in this research. Participants were asked to judge what types of infidelity they themselves felt would be more distressing in an intimate relationship. Participants were also asked to act as other-raters (make predictions about what types of infidelity they thought the opposite gender would identify as being more distressing in intimate relationships). All participants were also tested on several other mating intelligence (MI) variables as well as on several criterion variables. Infidelity mating intelligence (IMI) was significantly positively correlated with cognitive and emotional intelligence for females and cognitive intelligence for males. It was also found that males tended to report being more distressed by a mate’s sexual infidelity and females tended to report being more distressed over a mate’s emotional infidelity. Additionally, some interesting post hoc findings were found. Males and females differed in their overall responses to infidelity in systematic ways. Males tended to overestimate the degree to which females would choose emotional infidelity as more distressing based on Chi Square analysis. This is a stereotypical response of males according to research. Males assume that females will be more stressed by emotional aspects of infidelity to a greater extent than females typically are. Females tended to also overestimate the degree to which males would choose emotional infidelity as more distressing based on Chi Square analysis. In other words, females tended to show social projection when judging responses of men, meaning that females think that males would think more like females do when making judgments regarding infidelity. Implications for research in this area are discussed.
    • Gender differences in intelligence theory, achievement, motivation, and attributional style: effects on choice of science, math, and technology careers

      Froehlich, Sharon Walling (2007-09-11)
      This study explores potential reasons for why more females become math avoidant than males during middle and high school and tend to skip all but the most necessary math classes in college, leading to a dearth of women who enter careers in mathematics, science, and technology. This web-based study examines gender differences in the way males and females self report views of their own personal math intelligence, their goal orientation in the mathematics learning environment, their demonstration of either mastery or learned helplessness orientation in the face of failure at a difficult math task, and gender differences in math self-efficacy before and after math failure. The author hypothesized that more females than males would demonstrate a learned maladaptive pattern in the mathematical learning environment. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the above factors will be consistent with females’ decision not to enter scientific and math based careers. Contrary to these predictions, the only significant findings were that women did tend to report lower math self-efficacy than men, and that consistent with previous research (e.g. Betz, 1985), low math self-efficacy is predictive of interest in careers in math, science, and technology. The results will be presented and discussed, along with some limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research in this important area.
    • Influence of career self-efficacy beliefes on career exploration behavior

      Nasta, Kristen A. (2007-09-11)
      The study involved 211 female and 47 male (259 total) college students from the State University of New York at New Paltz general population. All data were collected online. It was hypothesized that the sources of career self-efficacy would significantly correlate with and predict career exploration over and above career self-efficacy, and that past performance accomplishments would have the strongest influence. To measure the sources of career self-efficacy the Career Self-Efficacy Sources Scale was created. The Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale- Short Form (Betz, Klein, & Taylor, 1996) was used to measure career self-efficacy. To measure career exploration a revised version of the Career Exploration Survey (Stumpf, Colarelli, & Hartman, 1983) was used. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed a five factor solution with the factors Past Performance Accomplishments, Vicarious Learning, Verbal Persuasion, Emotional Arousal Negative, and Emotional Arousal Positive, was a good fit for the data. The career self-efficacy sources scales also correlated significantly with career self-efficacy. Results of the bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses supported the hypothesis that sources of career self-efficacy beliefs do in fact correlate with and predict career exploration. Performance accomplishments had the strongest influence on career self-efficacy, whereas verbal persuasion was the strongest predictor of career exploration. These results suggest that career counselors should incorporate verbal persuasion in their work with clients to enhance career self-efficacy and career exploration.
    • The effects of stereotypical communication on the perception of leadership behavior for male and female leaders

      Willis, Toni L. (2007-09-25)
      The goal of the present study was to investigate how affiliative and agentic styles of communication affect the perception of leadership behavior (initiating structure and consideration) for male and female leaders. One hundred and thirty students from SUNY New Paltz participated in this study. Four scenarios, each containing the description of either a male or female leader using an affiliative or an agentic style of communication were developed for this study. The Initiating Structure and Consideration subscales from the LBDQ XII were administered to measure perception of leadership behavior. A 2x2 MANOVA was used to analyze the effects of gender and communication styles on the perception of consideration and initiating structure behaviors for described leaders. There was a main effect found for both gender and communication style on the perception of initiating structure behaviors. Additionally, a main effect for communication style and an interaction between communication and leader gender was found for consideration behaviors. These results demonstrate the way in which implicit prototypes and stereotypes generate expectancies that contribute to the overestimation and underestimation of leadership behavior for both male and female leaders.
    • Hypothesized fitness indicators and mating success

