• A Comparison of Health Risk Behavior of College Students in Upstate NY and National Norms

      Banerjee, Priya; Skomra, Katie D.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2008)
      The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts an annual survey of adolescent health risk behavior with the intention of establishing national norms for variables such as the extent of alcohol and other substance abuse behaviors habits, sexual health risk behaviors, nutrition habits, extent and nature of physical activity and violence. The purpose of this project and thesis is to compare the self reported health behaviors of college student at SUNY Brockport with national averages for the same topics. The goal of this project is to examine the differences and similarities between local data and national norms to make recommendations for improving health standards of local college students. The method used was to take the Youth Risk Behavior Survey of 2007 created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and modify the questions to fit the objectives of the project. Then the survey will be administered to intact groups of college students at SUNY Brockport and data derived from the analysis of the survey will then be correlated and compared with national data.
    • IFRS at Rochester?Area Institutions: Are Professors Prepared to Teach?

      Ziolkowski, Michael F.; Dorman, Amy; The College at Brockport (1/1/2012)
      I studied the preparedness of accounting professors in the Rochester, New York area related to teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in accounting courses at their institution through a survey of educators conducted during December 2011. I found Rochester?area college professors responded that overall college professors are not prepared to teach International Financial Reporting Standards nationwide with a total of 69.23%. Professors are more prepared by a slim margin in the Rochester?area institutions with a total of 57.69% professors responding that their own institution was prepared to teach International Financial Reporting Standards. Based on experience, professors with less experience, whether as a professional or professor, believe more so than more experienced professors that both nationwide and institutionally college professors are not prepared to teach IFRS. Male and female professors both agreed that nationwide professors are not prepared to teach IFRS. However, institutionally, 6 out of 7 males (85.71%) were more confident in their own institutions in the Rochester?area, deeming their institution prepared to teach IFRS, while 5 out of 7 females (71.43%) believed their institution was not prepared to teach IFRS. I found no differences among preparedness based on institution type (public vs. private). Overall, my study provides evidence regarding the state of local accounting professors’ readiness to prepare students for a global economy using IFRS as a standard for reporting.
    • Frequency Factors in Presidential Executive Orders

      Jurek, Steven; Wood, Tyler Indiana (1/10/2020)
      American Presidents utilize an array of tools which each have a varying level of political expediency. Some tools may be well recognized and clearly defined yet slower and more cumbersome such as the general legislative process which formally makes bills into laws. Going through such a process can take considerable time because of the amount of checks and balances involved as well as the gridlocked nature of Congress. In contrast, other tools may be less well defined and possess potential to “get the job done quicker”. One can see these more efficient manifestations of power in the Executive Branch of government. For example, the President has ultimate authority over the military as Commander in Chief and accordingly has much more unilateral authority on that front than he does with the legislative process itself. Another integral part of this latter category is precisely the topic of this research paper: Executive Orders. These can be generally defined as binding instructions which the President can issue for implementation by the Executive Branch. There has been significant scholarly study on the subject of what instigates a President to issue Orders at a more frequent rate. Additionally, there has been much dispute over what they are used for in the first place.
    • Sex Trafficking of Minors in New York State

      Kienzle, Megan; Taylor, Porsche; The College at Brockport (1/13/2017)
      Sex trafficking is a topic that has been vaguely discussed by many researchers over the years. Although sex trafficking is becoming more common (Kortla, 2010), many people are unaware of how easy it is for children to become victims. This research will look at how children get caught and lured into the sex industry. It will also touch on the factors that play a role in increasing the likelihood of these children becoming sex trafficking victims. Although there are some programs available to help child victims recover from this lifestyle, there are many other programs being worked on that could provide a support system for the victims. These programs assist victims in helping them get back on their own feet. It provides the victims with counseling to help them through the trauma they have had to face while being in the sex trafficking business. Some of the programs assist in providing shelter for the victims. Once the victims have been rescued they automatically are given a place to stay. The research will dive into what the communities must do, as well as law enforcement, social workers, and people in the communities to make a difference and begin to put an end to the epidemic that is taking the lives of our children beyond the currently operating programs.
    • Justice for the Jewish Refugee: The Development of British Refugee Policy, 1930-1945

