Now showing items 41-60 of 80

    • Events Indicating the Start of Behavioral Momentum in Men's Division I-A Intercollegiate Basketball Games

      Crandall, Kyle R.; The College at Brockport (2003-06-01)
      The purpose of this study was to determine which events indicate the start of behavioral momentum in men's Division I-A intercollegiate basketball games. The researcher videotaped 15 televised games, and recorded offensive and defensive events for both teams in sequence on a frequency chart. Each event was assigned a specific momentum point value. Defensive events began a period of momentum 50% of the time, and offensive events began a period of momentum 50% of the time. A chi-square analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between a defensive event and an offensive event in relation to the start of a period of behavioral momentum. Once a period of momentum was established, the team with momentum outscored the opponent 94. 7% of the time during the given momentum period. However, there was no evidence to indicate the team that established more momentum periods during a game had a better chance of winning the contest. The use of a time-out called by the non-momentum team was determined to be an effective intervention to end the period of momentum. The instrument used in this study was found to be more objective and sensitive than previously used instruments, but future research is necessary to further develop and validate an instrument to reliably measure periods of momentum.
    • Associations between Family Factors and Pre-adolescent Children’s Fitness

      Scheidt, Douglas M.; Bellnier, Kim Lizabeth; The College at Brockport (1996-05-01)
      This study examined the associations between family factors including: parental support/involvement, parental exercise behavior, parental rewards, children's perceptions of parental exercise behavior and children's fitness. The data were collected via a questionnaire for parents and a questionnaire for the fifth grade children from The Village Elementary School in Hilton, New York. The PACER test for cardiorespiratory endurance from the FITNESSGRAM test battery was also administered to the fifth grade students. Only paternal behaviors were significantly related to children's fitness. Therefore, a post hoc analysis was conducted to examine possible gender differences. For the variables of parental involvement/support, and parental exercise behavior there was a statistically significant relationship found between paternal involvement, paternal exercise habits and girls' fitness. In addition, there was a significant association found between girls' perceptions of father's exercise behavior and girls' fitness. There was no relationship found between parental rewards and children's fitness. Children's activity was significantly associated with their own fitness and children's perceptions of their parent's exercise behavior was correlated with their parent's self-report of personal exercise behavior. Implications of this study include the importance of father's modeling of exercise and its relationship with daughter's fitness.
    • An Appraisal of the Implementation Process of Sport Policy in Ghana

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Baba, Jatong Ahmed; The College at Brockport (2000-04-01)
      To implement policy, the local implementers must find a way to make sense of the goals, assumptions, and expectations associated with the policy and to reconcile them with their own organizational culture. In doing this, problems and conflicts may arise as a result of several factors that seem unavoidable and desirable from the bottom-up perspective. Several policy reforms and reorganization of administrative departments of sport in Ghana have not succeeded to arrest the rate of performance decline. It appears that the implementation process is much more complex than the introduction of a few administrative adjustments. The focus of this study was to identify the strategies and problems of the implementation process of current sport policy in Ghana. The results will contribute to a better understanding of the phenomenon and help implementers modify their strategies as well as develop their own coping mechanisms to survive the tide of the decline in sport performance. The principal data collection technique was the administration of a structured questionnaire to 40 subjects purposively selected for their key role in the implementation process in Ghana. Data obtained was augmented with the review of available documents deemed relevant to the study. The qualitative method of analysis was used because it was deemed more relevant in understanding the phenomenon under investigation. An analysis of the data identified several problems and challenges. Some of the major problems were the acute financial constraints that implementers encounter, over-dependence on meager grants from the government, differential government treatment of sport agencies, and over-centralized management control. The study also identified some of the challenges that the implementation process faces such as: the lack of discretionary powers to allow decentralized agencies to make decisions based on existing constraints, the lack of motivation and commitment by implementers to compete for private sector resources, and absence of authority and/or commitment by implementers to employ other strategies in the acquisition of resources beyond current traditional sources.
    • Effect of Stroke Rate on the Velocity/Time Curve of a Rowing Shell

