• An Analysis of U.S. and World Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Consumption of Coal for Energy from 1980 to 2012

      Jessup, Stephen; Goz, Kadir; The College at Brockport (2015-05-08)
      The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from U.S. coal consumption for energy on total global anthropogenic CO2 emissions from coal from 1980 to 2012. This study investigated whether the U.S. to world proportion of CO2 emissions from coal have been greater than expected when compared to global CO2 emissions on a per person basis over this time period. Data was obtained from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (U.S. E.I.A.), U.S. Census Bureau, IHS Global Insight, Inc., and Population Reference Bureau for U.S. and global coal consumption, CO2 emissions from coal, and population. This data was used to create percentages for each year of the study, which were then graphed and analyzed. The results of the study found that the U.S. has emitted more CO2 than expected for a country of its population and that U.S. CO2 emissions from coal have been decreasing with no influence on the recent increasing trend of global CO2 emissions. The driving force behind the recent increases was China. A secondary study involved analyzing the negative correlation between CO2 emissions from U.S. coal and natural gas consumption from 1980 to 2012. Data from the U.S. E.I.A. for coal and natural gas consumption was tested using graphical analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficient tests. The results were that there was no significant negative correlation of CO2 emissions between coal and natural gas consumption. The findings of the study confirmed the first research question of the U.S. having a disproportionate influence on global CO2 emissions from coal, while rejecting the secondary question of the negative relationship between CO2 emissions from coal and natural gas consumption in the U.S.
    • Entre y dentro de las fronteras: Una comparación histórica y estructural entre los organismos de inteligencias en EE.UU. y España

      Souto Rumbo, Jose Ismael; Herman, Emily; State University of New York College at Brockport (2020-09-15)
      Mi investigación era una investigación de los organismos de inteligencia de EE.UU. y España. Específicamente, mi meta era buscar las semejanzas y las diferencias entre la estructura y la historia de los dos para analizarlos. En esta investigación, se explica que los organismos de inteligencia en España y EE.UU. tienen las historias complejas y estructuras. Los organismos de ambos países tienen la potencial tener demasiado poder y ejercer demasiado poder. En este análisis, se puede encontrar las semejanzas y las diferencias de las historias y los organismos sí mismos de maneras generales y de algunas específicas maneras. Además, se puede encontrar la información que muestra que los ciudadanos respectivos deben prestar atención de maneras diferentes a los organismos de inteligencia. Sin embargo, ninguno grupo de ciudadanos debe fallar pensar de los riesgos potenciales y por qué existen. Este es por qué la investigación era importante porque subraya los riesgos que la institución de los organismos de inteligencia mantiene en ambos España y en EE.UU.
    • Rape Culture or a Culture of Rape? American Rape Culture Compared to South African Rape Accommodating Culture

      Kim, Moon Sun; Brown, Sarah; The College at Brockport (2018-05-15)
      Rape is a serious and heinous crime seen all over the world. Through various studies and research, new information about sexual assault has made the crime a hotspot for debate. Social, psychological, and legal views all examine the issue, but many do not internationally compare rape and sexual assault. There are many reasons for this, validity of information, differing legal definitions, government interventions, and legal power, all can play a part in the ability for statistical and document-based comparison. This does not mean, however, that it cannot and should not be done. By looking internationally, one nation can see how others have reacted to the increasing awareness or rape and possible intervention methods. But is that possible when it comes to two different nations that have treated rape so differently? The social and historical influences on cultural values or norms alter how certain actions are seen. In more recent years, an overwhelming number of social scientists have pointed to, what they call, rape culture as the basis of analysis for how people see rape in the United States. Is it seen the same in South Africa, though? The simple answer is no. South African culture has been altered by years of colonization and subjugation that differs dramatically from that seen in the US. The occurrences of rape in South Africa differ in many ways, from those who are involved, the occurrences of certain types of rape, and the social responses to each. As is explained through this analysis, South Africa faces an epidemic of rape that is so endowed in their own culture it cannot be separated into a culture of its own.
    • Una comparación de asuntos sobre la violencia doméstica en los Estados Unidos y España

      Souto Rumbo, Jose Ismael; Bialy, Brendan; The College at Brockport (2018-05-04)
      This paper will focus on gender issues in the U.S. and Spain. Spain has a very low domestic violence rate of about 13% in comparison with the rest of the world and especially the U.S. which has a rate of about 36% (genderindex.org). This text explains why there is such a difference by comparing key statistics that track gender issues. The objective is to show that there are policies used in Spain that would benefit the U.S. in reducing its prevalence of domestic violence. There are certain key factors that explain the prevalence of domestic violence. These factors are history, economics and government. Scholars examine history to find out how it has impacted this issue: are there key events or points in time where treatment of gender issues changed? We examine what the gender norms are and how those norms could contribute to these issues: are women present in the workplace, military, etc. and what are their roles? We look at economics to see how capable a country is to apply an effective policy directed toward gender issues and to see if there is an inherent inequality in the sexes: how dependent are women on men. Is it the other way around? And lastly we observe how the government implements its policies in relation to gender issues: are policies implemented by a central or federal government and does this change the policies? Also, what is public opinion like toward gender issues? One clear example of a comparison to be made between countries is of the quality, quantity and availability of programs and institutions that try to prevent domestic violence. This paper will also evaluate the programs and institutions that seek to help those people who have been victimized. Programs like these are important because, often enough, victims will return to their abusers if they have no alternative place to go; when they have no money, home or accepting family. Governmental programs that are implemented in each country have a varying 3 degree of effectiveness that can be quantified and altered to further reduce the prevalence of domestic violence. By evaluating these programs we can conclude that certain programs are effective in dealing with domestic violence. This paper will demonstrate that Spain’s gender equality programs, which have been effective in reducing the domestic violence rate could serve to do the same if applied in the U.S.