      Thompsell, Angela; Lovell, Kelly; The College at Brockport (1/13/2018)
      Europe in the 1930s and early 1940s saw a large shift in population as different groups of people attempted to leave their homes to escape persecution. The dictators in Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union persecuted against people based on their religion, ability and sexual orientation. The German government, for example, encouraged the Jewish population of the country to emigrate in the early 1930s in an attempt to “purify” their country. Catholics and other political opponents of Hitler also left Germany to avoid persecution or punishment. Many of these refugees traveled to Britain, initially, to escape the harsh, Nazi rule. The British government attempted to provide alternate final destinations for the people escaping mainland-Europe, but many refugees had to make a life for themselves in Britain either temporarily or permanently. The forced migration from persecution in Austria, Germany, and later other regions in continental Europe and the role of the British government is a topic of debate for historians. On one side, some historians argue that the British government provided enough assistance to the refugees from Central and Eastern Europe. On the other side, historians argue that the government could have done more to make the transition easier. Using memos, government meeting minutes, official documents, memoirs, and personal accounts, this paper will analyze the response of the British government to the influx of refugees from Central and Eastern Europe between 1930 and 1945, focusing on Jewish refugees. How did immigration policy progress with the rising tensions in Europe? How did events like the Anschluss and Kristallnacht influence British refugee policy? Overall, the immigration policies imposed by the British government were restrictive, but aimed to protect British subjects during a time of war. In the 1930’s, the Cabinet primarily focused on recovering from the global economic crisis which had left thousands unemployed or underemployed. Between 1939 and 1945, the War Cabinet shifted their focus to a global war effort to defeat the Axis Powers. Parliament and the Cabinet responded to the call to accept refugees from continental Europe, but repeatedly placed more value on British lives than the lives of those escaping persecution and violence.
    • Changes in Tudor Religion and Politics and Their Impact on the Modernization of Ireland

      Daly, John P.; Benson, Margaret A.; The College at Brockport (1/31/2017)
      The Tudor dynasty in 16th Century England brought forth many changes. Under King Henry VIII, reforms in religion and politics set forth a series of events that both changed and modernized the English Empire. Henry VIII’s reformation—which had purely political motives—was the first religious reform led by a monarch and he implemented laws that left his people with no choice but to follow suit in his break from Rome. Under the reign of his son, Edward VI, exiled heretics were welcomed into England and encouraged to share their ideas which would contribute to the solidification of a Protestant faith that had developed through Henry VIII’s establishment of the Church of England. Because Henry VIII had implemented anti-Catholic laws and the heretics under Edward VI rejected indulgence payments as well as corrupt church practices, a vast majority of the English people had converted to Protestantism. As a result, when Mary I came to power as queen, she was unable to revert her people back to Catholicism despite her best efforts and during the reign of the final Tudor monarch, Elizabeth I, Protestant ideas began to spread to the predominantly Catholic nation of Ireland. Irish land was seized and controlled by the British Empire and legislation was passed against Catholics who were unwilling to convert. Since the early 17th century, there have been several controversies between the English and the Irish; predominantly over religious conflict and land struggles. This thesis explains how the presence and influence of British Protestants forced Ireland to modernize as it did from the arrival of the British in the 16th century through late 1937 when the Constitution of Ireland officially went into effect.
    • Breeding Biology of Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) in Stormwater Retention Ponds on the College at Brockport Campus

      Norment, Christopher; Butler, Abigail; The College at Brockport (1/7/2018)
      Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) often breed in stormwater retention ponds. I studied the breeding biology of the species in seven small retention ponds at the College at Brockport, to evaluate their breeding success in a created habitat relative to data from studies in natural habitats. I also determined how habitat characteristics affect the breeding biology of Red-winged Blackbirds. The College at Brockport population had harem sizes with up to four females per male. There was a significant positive relationship between pond area and the number of male territories. I found 47 nests, at least four of which wer second nestings; average clutch size was 3.7 eggs. The nesting season began with the first clutch on 26 April 2017 with peak hatching dates from 27 May until 2 June and peak fledging dates from 7 June until 16 June. The nesting season ended when the last nest fledged, which was around 22 July 2017. Apparent nest success was 78.3%, with predation rates of 10.0%. In studies from similar habitats, apparent nest success was often much lower, ranging from 3.0 to 71.0% with predation rates ranging from 30.0% up to 97.0% in some areas. There was no significant difference between successful and unsuccessful nests in distance from nest to pond edge or open water, water depth, vegetation height, and density between. Based on my results the retention ponds provide good breeding habitat for Red-winged Blackbirds but stormwater ponds should be managed properly for wildlife use. Management practices such as discouraging invasive species, reducing overabundance of emergent vegetation, and occasional dredging would benefit wildlife use of the retention ponds.
    • The Integration of Culture into Foreign Language Classrooms