      Camargo, Michael A. (2007-09-25)
      This study will attempt to create a valid measure of mating success (a proxy for reproductive success), which focuses on the quality of a person’s most recent long-term and short-term sexual relationship from an evolutionary perspective. Additionally, this thesis will test many hypotheses put forth by Miller’s (2000b) ‘fitness-indicator theory.’ Results suggest that this new measure of mating success is highly reliable and correlates with female fluctuating asymmetry. Furthermore, the data do not support Miller’s ‘fitness-indicator theory,’ and instead shows support for the ‘trade-off hypothesis.’ Finally, the data revealed that an individual’s self-perceived desirability is dependent upon one’s IQ level and one’s preference for either short or long-term sexual relationships.
    • Mating Intelligence, Machiavellianism, and Self-Monitoring as Predictors of the Recognition of and Participation in Behaviors Associated with Mental Fitness Indicators

      Diffenderfer, Jason (2007-10-02)
      Miller (2000) and Buss (2004) suggest that the human mind has evolved its complex qualities to make beneficial mating decisions for the individual and, more generally, to attract and retain mates. According to Miller (2000), mental fitness indicators are the outward displays of the complexity of a person’s brain. Mental fitness indicators are expressed in the form of artistic, musical, communication, and altruistic behaviors. The present study examined mating intelligence, which is the ability of people to make adaptive mating choices (Geher, Murphy & Miller, 2007), Machiavellianism, and selfmonitoring as possible predictors of an individual’s ability to recognize potential fitness indicators that are valued by potential mates and his or her participation in behaviors associated with mental fitness indicators. It was hypothesized that mating intelligence, Machiavellianism and self-monitoring would be positively related to an individual’s recognition and engagement in behaviors associated with mental fitness indicators. The results suggest that mating intelligence is related to an individual’s ability to recognize the artistic, musical, communication, and altruistic behaviors that are desired by potential mates. Future studies should be conducted to examine the complex relationships between mental fitness indicators and personality constructs.
    • Preschoolers' attachment to grandparent caregivers

      Filangeri-Parashar, Jessica (2008-03-28)
      Currently, there are over 2.4 million children in the United States living in the custodial care of their grandparents. Grandparents as caregivers and the problems their grandchildren face have received little attention in developmental research. The purpose of this paper is to address the possibility that secure attachment relationships with grandparents can serve as a protective factor against the risks of disrupted attachments with parents. In order to address this question, a framework is proposed that combines central elements of two differing perspectives on young children’s relationships, traditional attachment theory, and a social network model. An example of how this model can be used to investigate important developmental questions is outlined.
    • Perceptions of People Who Use Non-Heterosexist Language by People of Different Sexual Orientations

      Reisner, Michael (2008-04-02)
      One hundred fifty participants who self-identified as heterosexual and 152 participants who self-identified as queer were asked to read a vignette containing a character who used either heterosexist or non-heterosexist language. With regards to the latter vignette, the researcher hypothesized that queer participants would assume that the character using non-heterosexist language 1) was more supportive of queer rights; 2) had increased exposure to queer people; 3) was more likely to be queer; 4) was more open to new ideas in general; and 5) was more likely to be someone with whom they could be friends. Heterosexual participants were not expected to make the same assumptions about the character in the vignette. Results showed that both heterosexual and queer participants made similar assumptions about the character in the vignette who used non-heterosexist language; however, in most cases queer participants made significantly stronger assumptions than heterosexual participants.
    • Conceptualizing and defining romantic love

      Krass, Justin K. (2008-04-09)
      Two studies investigated how individuals conceptualize romantic love using the Love Word Conceptualization Survey to examine how strongly 119 emotions, behaviors, and attitudes were associated with romantic love. Study 1 had 54 participants and study 2 had 320 participants. The results of both studies suggest that individuals mainly associate positive attributes with romantic love and are less likely to associate negative attributes with it. Furthermore, quality communication and nurturing physical behaviors appear to be key components of how individuals conceptualize romantic love. Principal components analyses suggest that there may be a positive emotions factor of romantic love, as well as a negative emotions factor. The results are congruent with the theory that the concept of romantic love is prototypically organized.
    • Generational differences in work life balance attitudes

