Browsing Psychology Master's Theses by Subject "Psychological Aspects"
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Effects of Watching Television While ExercisingLack of physical activity is associated with multiple health risks including obesity, heart disease, and premature death. Encouraging people to increase exercise has been difficult due to multiple barriers such as lack of energy, time, and competition with sedentary behaviors. Many researchers have tried to manipulate distraction from pain and internal cues while exercising as a way to increase the amount a person exercises. Music has been found to be an effective distractor for decreasing perceived level of exertion and increasing the amount exercised in runners (Brownley et al., 1995; Bourdeaudhuij et al., 2002). The purpose of the current experiment was to examine the effects of television on increasing exercise by distracting participants whom are running on a treadmill. Forty-two adults from a small fitness center participated in a between subjects design in which half viewed a television while exercising while the other half did not view a television while exercising. Distance walked/ran and focus of attention were compared to determine if watching a television while exercising distracted attention and increased distance walked/ran. A significant effect was found for distraction in that the television group reported more external thoughts than the no television group.
Evaluation of Concurrent Operant Preference Assessment For Identification of Social Consequences in Adolescents: Daily Living Skills in a Residential SettingThere are a growing number of youth in residential care who are dually diagnosed with a mental health disorder and developmental delay. By using function-based interventions, individuals' problem behaviors may be addressed without requiring a higher level of care. An alternative strategy to a functional analysis is to use a concurrent operant preference assessment (COA) to determine the individual's preferred consequences and allow appropriate interventions to be developed based on the preferred consequence and potential function of the challenging behavior for the individual. The clinical utility of a COA procedure to increase latency to compliance with daily living skills with youth dually diagnosed in a residential setting was evaluated using a multiple baseline across subjects design. Results showed that the use of potential reinforcers determined by the COA increased compliance with daily living skills with all 5 participants. Additionally, these skills were maintained at a 2 week probe.
Maternal Anxiety and Child Behavioral Problems: Mediating and Moderating ProcessesThe purpose of this study was to investigate the complex relationship between maternal anxiety, harsh parenting, and childhood behavioral problems in a sample of at-risk parents. The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, which provided longitudinal data from a large and diverse population of families and their newborn children, was utilized to examine the intervening variables that might affect the relations between anxiety and child behavior problems. The results of this study indicated that harsh parenting served as a partial mediator of the relations between anxiety and subsequent behavior problems. Maternal family mental health history, presence or absence of the child's birth father, and child gender on the pattern of relations were examined as moderators of the relation between maternal anxiety and child behavioral outcomes but the analyses failed to support the proposed moderating relations. The implications for considering the effects of maternal anxiety on child behavior problems within a stress-processing model are discussed.