      Rossi, Frank; Marcal, Michael; The College at Brockport (12/1/2010)
      The integration of culture into foreign language education is a necessity in order to teach students in the best manner possible and allow them to learn a second language correctly and successfully. Culture is the driving force behind learning other languages. Culture can be defined as “anything and everything humankind has invented” and varies from country to country and household to household (Pfister 4) Students need to learn about foreign cultures for a number of reasons such as understanding others’ viewpoints, personal encounters with foreign cultures, and to put the language into context. Not only is the teaching and learning of culture very important in schools but it is required by national and New York State standards. The national standards for foreign language are: communication, comparisons, connections, communities, and culture. The New York State standards for foreign language are: communication and culture. By having culture as one of the five national standards and one of the two New York State standards for foreign language, teaching culture is required and clearly important that it is taught to all students. To demonstrate how culture can be integrated into the foreign language classroom, below are ten lesson plans that have both culture and other aspects of the Spanish language in them. The first five lessons are related to the culture of Mexico and the last five lessons focus on Spain’s culture.
    • The Lasting Relationship between Antonio Gaudí and Barcelona, Spain

      Linville, Rachel; Cline, Erica; The College at Brockport (12/1/2011)
      Barcelona's architecture changed with the influence of Gaudí and his willingness to stray from the expected and normal characteristics of this time period. Since Gaudí began the construction of his various works, there have been many controversial thoughts on the time period that his works represented. Other architectures and artists were reluctant to stray from the traditional characteristics from the art movements at this time. However, Gaudí was eager to use aspects from various art movements to create designs that he thought would be beneficial to the city and to himself. His buildings are frequently referred to as being “abstract” but in reality, they combine characteristics from various time periods in order to appear different than the other buildings at that time. Gaudí used materials from the Renaissance movement, Art Nouveau movement, and the Gothic movement in order to create his buildings throughout the city. The desire to use multiple artistic movements in his creations guided the belief that his works had an impact on the city of Barcelona as a whole. Many people did not believe that Gaudí's various structures belonged on the streets of Barcelona because they did not demonstrate the culture or the artistic movements of that era. Currently, Gaudí is an architect that is closely related to one city, Barcelona. This city would not be the same now if it did not have Gaudí's works throughout the city because they have impacted the city and the architecture as a whole. Throughout the entire city, there is unusual and abstract architecture that is associated with not only Gaudí but other architects after this time. He made an impact on the city and passed on the beliefs that straying from using characteristics of one artistic movement can be beneficial because the creation of unusual but desired designs can occur. In the past, Gaudí was 3 ridiculed for not following the current artistic movement but now it is the norm to use parts of each movement and combine them to create a piece that will have many variables. Although he was scorned for using this technique when creating his designs, he in now looked at as being the architect of Barcelona because of the importance it plays in the city as a whole. Gaudí's creations are continuing to be built, using his theories, because many believe that it is important to finish his works since he does play an important role in the city but architects that are now completing works are also using this style. Barcelona used this technique when they were building for the 1992 Olympics because they wanted to have the new buildings be related to the works of Gaudí and all of the past architects since all of these buildings had a modern look to them but the elements were also extremely stylistic. Gaudí's design of the Sagrada Familia, Casa Milá, Parque Güell, and his other buildings have had a lasting impact on Barcelona in a variety of ways. Besides the idea that his artwork is the city of Barcelona, he also helped other architects stray from the idea that they had to follow the guidelines of the present artistic movement and they started to use a variety of movements to create their designs that also resembled those of Gaudí. His works have also had an impact on the culture, economy, and tourism in this city because of the popularity of his works. The abstract look has become the culture of Barcelona and it is not associated with old and new buildings and other aspects of the city. The different creations of Gaudí located around the city bring in tourists from all over the world so they can see his works and this also brings in money to the economy as a whole. Gaudí will always have a close relationship with this city because of the lasting impact he made on the city as a whole, the people in the city and the world, and the ideas that he passed on to the other architects of this area.
    • Hands-On or Hands-Off: Effective Elements of Elementary Social Studies Hands-on Lessons

