• Most Effective Nursing Interventions to Prevent Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections: A Critical Review of the Literature

      Lowey, Susan E.; Flint, Jacqueline M.; State University of New York College at Brockport (2020-09-15)
      Nosocomial infections, otherwise referred to as hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), are defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as infections that occur in association with devices used in medical procedures, such as catheters or ventilators (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). HAIs monitored by the CDC include central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), surgical site infections (SSIs), and other infections caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. HAIs are among the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Though recent efforts to prevent the occurrence of HAIs have been effective in reducing their incidence, HAIs remain a significant issue in the United States. It is estimated that each year, approximately 1 in 25 hospital patients in the United States are diagnosed with at least one infection related to hospital care (CDC, 2017) and additionally 1 in 35 hospital patients are estimated to have at least one healthcare-associated infection on any given day (CDC, 2018a). Furthermore, medical costs of HAIs are significant and pose an economic burden in the U.S. Estimated annual direct medical costs of HAIs to United States hospitals ranges from $28.4 to $45 billion (Scott, 2009).