Recent Submissions

  • Case Study: Effects of a Systematic Method of Vocabulary Instruction on a Disabled Learner

    Smith, Arthur E.; Baker, Patricia E.; Barrett-Bassi, Sharon A. (4/1/1996)
    This descriptive case study examined the effects of instruction in a systematic method of vocabulary instruction which included a mnemonic component on the fifteen-year-old learning disabled female with memory deficits. The researcher and subject met for nine forty-five minute sessions over a period of four weeks. At the end of the study, changes in the subject included increased self confidence about her ability to learn vocabulary independently. She gained the confidence to volunteer vocabulary related answers in another class, a behavior which the subject reported was something she would not have previously done. She was able to write definitions for 21 out of 27 words which were previously unfamiliar to her. The subject was also able to select the correct word for a fill-in exercise for the remaining six words for which instruction time was limited. A post hoc test administered three months after the end of the study revealed that the subject remembered 19 of the 26 words studied. All words for which she had created mnemonic devices were among those remembered. Instructional implications of this study include a recommendation that time devoted to teaching a method for learning vocabulary may be beneficial for disabled learners. Situational examples of new vocabulary in context were recommended to facilitate faster word learning. Recommendations for future research in this area included an extended length of time to practice using the system with supervision to increase the likelihood that subjects would be able to use the system independently.
  • Differentiation in Teaching Reading Comprehension and Motivation of Students

    Allen, Thomas R.; Bates, Mark J.; Myers, Kim L. (6/1/2007)
    From introduction: Meeting the needs of all the students in a classroom is probably one of the biggest challenges teachers face today. Teachers are given goals by the federal government through the No Child Left Behind Act, and by the standards set forth by the state of New York. In addition, local school districts also have initiatives they want teachers to focus on to help students meet these standards. The amount of curriculum teachers have to cover can limit how they go about teaching it. Helping teachers connect to the students can seem daunting as they are faced with all the varied learners within their classrooms. Can the way the teachers teach the curriculum affect the students' desire to learn the curriculum? Teachers try to engage their students through many different styles of instruction. Is there one style specific to each student's needs which, if applied, will make learning more meaningful for him/her?
  • A REASSESSMENT OF THE YOUTH SERVICE NEEDS OF THE TOWN OF HENRIETTA

    Ribble, Robert B.; Baker, Patricia E.; Bauer, Melinda (7/1/1992)
    In 1983, in cooperation with the Henrietta Youth Bureau, Michael P. Zuber conducted a Needs Assessment of the youth in the Town of Henrietta. The Youth Bureau is a department of the Town of Henrietta and is advised by a citizen group of volunteers. In 1989, the Youth Bureau contacted Dr. Robert Ribble to see if there was another student interested in working with them again, to reassess the needs of the youth in Henrietta. Dr. Ribble presented this opportunity to me, which I gladly accepted. This project was of particular interest to me as I could combine my social work background and my Masters in Education work to form my thesis. The Henrietta Youth Bureau takes an active role in trying to define the needs of the people they serve. They expressed their concerns to me of wanting to conduct a reassessment of their original survey done in 1983, to determine the changes in the students' and parents' needs, so they can reassess the services they provide to the youth and families. Michael Yudelson, Director of the Henrietta Youth Bureau/Recreation Department and Irene Uhl, District Reaserch Associate, guided, directed and supported me in the administering and assessment of this project. In my original proposal, I not only intended to reassess the Henrietta Youth needs, but also try to relate the conclusions of the survey to attempt to project the needs of the elementary students prior to entering Junior High School. . : . .
  • Evaluation of a Pre-Test Program

    Ribble, Robert B.; Baker, Patricia E.; Bauer, Mary A. (5/1/1995)
    In 1984 a pre-first program was initiated at Chestnut Ridge Elementary School in the Churchville-Chili School District. Administrators and kindergarten and first grade teachers were concerned with the number of retentions (approximately 2006) of students at those levels as well as the number of children being labeled Learning Disabled. In an attempt to lower these numbers, kindergarten teachers were asked to identify students they felt would be at a high risk for retention or L.D. labelling by the end of first grade. Kindergarten students who were recognized by their teachers as being weak in areas such as attention span, language development, fine or gross motor control, worki habits. emotional or social development, or auditory or visual skills were recommended for placement in the pre-first program. From 1984 to 1993 a sufficient number of students were recommended to justify the pre-first classroom
  • Program Evaluation Thesis