      Wright, Allison; Jackson, Justin; The College at Brockport (12/1/2011)
      In today’s American school system a hole has begun to form in elementary schools as social studies education has been on the decline, or in some cases, cut out entirely in order to allow more time for mathematics and literacy instruction. Modern educators have begun to acknowledge this gap and want to develop new ways of instructing social studies as a way to keep the subject current, interesting, and effective. Hands-on learning may be one solution for this issue. The purpose of this study was to describe what happened in regard to students’ understanding of and engagement in social studies content when presented in a hands-on teaching style. One fifth grade inclusive classroom, one fourth grade inclusive classroom, and one self-contained fourth grade classroom were taught using hands-on social studies lessons in a rural school district in Western New York. After utilizing a variety of hands-on lessons and activities, and researching the existing literature there is on hands-on learning as it relates to social studies instruction, five themes of effective hands-on lessons emerged that may aid elementary teachers in their creation of these types of lessons: Collaboration, Open-Ended, Meaning, Experience, and Timing (C.O.M.E.T.).
    • Women in Popular Music Media: Empowered or Exploited?

      LeSavoy, Barbara; Glantz, Jaime; The College at Brockport (12/1/2011)
      Are women's lives and freedoms advanced by popular media productions of female sexuality, or do these portrayals restrict women's lives and freedoms by offering false pretenses of empowerment? This presentation examines these questions by investigating the validity of two leading radical feminist theoretical perspectives about the acceptability of popular media's hypersexualized representation of women. Through a combined method of survey response and content analysis, this research aims to bridge the gap between feminist theoretical dialogue and the experiences of women's lives. Research findings emphasize popular media's role as a catalyst for social construction and social change and also indicate the need for further intersections between feminist theory and women's everyday realities.
    • Social Studies: The Lost Art of Being Social

      Wright, Allison; Singh, Teresa I.; The College at Brockport (12/1/2012)
      The content area of social studies has in recent years been replaced within the educational curriculum across the country. This paper discusses how the slow removal of studying the socialization of mankind from the education system is directly linked to the decline in societal values, citizenship and a sense of value. Through a brief overview of how education was established in America to specific programs and misconceptions in teaching social studies, this paper delves into finding out the importance of teaching social studies. My research revealed that social studies are a vital organ within the body of education. My findings ultimately show the systems of education have always been viewed in some aspect or another for the betterment of society. This concept is not new nor is little written about the impact if ignored, but fewer today are looking back to the past to help find answers to the present day issues of our schools, teachers and students. Until more administrative heads re-examine the fundamentals of education our children and our own futures are faced with a dismal society. For if removing that which teaches us the past, how then can we learn to live in the future free from repeating the mistakes of the past?
    • The History of Gun Control in the United States

      Leslie, W. Bruce; Greco, Daniel; The College at Brockport (12/1/2013)
      Gun control is one of today’s most controversial topics, bringing about two different, yet passionate arguments. Those who are “pro-gun” argue that firearms are a basic fundamental right given to American citizens by the Second Amendment of the Constitution. Advocates for gun control argue that firearms lead to more deaths, and should be restricted to avoid shooting tragedies. Regardless of one’s personal stance on this issue, it is undeniable that gun control is one of the United States’ most debated topics. This paper will take a historical approach to gun control in the United States, and will be broken down into four sections. The first is solely on gun control and the Second Amendment. This section will show the historical background of the Second Amendment, and the legality of gun control legislation. The second section takes a look into America’s most influential gun control movements since 1980, showing the effects they have had on the American public. Have shooting tragedies increased the number of Americans in favor of gun control? The third and fourth sections takes a very different approach to gun control. These sections will seek to assess the potential effects of gun control legislation. The third is a state-by-state approach, looking at different states across the U.S., to see if there is a correlation between the number of guns, and homicides committed by firearms. The fourth section takes the same analysis on guns, as the third, but at the international level. The third and fourth parts to this paper will reveal whether or not there is a strong correlation between the number of guns, and homicides committed by firearms. After reading all four sections of this paper, my opinions on this controversial topic will be clear, and be backed up by cold hard facts.
    • An Analysis of the Declaration of Independence