      Puthoff, Martilu; Bernfield, John S.; The College at Brockport (1977-08-01)
      The 1976 U. S. Olympic eight oared crew was filmed (16 mm, 70 FPS) rowing six trials each at stroke rates of 37, 39, and 41 st/min. Shell instantaneous velocity was calculated and plotted for positions throughout the stroke cycle and a cubic spline curve fit to these data points. Time and percentage of total time for leg drive, upper body drive, transition, hands and upper body away, seat movement, and blades to water phases of the stroke cycle were determined. In addition, actual stroke rate, boat average velocity, and curve amplitude were calculated for each trial. Data was ranked by stroke rate and average velocity and a correlation matrix constructed to examine the relationships between variables. Minimum shell velocity occurred approximately 27% into the leg drive phase and maximum velocity was reached during the middle of the seat movement phase. Average shell velocity was found to be positively related to stroke rate (r = .66). Data analysis indicated that boat average velocity was increased by spending more total time exerting force with the legs, and was related to a rapid acceleration of power during the drive phase and a decreased time for recovery.
    • Changing Attitudes toward Physically Disabled persons using a Videotape Sport Intervention

      Short, Francis X.; Bett, Allan; The College at Brockport (1991-08-01)
      The study investigated the effect of a videotape intervention on the attitudes toward physically disabled persons. The subjects were 86 elementary and secondary students from the same school district. Utilizing a stratified random sampling technique, subjects were assigned to control and experimental groups for each age range (11 to 13 and 16 to 19z0. All subjects completed the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons Scale, Form 0, on three occasions with two-week intervals. The experimental group witnessed a 17-minute videotape of a wheelchair basketball game before the second administration. Results of the study indicated that the experimental group experienced a positive gain in attitude between the first and second administrations while the control group did not. This positive gain, however, decreased by the third administration but remained significantly higher than the first administration. The subject's age was not a significant factor in attitude change. The study concluded that a sport videotape is an effective way to change attitudes toward disabled persons but that the resultant change decreases over time.
    • Adapted Physical Education at the State University of New York College at Brockport, (1968-1993)

      Winnick, Joseph; Biata, Kevin Andrew; The College at Brockport (1999-07-01)
      This study was designed to record and summarize accomplishments associated with the adapted physical education program at SUNY Brockport from 1968 to 1993. Information was collected from a variety of primary and secondary sources and accomplishments were summarized as they pertained to four areas related to the adapted physical education program: professional preparation, funded research, athletic services, and faculty. In summary, the SUNY Brockport master's degree concentration in adapted physical education was implemented in 1968 and was the first in the United States. For 21 years between 1971 and 1993 the concentration was financially assisted by the U.S. Department of Education. In 1981, an undergraduate concentration in adapted physical education was initiated. Between 1968 and 1993, three major research projects related to the physical fitness of individuals with disabilities were funded by the U.S. Department of Education. In regard to athletic services, Brockport hosted several games at the county, state, and international levels. In the first 25 years, 10 individuals served as faculty members in association with the professional preparation program. Dr. Francis X. Short served as a faculty member in the professional preparation program, as a researcher on funded research projects, and as a contributor to other service activities from 1979. Dr. Winnick began at Brockport in 1965 and he was responsible for initiating both the graduate and undergraduate professional preparation programs; directing funded professional preparation and research projects, and contributing to on-campus athletic activities for the entire first 25 years of the program.
    • An Analysis of the Qualifications and Perceived Effectiveness of Athletic Directors in the Maryland Public Secondary School Athletic Association

      Beck, Bonnie; Bell, Janice A.; The College at Brockport (1979-08-01)
      The study identified through questionnaire format, the personal characteristics and professional qualifications of athletic directors in the member schools of the Maryland Public Secondary School Athletic Association. Also determined was the essentiality of the listed qualifications for the position of athletic director. The following was found about the responding athletic directors: 72.5 percent were between 30 and 49 years of age, 7.4 percent were female, and less than 6 percent were Negro. Additional findings were: 26 of the 47 qualifications were rated as essential, the rank-order of qualifications differed according to the size of the school, athletic directors and principals agreed on the essential qualifications, "related" education courses was the most important category, and intercollegiate and interscholastic athletic directors agreed on the order of essential qualifications for the position of athletic director. The athletic directors in the Maryland Public Secondary School Athletic Association were found to be well qualified in terms of general education, coaching experience, sports participation, and professional involvement, but not as well qualified in terms of administrative experience and "related" education courses.
    • Descriptive Analysis of Management Techniques Employed by Ghanaian Physical Education Teachers