    Baker, Patricia E.; Bell, Clinton a (1/1/1995)
    From statement of problem: :The purpose of this thesis was to complete an evaluation on the Threshold Learning Center General Equivalency Diploma Program (GED). The evaluation was to determine factors which contribute to the success of the students in the program. The information from the study can help Threshold to improve the design of its program, thereby increasing the success rate.
  • The Sense-Data Delusion

    Aagaard-Mogensen, Lars; The College at Brockport (7/1/1971)
    This thesis project considers the philosophy of perception and the idea of empirical knowledge to guide understanding of those perceptions as veridical or non-veridical. It defines and discusses the concept of sense-data as it bears on perception. Individual’s perceptions can and do differ and we are challenged to go beyond what we actually perceive, beyond what constitutes the information that our senses – seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and feeling – provide to determine the truth. This fact has been thought to present a ground for arguments challenging the validity of our perceptual knowledge. Apart from physiological questions about the way our senses function and psychological questions about learning, feelings, or expectations, the question that could be called “the question” of the philosophy of perception is this - what is it we perceive?
  • Defendant-Related Characteristics and the Bail Decision

    Zuvers, Alice J.; The College at Brockport (5/1/1971)
    A sample of the defendants arraigned in the Criminal Court of Rochester, New York in 1970 was studied to determine the effects (if any) of defendant-related characteristics on the bail decision. Attention was focused on the literature on bail to determine the nature of the bail system in the United States. Numerous writers have advocated that the present-day, widely practiced monetary bail system be reformed. They assert that the system is unfair to the poor, for they are retained in jail prior to trial, because they cannot afford to post bail or pay the bondsman's premium. On the other hand, persons with funds adequate to make bail are released pending trial. Several empirical studies have shown the influence pretrial detention has on society, on the defendant, and on the disposition of the case. There is a distinct lack of empirical research in the area of defendant-related characteristics which might influence the bail decision. This study is an attempt to fill that particular research void. Several legitimate characteristics, i.e. the type of crime, whether or not the charge is single or multiple, the extent and type of the defendant 's previous criminal record , and the family and community ties of the defendant, are viewed to determine their effects(s) (if any) on the bail decision. Three non-legitimate characteristics, i.e. race, sex, and age, are viewed to ascertain their effects(s) (if any) on the bail decision. This study found that several of the defendant-related characteristics do apparently influence the bail decision. Knowledge of these non-judicial inequalities in the bail system will aid reformers in their efforts to change the monetary bail system.
  • Congressional Receptivity to the Nixon Rationality on Drug Abuse Prevention

    Adriance, John D.; The College at Brockport (12/1/1976)
    In 1972 the Congress of the United States enacted the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act (D.A.O.T.A). The passage of this bill marked the first time in the 20th Century that the federal government had produced major legislation that would deal with drug abuse as a disease instead of a crime. Likewise, the enactment and signing of D.A.O.T.A. meant that Richard Nixon would be the first American President to have an executive office which would be charged with the mission of supervising our national effort against drug abuse. (These changes appeared on the surface to be momentous. However, one major question remained to be answered. Did the D.A.O.T.A. really have any substance? The question of whether or not the D.A.O.T.A could provide a meaningful answer to our nation’s drug abuse problems became the starting point for this study. Considering the powerful office and aggressive program that President Nixon had requested in his special message to Congress on drug abuse, the nature of the drug abuse problem in the U.S., and the bill which Congress finally enacted, there appeared to be quite a number of differences between what the President had asked for and what the House and the Senate enacted. Why the Congress did not respond affirmatively to President Nixon's request and why the Congress chose to assert its own conscience, raised a number of questions. President Nixon's aggressive initiative and the casual acceptance of the conference substitute put together by the House and Senate raised still other question marks. This analysis is structured with the objective of examining each segment of the enactment of the D.A.O.T.A; from the announcement of the Nixon proposal to the conference that was finally held. At each juncture, an attempt is made to portray the intentions of President Nixon, the reaction of the House and Senate, the issues that were at stake and the compromises that were made. The evidence, which is evaluated consists of primarily, U.S. Government documents. Secondary accounts of day to day happenings in the White House and Congress were obtained from the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. Where doubts existed as to the motives of individual participants, an attempt was made to obtain additional information through correspondence. The information, that unfolded, gave credence to the hypothesis that the D.A.O.T.A. was doomed to failure because the Congress did not provide it with a clear mandate to turn the drug abuse problem around. The case of the D.A.O.T.A. produced the scenario of a low level conflict between the President and Congress over drug abuse. In this instance, the Congress stated that it considered the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare the proper place for the long term coordination of drug abuse prevention and not the Executive Office of the President. The enactment of the D.A.O.T.A. laid down the guidelines for federal drug abuse prevention activities in the 1970's. The case of the D.A.O.T.A. established a precedent upon which to gage future presidential-congressional-actions in the area of drug abuse prevention and suggested how Congress might react to any future attempts by a President to increase the power of his executive office and the Presidency.
  • Restructuring Seconday Social Studies: Results of the Humanities Project at Greece Athena High School