      Ciliotta-Rubery, Andrea; Brannigan, Gabrielle; The College at Brockport (12/1/2014)
      The language and syntax of the Declaration of Independence creates a flexibility that allows the opportunity for the document to apply to other situations through its appeal to the human condition and fundamental nature of mankind. It serves as a powerful assertion that transcends time and place because its concepts reflect those lasting desires relevant still in modern history. The Declaration has influenced many groups in their resistance against oppressors including French revolutionaries in 1789, disenfranchised American women in 1848, and Vietnamese colonists in 1945. The language of the documents created during these struggles echoes that of the American Declaration demonstrating the eternal nature of this work. The purpose of this paper is to show the lasting impact of the Declaration in relation to the aforementioned political movements; demonstrating the relevance and power of this document 200 years after its conception.
    • The Effect of Maternal Obesity on Breastfeeding at 6 Months

      Jegier, Briana; Wiltbank, Jennifer; The College at Brockport (12/1/2014)
      This study examined the impact of obesity on breastfeeding duration at 6 months using secondary data analysis of maternal survey responses from 829 mothers with complete data on obesity status and breastfeeding duration who had participated in a prospective cohort study that examined infant feeding practices during the first 6 months of infant life and maternal return to work. The independent variable for this study was obesity status. This was a categorical variable that was defined as obese/overweight (BMI > 25) and normal weight (BMI < 25). The dependent variable for this study was duration of any breastfeeding in days during the infant’s first 6 months of life or the time the mother provided her last survey. Some mothers returned their survey after 6 months and thus breastfeeding duration data was available beyond the infant’s first 6 months of life. This was a categorical variable that was defined as yes if any breastfeeding at 6 months occurred or no if breastfeeding had been discontinued. The control variables for this study were maternal age, minority status, WIC status, delivery type, employed/in school during pregnancy, planning to return to work/school within 6 months, infant in the NICU, mother on Medicaid, tobacco use, alcohol use, medical risk factors during pregnancy (e.g. hypertension), procedures during this pregnancy, depression during pregnancy. This study demonstrated that overweight/obese mothers had longer duration of breastfeeding compared to normal weight mothers. This study also demonstrated that in this sample normal weight mothers were more likely to have other known risk factors that lower breastfeeding duration including participating in WIC, having a c-section, and planning to return to work or school within 6 months of delivery. Taken together, these findings suggest that these other risk factors might be stronger predictors of breastfeeding duration compared to obesity. Healthcare and public health practitioners can use this information to inform their breastfeeding education practices.
    • Stigmatizing Attitudes of the Helping Professions toward HIV/AIDS and the Detrimental Effects of Stigma on Individuals Living with HIV/AIDS

      Cesnales, Nicole; Johnson, Lorrie; The College at Brockport (12/1/2015)
      This paper reviews the literature on HIV stigma categorizing and conceptualizing stigma and identifying what makes it different from other forms of stigma. It discusses the effects that stigma has on the people living with HIV and the barriers it creates to care and prevention. It reviews the attitudes of students and professionals in the helping field primarily nurses and social workers. The literature discussed in this thesis suggests factors that contribute to stigma, as well as interventions that may be successful in diminishing stigmatizing attitudes among students and helping professionals; further addressing gaps in present research about HIV stigma.
    • Nation Nine

      Whorton, James, Jr.; Bryant, Madeleine; The College at Brockport (12/10/2012)
      This senior honors thesis is an excerpt from a young adult science fiction novel. The story revolves around a group of nine survivors in a post-apocalyptic Earth, as they struggle to cope with the dangers of a corrupt government, radiation poisoning, unknown viruses, and a species of ever-evolving monsters known as “lamia.” Themes explored within the story include personal identity, tyranny and freewill. The story is prefaced with the author’s own thoughts on fiction’s purpose for both authors and readers.
    • Interactions Between Land Use and Local Lithology on Phosphorus Distribution in Northrup Creek Sediments, Monroe County, New York