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Akuffo, Patrick Boafo; The College at Brockport (2000-05-01)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the managerial skills employed by Ghanaian physical education teachers focusing on the senior secondary school level to determine the time for management of the lessons. The instrument used in collecting the data was the University College of Education of Winneba Instrument for Collecting Managerial Data (UCEW-ICOMAD) adapted from existing instruments by Siedentop and Siedentop and Rife. The subjects for the study comprised eleven senior secondary school teachers from Winneba and Tamale and their students. Thirty-six lessons were observed and analyzed using percentages and mean scores. The results indicated that the mean managerial time for all the observations was 22%, a figure that confirms previous research findings.
    • Dimensions Coaching Performance: Determining the Validity and Reliability of the State University of New York College at Brockport Student Athlete Assessment Form (SAAF)

      Stuart, Moira; Lund, Gregory W.; The College at Brockport (1998-07-01)
      Literature pertaining to the evaluation of coaches concurs that the process of evaluating coaches should be formalized and specific (Leland, 1988; Levy, 1989; Stier, 1983; MacLean & Chelladurai, 1995). SUNY Brockport has employed the Student Athlete Assessment Form (hereafter referred to as the SAAF), to evaluate the effectiveness of its coaches at the end of each athletic season. Despite being used in various forms for 14 years as a significant data source for the overall evaluation of coaches, the validity and reliability of the SAAF are unknown. This study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the SAAF. Between fall 1986 and spring 1991, over 800 student-athletes completed the SAAF. The data were collected and stored, but further analysis had not been performed. Principal Components Factor Analysis with a varimax rotation was performed to develop factors. Only those factors which exceeded an eigenvalue of 1.0 during initial extraction, were retained in the final analysis. Six reliable factors were extracted and subsequently named Athlete Enjoyment, Coach Communication Style, Coaching Skills, Coaches' Behavior, Coaches' Sport Knowledge, and Overall Satisfaction.
    • Group Differences in Balance between Individuals with and without Intellectual Disabilities Following a Progressive Overload Powerlifting Program

      Kozub, Francis M.; Collier, Douglas; Williams, Christopher; Rispoli, Thomas R.; The College at Brockport (2013-11-13)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a core-lifting program on functional balance in persons with intellectual disabilities (ages 27 - 43). This study compared balance results from a group of young adults with intellectual disabilities to a comparison group made up of college aged, typically developing peers (ages 21-27). The intervention lasted six weeks and included one day of progressive powerlifting using three sets of six to eight repetitions as outlined by the Special Olympics Powerlifting Coaches Guide (Special Olympics, 2011). An important research question for this study was to determine if strength improvements in the target population were linked to balance. Results included a lack of association between task analysis scores and balance as measured by force plates (p > .05). Further posttest strength findings resulted in the comparison group significantly outscoring the experimental group on maximum squat rate of force development (ROFD), average squat ROFD, and squat maximum force, F(1, 15) = 5.19, p < .05, F(1, 15) = 21.99, p < .05, F(1, 15) = 28.02, p < .05 respectively. With respect to strength changes over the intervention, the experimental group did not improve in strength over the six week intervention (p > .05). Finally, no relationship was found between balance and strength during pre or posttesting which contradicts the notion that strength gains are associated with balance in these participants with intellectual disabilities. In summary, the intervention length was targeted as too short to achieve the desired strength changes.
    • Inservice Education Needs of Physical Educators to Integrate Students with Handicapping Conditions into Regular Programs

      Winnick, Joseph; Peck, Dianne Carol; The College at Brockport (1981-06-01)
      Inservice education needs of physical educators to integrate students with handicapping conditions into regular programs were investigated. The Inservice Education Needs-Assessment Inventory (IENAI) and information sheet were mailed to two hundred physical educators who were members of the New York State Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (NYSAHPER). A total of eighty-four responses (42%) were received including nine responses which were incomplete. Results showed that physical educators have need of developing, in rank order, knowledge of: assessment tests; pupil placement and equipment alternatives; supportive services; limitations and needs of pupils; legislative implications; individualizing instruction; integration techniques and task analysis; first aid; and psychological functioning and their ability to determine present level of performance. Physical educators expressed little need for developing a knowledge of standards of assessment, or in developing a positive attitude toward students with handicapping conditions. A positive, but not statistically significant, correlation was found in the rank ordering of the category needs of physical educators as a function of having taught integrated classes or "special" classes, having graduate education in Special Physical Education or Special Education, having undergraduate education in Special Physical Education, or having attended inservice workshops. The mean scores for eight of the eleven categories of those physical educators who have attended inservice workshops were lower, however, (indicating less need) than the mean scores of those physical educators who have not attended inservice workshops.
    • Training Cooperating Teachers to Conference with Students of University College of Education of Winneba during Teaching Practice