    Baker, Patricia E.; Baird, William Norton (5/1/1993)
    From "Problem:" A widely held belief is that American students are not learning enough to compete in today's world. This belief was enhanced in April of 1983, when the report A Nation at Risk was released by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. The results caught much of the United States off guard. One quote from the report said "the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and a people." (p. 1) The alarm is still ringing, because results of recent studies are not showing significant improvements. One such report came from the Digest of Education Statistics in 1992 which compared S.A.T. scores. The average scores for 1980-81 were 424 in Verbal and 466 in Math. The scores for 1990-91 were 422 in Verbal and 474 in Math. (cited in Wilk "From risk" 1993) Recent findings also show a lack of knowledge in the field of Social Studies. In September 1987, researchers Diane Ravitch and Chester Finn reported, "American 17 year-olds display a 'shameful' knowledge of U.S. history and literature" (cited in Wilk, "From risk" 1993, p. S9) In January of 1989, The Joint Council on Economic Education reported, "American students have a weak grasp of basic economic concepts" (cited in Wilk, "From risk" 1993, p. S9) The National Assessment of Educational Progress announced in February of 1990, high school seniors had "critical shortcomings" in geography. (cited in Wilk, "From risk" 1993) Another report from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, two months later, revealed U.S. students only showed a "limited" understanding of important concepts in U.S. history. (cited in Wilk, "From risk" 1993) These studies and others that show similar results, have led to a call for change in Social Studies instruction and the structure of American schools in general.
  • Capitalizing on Multiple Intelligences to Enhance Vocabulary Development in a Sixth Grade Classroom

    Smith, Arthur E.; Baker, Patricia E.; Balling, Cristy L.; Hummel, Breanna (8/1/2000)
    This study was designed to determine if Multiple Intelligence Theory is a more effective approach to vocabulary development than direct instruction. Eighty Sixth Grade students from a suburban school district in Western New York were the subjects for this study. In order to determine the students' prior knowledge of the 60 words to be used in the study, the students were given a pretest. The study was conducted over six weeks with the students receiving a new vocabulary list consisting of ten words from the pretest each week. During three of the weeks the students were taught via direct instruction. During the remaining three weeks a multiple intelligence approach was employed. The amount of time during the school day devoted to vocabulary instruction was the same regardless of instructional approach. Specific instructional activities and lessons for each approach are outlined in the thesis. At the end of each week a post-test was given to the students. The researcher evaluated the growth made during each week and searched for a statistically significant difference between the means of the two approaches. The results forded that both methods were indeed effective in enhancing vocabulary growth in sixth grade students. However, when comparing the means of the two approaches, there was a statistically significant difference in favor of Multiple Intelligence Theory.
  • Patterns of Written Response to Literature of Average Fifth Grade Readers