      Noll, Mark; Napieralski, Amanda; The College at Brockport (12/12/2012)
      Phosphorus, a key nutrient in many aquatic systems that limits the growth of algae, plays a key role in the occurrence of eutrophication and toxic algal blooms. Past research has shown that land use and lithology are major contributors of phosphorus in a creek. High levels of organic phosphorus occur in agricultural areas of a watershed, and high levels of inorganic phosphorus occur in residential areas, especially near waste water treatment plants. The bedrock of an area also influences the chemical composition of stream sediment. Limestone bedrock results in high levels of calcium associated phosphorus. Northrup Creek, a mixed land use watershed in western Monroe County, New York, was examined to determine the main contributors of phosphorus in the creek. Fluvial sediment samples were collected from eleven sites in the Northrup Creek to determine if phosphorus levels in the creek were correlated to the type of land use occurring in specific sections of the watershed. Phosphorus fractionation was performed to analyze the phosphorus distributions at each site, focusing on organic phosphorus, iron-manganese, aluminum, and calcium associated inorganic phosphorus. Land use land cover data was used to determine the land area percentages and hectares of agricultural and residential land in each stream segment. The phosphorus concentrations and percentages from the total phosphorus level were correlated to land use data using a Kendall Tau correlation coefficient. Linear regressions were also run to test the statistical significance of the relationship between phosphorus concentration and land use. The results were not statistically significant and could not be used to support the hypothesis statement that agricultural areas of the catchment would have high levels of organic phosphorus and residential areas would have high levels of inorganic phosphorus.
    • As A Matter of Fact, I Am A Woman: The Gender Disparity in Journalism

      Orzel, Virginia; Green, Kayla; The College at Brockport (12/12/2018)
      Women in the field of journalism have been oppressed for decades. There was even a time in history when women were unable to work in journalism fields all around the world. This ties directly in with the old mindset that women should not have an opinion, and should strictly stay home as a mother and housewife. As times began to change, however, women broke into the business, but it was no easy feat. The first female journalists at newspapers often had to deal with being the only female in the newsroom. They were doubted, undermined, and never given the "hard" stories like their male counterparts. Many women were even shunned to the "women's section" of the newspaper, which has many different opinions from those who experienced it. Many women saw this section as oppressive and limiting, while others saw it as a chance to give women their own voice and develop a publication created strictly by women. Even female journalists who had the chance to cover a topic such as politics were assigned to report about the First Lady. This is another example of a double-edged sword. In some ways it was restrictive to not be able to cover the actual politics, but in another sense, it was a chance to showcase the great things women were doing.
    • Investigating the allelopathic effects of pale swallowwort (Cynanchum rossicum) on the growth success of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and pale swallowwort

      Amatangelo, Kathryn; DeToy, Jessica; The College at Brockport (12/14/2017)
      Invasive species seriously threaten both biodiversity and ecosystem functionality. One mechanism that makes invasive plants successful is allelopathy, which is the release of chemical compounds that have negative effects on other plants. A vine that is native to the Ukraine region and is now highly invasive in Western New York is Pale swallowwort (Cynanchum rossicum). It has the capability to change the growth situation in favor of itself by releasing allelochemicals into the soil. Thus far, little research has been conducted to examine the direct effects of swallowwort allelopathy on the growth of native plants. To accomplish this, two types of soil from two local sites were collected; the first that contained swallowwort remains, and the second that did not contain any swallowwort. The native and confamilial species Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) and swallowwort were planted in these soil types where growth was compared. It was hypothesized that the growth of milkweed would be limited by the swallowwort soil due to allelopathy and that swallowwort growing in soil containing remains of swallowwort would thrive. Analysis of growth data indicated that there were no significant differences in the success of swallowwort growing in both soil types and that milkweed growing in swallowwort soil was significantly smaller than milkweed planted in the control for one of two sites. This suggested that allelopathy or other changes to the soil induced by swallowwort may affect the growth of milkweed and improve the overall competitive ability of swallowwort.