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Amui, Harriet Naki; The College at Brockport (2000-08-01)
      The purpose of the study was to train cooperating teachers to supervise student teachers during teaching practice at University College of Education of Winneba. The University College of Education of Winneba Cooperating Teachers' Feedback Instrument was used to collect data. A total of five cooperating teachers and ten undergraduate students were utilized for the study. The cooperating teachers who had never done supervision of student teachers were trained to use The U.C.E.W-CTFI to collect data on student teachers' feedback which was used during conferencing to provide feedback on the student teachers' teaching. The baseline data and Intervention revealed that frequency and quality of feedback increased with cooperating teachers as well as the feedback of student teachers during their teaching.
    • The New York State Collegiate Track and Field Association

      Short, Francis X.; O'Gorman, Edward D.; The College at Brockport (1997-09-01)
      The purpose of this research was to describe in detail the history of the New York State Collegiate Track and Field Association. The sources of data used for analysis were the oral histories of 12 current and former (retired) coaches of the Association, meeting minutes and the constitution of the Association, as well as any available correspondence between athletic directors and coaches. There were 25 questions asked during the interviews conducted of the coaches ranging from philosophical problems to general administrative problems the Association may have encountered over the past 47 years. The researcher verified statements made by former and current coaches by cross-referencing statements made during interviews with those appearing in meeting minutes and other references made in interviews. This approach yielded an historical narrative that describes the New York State Collegiate Track and Field Association.
    • A Descriptive Analysis of Selected Personality Traits of Student Teachers in Physical Education

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Lu, Chunlei; The College at Brockport (2000-12-01)
      This study investigated changes in six personality traits over a course of a teaching semester. The personality traits measured included anxiety, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, motivation, and cooperation. An adapted Psychological Skills Inventory for Sport (PSIS) questionnaire was administered to student teachers before (PRE), at mid-term (MID), and immediate after (POST) a student teaching period. Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance (rm MANOVA) and rm ANOVA and t-test of Scheffe were used to analyze differences for each the selected personality traits in terms of time (PRE, MID, and POST). The results reported significant differences in anxiety, concentration, confidence in terms of PRE, MID, and POST. It was also found that mental preparation changes significantly in terms of the time of PRE and POST. Significant differences in terms of time were not found for motivation and cooperation.
    • The Effects of Massed and Distributed Practice on the Performance of a Gross Motor Skill

      Christina, William B.; The College at Brockport (1974-01-01)
      The effects of massed and distributed practice on the basketball dribbling performance of fourth grade boys was investigated. Fifteen massed practice (MP) and 15 distributed practice (DP) subjects were randomly selected from an intact class of 37. The criterion task (dribbling a basketball) and four unrelated tasks (alternate activity tasks) were employed in the investigation. Subjects practicing under MP conditions received one 6 minute practice trial on all tasks during a single practice session. Subjects practicing under DP conditions received two 3 minute practice trials on all tasks during a single practice session. The total time spent on the criterion task and alternate activities was the same for each group. The total time was 30 minutes for the entire study and six minutes during a single practice session. The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) on pre-test performance scores showed no significant differences occurring between the practice groups. The results of the ANOVA, and those of the analysis of covariance, on post-test performance scores showed significant differences to be occurring. This study found evidence to support the hypothesis that DP was more effective in the performance of a gross motor task within an applied setting than was MP.
    • A Comparison of the Effects of Weight Training on Strength and Girth Measures of Prepubescent and Postpubescent Boys

      Winnick, Joseph; Short, Francis X.; Jones, Brian C.; The College at Brockport (1989-05-01)
      This study was designed to investigate the effects of a weight training program on strength and girth measures of prepubescent and postpubescent boys. Forty-nine subjects participated in this study. Thirty-four subjects were trained and 15 were untrained. The trained group consisted of 16 prepubescent subjects. All subjects were given a pretest which consisted of two girth measures and five strength measures. The trained group participated in an eight-week weight training program. The untrained group participated in regular physical education classes. At the conclusion of the eight weeks, both groups were posttested using the same procedures as the pretest. Data were analyzed using multivariate and univariate analyses. The trained group significantly outperformed the untrained group and both prepubescent and postpubescent boys improved their performance. It was also found that although overall performance generally favored postpubescent boys, pubescent status was not a significant factor on the development of strength and girth measures employed in this study.
    • Head and Black Assistant Coaches in the National Football League: A Comparison of Sociological Profiles