      Parker, Catherine C. (2008-05-13)
      A study was conducted with 543 SUNY New Paltz alumni representing three generations to determine if there were generational differences in attitudes about work life balance. A paper and pencil survey was mailed to 3000 potential participants containing questions regarding perception of work life balance, engagement in individual initiative behavior and work life balance program usage and perceived risk. Significant differences in engagement in individual initiative behavior, perceptions of risk and program usage were found between Baby Boomers and Millennials. Significant differences in program usage were found between Baby Boomers and Gen X’ers. Some surprising results were found. There were no significant results for gender differences for perceived work life balance across the generations and the result for work life balance by generation only approached significance. This result possibly suggests a more complex relationship between gender, age, and work life balance. Alternative explanations such as age, familial responsibility and gender are discussed. Implications for further research were discussed including possible barriers to usage of work life programs for Baby Boomers and men of all generations.
    • A personal construct psychology perspective on sexual identity

      Morano, Laurie Ann (2008-05-13)
      This paper examines four of the most widely known homosexual identity development models, as well as some of the literature that explores sexual identity as a fluid process. The suggestion is made that sexual identity can be created and recreated based on current individual feelings and experiences rather than by forcing identity to fit into already existing socially constructed categories. Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) is introduced as a theory that can be used to transform sexual identities over a lifetime. A Sexual Identity Cycle is presented using several PCP transitional construing concepts.
    • The Effect of Music Therapy Techniques in a Coping Skills Group for Individuals with a Dual Diagnosis of Mental Illness and Substance Dependence

      Davis, Adrienne (2010-03-18)
      The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the use of music versus non-music treatment conditions in a coping skills therapy group with individuals who are dually-diagnosed with a mental illness and substance-related disorder. In order to assess the effectiveness of the music therapy procedures, a comparison was made between the non-music condition (passage selection and reflection from a book of daily readings for individuals with addiction and emotional/psychiatric illnesses) and the music condition (song choice and lyric analysis from a packet of songs created by the researcher). The participants consisted of eight individuals (M=5, F=3), dually diagnosed with a mental illness and substance-related disorder. Data was obtained through weekly surveys which assessed various factors such as level of enjoyment, accomplishment, and helpfulness in each session. The participants’ attendance, passage/song selection and the number of times they offered advice/insight to other group members was also recorded. A concurrent schedule/alternating treatments single subject experiment design was employed for this study. The participants served as their own control under two conditions: coping ability with music (song selection and lyric analysis) and coping ability with no-music (passages from a book). Participants rated both the music therapy techniques and passage selections effective, resulting in very similar scores under all of the variables except one. The extent to which the issues of chemical dependence were discussed during the sessions was rated by participants as statistically significantly higher under the music condition. During the music condition sessions, group attendance was also significantly higher than in the non-music condition sessions.
    • Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Golden Section Study

      Davison, Mitzie (2010-03-18)
      Objectives. Pervasive developmental disability theories are combined with golden section research in an effort to understand how people organize and process interpersonal/social information. In order to comprehend theories that explain the social impairments in those diagnosed with a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), this study employed the golden section hypothesis, which predicts that people organize their interpersonal judgments in a ratio approximately 62% positive and 38% negative. Method. The research was done individually, orally and with visual aids by the researcher with 10 participants with a pervasive developmental disability and 10 undergraduate college participants who did not have any disability. Participants were asked to rate 9 cartoon characters (Garfield, Bugs Bunny, Mickey Mouse, Spongebob Squarepants, Snoopy, Elmo, Tasmanian Devil, Scooby Doo, Fred Flintstone) and one self-category using 12 different bi-polar dimensions (generous-stingy, pleasantunpleasant, true-false, fair-unfair, active-passive, energetic-lethargic, sharp-dull, excitable-calm, strong-weak, bold-timid, hard-soft, rugged-delicate). These dimensions had well-established positive and negative poles. Results. Both pervasive developmentally disabled and normal participants had average positive ratings of the cartoon characters that were not statistically significant from the golden ratio 0.618. Both of these populations rated themselves in a manner consistent with Lefebvre et al (1986), who predicted that people .71 mean positive self-ratings. Conclusion. The results indicate that both PDD and non- PDD participants utilize the golden section ratio. The study supports the robustness of this ratio in a clinical population that has not been previously studied. Due to a small sample size, it is necessary to interpret these results with caution. It would be beneficial for further research to replicate this study with more participants.
    • No Influence of Articulatory Suppression on the Word and Pseudoword Superiority Effects

