Now showing items 21-40 of 80

    • The Use of Paraprofessionals in General Physical Education (GPE): Perceptions of Status, Attitude, Need, and Training

      Lieberman, Lauren J.; Maurer, Kameron Ryan; The College at Brockport (2004-07-01)
      Research on the use of paraprofessionals in education has been conducted from a variety of perspectives. Studies have been done to investigate how paraprofessionals might be used in GPE and whether they have an impact in GPE classes. From the special education perspective, there is insubstantial material available about what is occurring in inclusive classrooms. The purpose of this study was to explore: 1) specifically how paraprofessionals are being used in GPE inclusive classrooms; 2) what the feelings/attitudes of GPE teachers and paraprofessionals are with regard to their involvement in GPE, 3) perceived need for the use of paraprofessionals in GPE inclusive classrooms, and 4) what type of information should be incorporated into an in-service training session for both GPE teachers and paraprofessionals. One hundred and three participants, thirty-nine General Physical Education teachers, and sixty-four paraprofessionals completed surveys. The titles of paraprofessional and teacher aide are comparable to one another with this study. An analysis of how paraprofessionals are used, their attitudes, need, and preferred items for in-service training revealed similar findings from two groups, paraprofessionals and GPE teachers. Some questions were posed on a Likert Scale and others required open-ended responses. Surveys were analyzed by describing frequencies (percentages), averages of Likert Scale questions, and themes were created for the qualitative questions, using constant comparison. Results indicated that GPE teachers and paraprofessionals were generally content with their present status and how services of the paraprofessionals are being used. Paraprofessionals were more content than GPE teachers. It was also clear that there has been a minimal amount of training regarding how to use paraprofessionals in GPE, and many GPE teachers and paraprofessionals had opinions regarding topics they might want to be included in an in-service training session. This suggests that both groups are willing to take steps to utilize paraprofessional services.
    • The Relationship between Teacher Enthusiasm and Student Involvement During Motor Skill Activities

      Hurwitz, Richard; McElroy, Eileen; The College at Brockport (1977-08-01)
      Due to the presumed effects a teacher's enthusiasm (T.E.) has upon a student, and the importance of student involvement (S.I.) in an activity, this investigation studied these behaviors as they occurred in the physical education setting. Two specifically designed descriptive-analytic coding systems were developed appropriate to the target behaviors. The subjects were five physical education teachers and a randomly selected student from one of each of their classes. The subjects were video taped, with a separate camera for each teacher and student. Three coders per system were trained until at least 80% inter-coder reliability was attained. The coders then coded the video tapes and mean scores for each teacher and student were computed. Three relationships between teacher enthusiasm and student involvement were investigated (T.E. ten seconds prior to S.I.; T.E. thirty seconds prior to S.I. ; and T. E. every ten seconds during S.I.). Significant differences were not found in four of the five teacher-student pairs. A significant, negative correlation was found between T.E. and S.I. in one teacher-student pair, as they were studied in each of the three associations. It is recommended that further research be conducted to establish additional tools to study teacher and student behaviors as they occur during the teaching-learning process.
    • Patterns of Physical Activity Participation, Sources of Social Support and Friendship Dynamics among Children with Low Vision

      Lieberman, Lauren J.; MacVicar, Janet Mary; The College at Brockport (2007-06-25)
      Research was conducted to assess the patterns of physical activity participation, sources of social support and friendship dynamics among children with low vision. Twenty-four male and female children between the ages of 8 and 14 years with low vision (20/70 to 20/400) completed a questionnaire related to their participation in physical activity. Results indicate that the children are active at school in physical education classes, at home and in community recreation programs. The research shows that they also have significant social supports and their friendship dynamics are positive.
    • The Perceptions of Division Ill Senior Woman Administrators on Sexual Discrimination in Intercollegiate Athletics

      Schneider, Robert C.; Hay, Traci A.; The College at Brockport (2003-06-01)
      This study examined the perceptions of Division Ill Senior Woman Administrators (SWAs) on three forms of sexual discrimination in intercollegiate athletic departments: (a) gender inequity and overt discrimination, (b) sexual harassment, and (c) artificial barriers in employment. The effect of sexual discrimination on the employment of women in the athletic profession was also examined. A Likert scale survey was sent to randomly selected SWAs at NCAA Division Ill member institutions. Descriptive statistics revealed that Division Ill SWAs do not perceive sexual discrimination to exist in a global form in intercollegiate athletics. However, a perception of sexual discrimination was found in the subgroups of overt discrimination and artificial barriers in employment. Globally, sexual discrimination was not perceived to have an effect on the decline of, and low percentage of females working in intercollegiate athletics.
    • Perceptions of Artificial Turf Regarding the Effects of Football Playing Surfaces on Injury Rates

      Schneider, Robert C.; Hammond, James; The College at Brockport (2002-12-01)
      The perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III college football coaches (based on their interactions with interscholastic and intercollegiate football players) regarding the effects of football playing surfaces on athlete injury was investigated. The subjects were all (237 total) NCAA Division III football coaches. Based on the existing literature and input from a panel of expert Division III coaches, a questionnaire was formed. Results showed that 48% of the coaches surveyed, strongly agreed or agreed that artificial turf poses a greater risk to injury than natural grass.
    • The Relationship between the Body Mass Index and the Daily Physical Activity of Children and their Parents