    Smith, Arthur E.; Baker, Patricia E.; Atkinson, Jeanette Adams (5/1/1995)
    The purpose of this study was to analyze individual and group patterns in written responses to literature. The subjects for this study were six fifth-graders of average reading ability. The subjects attended a suburban public school which was structurally designed on an open plan model. Each day in class, the subjects read two novels, The Black Pearl, and The Moldanado Miracle. The children composed written responses in their personal reading logs to what they read the previous night. The teacher wrote back to the children in their reading logs on a daily basis. Individual student responses were then categorized into areas of response (see Tables 1-7) to establish individual response patterns. Group (all six children) patterns were determined by compiling the individuals categorized responses. Samples of typical responses in each response category for each individual student were also recorded. Two categories of response, Interpretive and Personal, received the greatest number of responses from all six subjects. The high number of responses in each of these two categories may be a result of the question used to prompt the children's written responses ("How did you feel about what you read last night?"). The other five categories of responses (Literary Judgment, Narrational, Personal Associational, Prescriptive, and Miscellaneous) showed no continuity for all six students. There was variety among students regarding the latter five categories. Perhaps the variety in these response categories among individuals refers to the fact that reading is a very highly personal interaction between reader and text.
  • Kindergartners' Oral Responses to Stories Either Told or Read to Them

    Smith, Arthur E.; Ash-Jones, Mary Beth (8/1/1991)
    The purpose of the study was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the quantity of words generated by kindergartners when retelling a story read to them from a book (read aloud) as compared to when a story was told orally, without a book (storytelling). The subjects of this study were 42 kindergarten students attending an urban school district in Western New York. The students listened to a story read aloud from a book. They then retold the story to an adult. The retellings were recorded. The same students listened to another story told orally, by an experienced storyteller. They also retold the story. The appropriate oral language level was selected as a result of the Early Prevention of School Failure screening, which was administered in September of the school year. The strengths and needs for receptive and expressive language were examined to determine relationships between the differences in the children's retelling of the stories. There was a statistically significant difference favoring the retelling of a story told orally compared to a story read aloud when measured by quantity of words generated in the retelling. The results showed those children identified with below average needs in expressive and receptive language areas were better able to retell the story told orally, without a book.
  • Views of African-American Males on their Educational Experiences

    Baker, Patricia E.; Abdulmateen, G. Najmah (5/1/1995)
    This study examined the opinions of African American males on the American educational system through an analysis of their expressions about their educational experiences. The researcher interviewed 40 African American Males in the following categories: second, fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth and twelfth grades, high school graduates and high school dropouts. There were five subjects interviewed for each category. A set of eight questions was used to ascertain the opinions of these young men. The researcher compiled a listing of the raw data as well as charts that quantify the interview results. The findings indicate that school districts should examine their hiring practices as well as adjust other policies and practices if they are to meet the needs of African American males.
  • The Effects of Peer Tutors: Using the Neurological Impress Method with Seven Students With Learning Disabilities

    Smith, Arthur E.; Robinson, Scott D.; Bernitt, Darcy (5/1/2000)
    None provided. From statement of problem: How do you define good reading? How often do you come across students who read with hesitations, repetitions, word miscalls, and exhibit word by word reading and slow decoding of words? Oral fluency is seen as a necessary feature in defining good reading (Allington, 1983). A lack of fluency in oral reading, usually described as word by word reading or unlanguage like reading, is often seen as a characteristic of poor readers .
  • The Role of the Manual Alphabet in Letter Recognition by Kindergarten Children

    Baker, Patricia E.; Andriatch, Mary Katherine Waple (4/1/1993)
    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference between recall of sounds and symbols of the alphabet by students who were taught the letters of the alphabet using a manual alphabet (fingerspelling), versus recall of the sounds and symbols of the alphabet by students who were taught without fingerspelling. Using a population of 20 regular education kindergarten students from a rural, upstate New York school district, the researcher found whether or not the manual alphabet played a role in kindergarten students' sight and symbol recognition of the alphabet. For three consecutive weeks, the researcher taught a treatment group (N=10) a letter a day. The sessions lasted 30 minutes and included the instruction of the manual alphabet for each letter taught, along with enrichment activities. For the same three weeks, the researcher taught a control group (N=10) the same letters of the alphabet, with the same enrichment activities, in the same fashion, without the use of the manual alphabet. At the end of the instruction time, the researcher administered an "ABC" inventory to the entire population. The "ABC" inventory was designed by the researcher. The subjects recalled the sounds and symbols of the letters they were taught. The number of correct identifications were calculated for both of the groups. The group mean data from the measure was analyzed using an independent t-test. After testing the null hypotheses at the .05 level of significance by the independent t-test, the results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean score of the treatment group and the control group on their ability to recognize the alphabet visually. There also was no statistically significant difference between the mean score of the treatment group and the control group on the ability to recall the alphabet auditorally. Further research was recommended.