      Stillwell, Monica (2010-03-18)
      In this study, we explored the role of phonological recoding in word and pseudoword superiority effects, previously characterized as pure orthographic effects. Participants were asked to identify letters embedded in briefly presented words, pseudowords, and nonwords, with and without concurrent articulatory suppression. This manipulation had the purpose of occupying the participants’ phonological loop and interfering with the phonological recoding of stimuli in working memory. We predicted that the presence of articulatory suppression would lower accuracy across stimuli, and that this decrease would be more dramatic for pseudowords if participants relied on phonological recoding to perform the task. Word and pseudoword effects were present in both conditions; furthermore, articulatory suppression caused a similar decrease in accuracy for the three types of stimuli. Therefore, word and pseudoword superiority effects were not affected by the lack of phonological recoding. These results suggest that these effects mainly reflect orthographic processing.
    • Ambiguous Loss: A Critical Review of Current Research

      Purcell, Jessica (2010-03-18)
      This paper reviews past and current literature pertaining to Ambiguous Loss (AL), provides critique of current research, outlines possible directions for future research, and evaluates the most effective practices for treating AL. Two specific types of AL will be addressed: Physical and Emotional/Cognitive. In Physical AL the loved one is physically absent with no remains or opportunity for closure. Emotional/Cognitive AL occurs when the loved one is physically present but emotionally/cognitively absent. Lack of breadth and depth of research on this topic, especially as related to effective therapeutic approaches, indicates many possible avenues for further research. Quantitative data on best practices is nonexistent.
    • The Golden Section and Attitudes Towards Mental Illness: How does Stigma Influence Golden Section Ratings?

      Harasym, Melanie T. (2010-03-18)
      Studies have shown that when people are asked to make judgments about others using a list of bipolar adjective pairs, they consistently produce ratings that are approximately 62% positive and 38% negative. The precise proportion of 61.8:38.2, known as the golden section, stems from Pythagorean principles that explain how people organize and make sense of the world around them. The current study examined how a stigmatized view of the mentally ill can affect golden section ratings of various diagnostic labels. One hundred and eighteen participants were tested on: (1) their view of the mentally ill (level of stigma), (2) how much contact they have had with the mentally ill, and (3) their golden section ratings of various medical and psychiatric labels. Results indicated that participants with a less stigmatizing view of the mentally ill did not exhibit a golden section pattern in rating all diagnostic labels, despite what was hypothesized. Participants with a stigmatizing view of the mentally ill did not exhibit a reverse golden section pattern in rating psychiatric labels as expected either. The results of the current study did show, however, that people who have more contact with the mentally ill also have a less stigmatizing view of the mentally ill.
    • Age-Related Stigma and the Golden Section Hypothesis

      Widrick, Rebekah M. (2010-03-18)
      The present study used the golden section hypothesis to examine age-related identities. The golden section hypothesis predicts that people will organize incoming information in a ratio-type pattern. When rating phenomena on bipolar constructs, people assign others to the positive pole of the constructs 61.8% of the time and to the negative pole the remaining 38.2% of the time. The present study predicted that people would rate identities of the aging population in accordance with a reverse golden section hypothesis. That is, people would assign negative ratings 61.8% of the time and positive ratings 38.2% of the time. Approximately 148 surveys were analyzed. Along the top of the golden section survey were 15 identities: child, elderly person, grandparent, middle-aged adult, nurse, musician, adolescent, senior citizen, business person, lawyer, secretary, mental patient, homeless person, retired person, and self. Along the left side of the survey were 12 adjective pairs: generous-stingy, pleasant-unpleasant, true-false, fairunfair,active-passive, energetic-lethargic, sharp-dull, excitable-calm, strong-weak, boldtimid, hard-soft, and rugged-delicate. Results indicated that elderly person and senior citizen were rated in a manner consistent with the reverse golden section hypothesis. In keeping with previous findings, the self was rated positively precisely 71% of the time while combined ratings of the remaining identities were consistent with the traditional golden section hypothesis. Finally, it was hypothesized that mental patient and homeless person together would produce a reverse golden section hypothesis, but this hypothesis was not supported. Findings shed light on society’s power to influence thought. Because American society has coupled aging with stigma, people have come to associate erroneous interpretations with certain age-related terms.