      Melnick, Merrill J.; Livingston, James; The College at Brockport (1992-09-01)
      The study attempted to determine empirically if Black assistant coaches in the National Football League (NFL) possessed the “necessary” credentials to be a head coach in the NFL. The problem was investigated by developing profiles of head White and assistant Black coaches and then comparing the credentials of the assistant Black coaches to those of the head White coaches. If the Black assistants did not possess the same credentials as the head White coaches, then the absence of head Black coaches in the NFL could be justified by that fact. However, if the Black assistants’ credentials were equal to or better than those of the head coaches then the all-too-familiar explanation, "Blacks lack the necessities,” could no longer justify the lack of head Black coaches in the NFL. All 28 head and 45 Black assistant coaches in the NFL during the 1988-89 season were subjects in the study. Data about each coach were collected, and modal coach profiles were constructed. When the profiles were compared, it was found that NFL Black assistant coaches generally possessed the same achieved occupational credentials as White NFL head coaches and therefore, there is reason to believe that race may have been a factor ln the hiring of head coaches in the NFL.
    • A Comparison of Six Personality Factors Between Professional, College, and High School Basketball Players

      Smith, Daniel; Bowe, William G.; The College at Brockport (1994-12-01)
      This investigation was concerned with comparing six personality factors among professional, college, and high school basketball players. The different factors measured include competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation levels, and leadership skills. A self-evaluation questionnaire was administered to five basketball teams (two high school, two college, and one professional). Each subject's questionnaire was scored and a Mental Toughness Profile for each athlete was developed. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there is a difference in personality factors among basketball players at the professional, collegiate, and high school levels. An Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences in each of the six personality factors between each of three groups. Also used was a Multiple Comparison Test for the ANOVA. The statistical significance of the results was determined using the .05 level. The results of this investigation indicated that there are personality differences between professional, college, and high school basketball players. A significant difference was demonstrated between all three groups in all the factors except leadership skills. The Multiple Comparison Test revealed that high school and professional basketball players differed significantly in all of the categories except leadership skills. The high school and college players differed significantly only in concentration skills and average scores for the combination of all six subscales. College and professional players differed significantly only in trait self-confidence. One conclusion in this investigation was that the Mental Toughness Profile used was a strong predictor of skill level when comparing professional and high school basketball players.
    • Reliability of Selected Health and Performance Related Test Items from the Project Unique Physical Fitness Test Inventory

      Shultz, Barry; Daquila, Gene A.; The College at Brockport (1982-09-01)
      This study was conducted to determine several psychometric qualities on selected items from the Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test Inventory. Coefficients of reliability (consistency within day and between day) were determined by intraclass techniques. The standard error of measurement was also determined for the selected items. In addition, the appropriate criterion score was determined by an analysis of variance and collaborated by an analysis of the superdiagonal of the inter-trial correlation matrix. For the multi-trial test items, 50 nonimpaired youth, 50 visually impaired youth, 50 auditory impaired youth, and 50 orthopedically impaired youth between the ages of 10 and 17, were randomly selected from the various schools participating in the Project UNIQUE study. Subjects for the single-trial items included 50 nonimpaired youth, 47 visually impaired youth, and 50 auditory impaired youth, between the ages of 10 and 17 randomly selected from at least two different schools in the Rochester, N.Y. and Buffalo, N.Y. areas. The results of this study showed that most of the test items were reliable. In addition, the reliability of the test items for the impaired groups was, in general, equal to or better than the reliability coefficients for the nonimpaired group. The results also indicated that in most cases the Project UNIQUE scoring procedures were appropriate, although some changes were recommended.
    • Effects of an Intercollegiate Sport Season on Selected Personality Traits and Mental Preparation Skills

      Smith, Daniel; Drake, Benjamin C.; The College at Brockport (1997-05-01)
      This study investigated changes in five personality traits and the use of mental preparation skills by college athletes over the course of a sport season. The traits measured included achievement motivation, competitive trait anxiety, concentration, leadership, and trait self-confidence. The mental preparation skills included imagery, stress management, goal-setting, psychic energy management, and attention. A self-evaluation questionnaire was administered to Fall and Winter intercollegiate athletes at the State University of New York, College at Brockport. The participating male athletic teams included soccer, football, basketball, ice hockey, cross-country, and wrestling. The participating female athletic teams included soccer, field hockey, gymnastics, volleyball, basketball, cross-country, and tennis. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if the personality traits and mental preparation skills of athletes change over the course of a sport season. It was found that five of the six personality traits and the mental preparation skills did not change. Competitive trait anxiety was the only variable that significantly changed from pre- to post-season.