• Impulsivity in Subclinical Borderline Personality Individuals Using a Delay Discounting Task with Social Incentives

      D' Agostino, Rachel L.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Impulsivity was examined in a subclinical sample of college students with borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits. Using the Borderline Personality Questionnaire (BPQ; Poreh et al. , 2006) participants were screened for high and low BPD traits. Twenty-six high-BPD and twenty-four low-BPD participants were compared on impulsivity. Impulsivity was assessed using a self-report measure (BIS- 1 1 ; Patton, Stanford & Barratt, 1 995) and three laboratory tasks, the Go Stop Impulsivity Paradigm (Dougherty, Mathias, & Marsh, 2003 ), a delay discounting task (Dixon, Jacobs, & Sanders, 2006) with monetary incentives and a delay discounting task with social incentives. Past research has shown that high- and low-BPD individuals do not discount monetary rewards differently (Dom, De Wilde, Hulstijn, Van Den Brink, & Sabbe, 2006). The present study replicated these results. In addition, the present research hypothesized that high-BPD individuals would discount social rewards more steeply. Results, however, showed no differences between groups in social discounting, nor did high-BPD individuals discount social rewards at a significantly greater rate than monetary rewards, as was expected. Still, there was a significant main effect, showing that, overall, participants discounted social rewards more steeply than monetary rewards. Contrary to what was expected, there was no difference between groups on the Go Stop Impulsivity Paradigm. Results did confirm the hypothesis that high-BPD participants were more impulsive than low-BPD participants on the BIS- 11. These results suggest that the two groups differ on impulsivity according to self-report measures, but that delay discounting does not discriminate between groups regardless of the reinforcer.
    • Simple Reaction Time of Ipsilateral and Contralateral Hand to Monaurally Presented Tones of Different Pitch with Binaural White Noise

      Aitken, Peter G.; The College at Brockport (1974-01-01)
      This study hypothesized that reaction times to monaural auditory stimuli are shorter with the ipsilateral hand than with the contralateral hand under binaural white noise stimulation, and that ipsi- and contralateral reactions do not differ in the absence of white noise. The relationship between the ipsilateral-contralateral reaction time difference and the frequency of the reaction signal was also determined. In experiment I, 10 male undergraduate students each performed 20 ipsilateral and 20 contralateral reactions to each of 6 signal frequencies (400, 800,1200,1600, 2000, 2400 cps) under binaural white noise stimulation. In experiment II, 10 male undergraduate students each performed 20 ipsi- and 20 contralateral reactions, at one stimulus frequency, under white noise on and white noise off conditions. The results support both hypotheses ( p < .001), and also indicate that signal frequency has a significant effect on contralateral reactions· ( p < .001) but not on ipsilateral reactions. Close agreement was obtained with results of other callosal transmission studies, and support provided for the theory that the ear asymmetry effect is caused in part by the occlusion of ipsilateral auditory connections by contralateral ones. The results also suggest that the effect of signal frequency on contralateral reactions is related to the mechanism limiting the frequency at which binaural beats are perceived.