      Brusseau, Timothy A.; Harmon, Jennifer; The College at Brockport (2012-09-20)
      Obesity is a problem that children locally and across the nation are facing. The objective of this study was to compare fifth grade children's BMI and daily physical activity to their parents' BMI and daily physical activity. The participants were 36 children from a Northeastern US urban elementary school in grade five and 18 of their parents. The parents and children wore the Yamax Digiwalker pedometer for 7 consecutive days in March 2012. Height/weight of the children was obtained and converted into BMI scores. For five consecutive school days (Tuesday-Monday) the children reported their previous day's step counts in the presence of the researchers. The parents self-reported their daily step counts on a log sheet. Calculation of the means, standard deviations, paired and independent t tests, ANOVA's, and Pearson correlations were utilized to analyze data. Results suggested that children took 9,535 (SD=2,594) steps/day, while female parents took 5,209 (SD=2,832) steps, and male parents took 10,161 (SD=7,010) steps per day. Children were significantly more active than their female parents and less active than their male parents. Boys took more steps than girls. Caucasian children took more steps than African American and Hispanic children. Healthy BMI children took more weekly steps than overweight and obese BMI children. Children took significantly more steps on physical education days than non-physical education days. Realistic programs in an urban area ought to be developed where children and their parents can be physically active together. When children and their parents participate in physical activity, and have a healthy lifestyle, they can be equipped to maintain a healthy body weight.
    • Pre-service Teachers' Assumption of Responsibility for the Academic Successes and Failures of their Students in Physical Education

      Ajongbah, Kaduabu S.; The College at Brockport (2000-09-01)
      Effective teachers communicate their expectations to students and hold them responsible for accomplishing tasks. Expectations of teachers for their students can greatly influence student learning. The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which pre-service teachers assumed responsibility for the academic success and failures of their students in the classroom or gymnasium. A total of seventy subjects (N=70) participated in the study. The subjects enrolled in the student teaching program of the Department of Physical Education and Sport at the State University of New York, College at Brockport. The Responsibility for Student Achievement Questionnaire was administered before and after student teaching. A t-test was conducted to find out whether there was any significant difference in their responses. A comparison of means indicated that females (50.44%) accepted responsibility for student failure. The male pre-service teachers (54%) stated that the teacher should take the credit for student success. The results of this study are in consonance with similar findings by Schempp (1985), Guskey (1981), Brawdy and Byra (1995), and Behets (1995) who concluded that pre-service teachers must be held responsible for the learning outcomes of their students. The acceptance by teachers of the responsibility for the academic successes or failures of students might encourage a greater initiative for promoting positive learning outcomes.
    • The Effects of a Sudden or Gradual Withdrawal from a Chronic Exercise Pattern on Anxiety Levels of Well Conditioned Athletes

      Frederick, Bruce; Fitzsimmons, Edward P.; The College at Brockport (1983-08-20)
      Due to increasing numbers of people developing high levels of cardiovascular (CV) fitness there are correspondingly more leaving these elevated states for varied reasons. The present investigation explored the possible need for a taper from a chronic exercise program. Anxiety was used as a possible indication of behavioral adaptations to a decreasing level of cardiovascular and muscle endurance levels. Eighty-two conditioned subjects and thirty unconditioned subjects were pre-tested for cardiovascular levels and A-State levels of anxiety to three groups each detraining at different rates and styles. All 112 subjects were post-tested for CV and A-State levels after a two week interval. The unconditioned group showed low pre and post levels of CV fitness and low pre-levels of A-State anxiety. This low level of A-State took a large upward directional shift on A-State post-tests (37.6 to 40.8). The conditioned groups, who were detrained, dropped in levels of CV condition as per their level of modification of detraining. Their levels of A-State anxiety dropped slightly over the two week detraining interval. Significance was found at the .05 level between and among subjects for the changes in CV levels. No significance was found for the changes in A-State anxiety levels. Some directional trends could be seen as well as a possible buffering effect on A-State levels from elevated levels of CV fitness.
    • A Conceptual Framework for Physical Education Based Upon Zen Teachings and Practices of Mind and Body Unity

      Fraleigh, Warren P.; Fisher, John M.; The College at Brockport (1990-08-01)
      A conceptual framework for physical education based on Zen teachings and practices of mind and body unity is composed of five aspects. First, as theory the beliefs and assumptions of mind and body unity as taught and practiced in the Zen tradition are clarified and adapted as the philosophical foundation of the conceptual framework. Personal development is identified as the value orientation. Second, the concept of right minded-ness and Ki (Chi) is identified as the fundamental principle underlying the achievement of mind and body unity. Third, the five concepts of the "Go-i" of Zen training are identified as the five concepts to be used as the conceptual framework. Fourth, the "Go-i" of Zen training is adopted as the basis for structuring, selecting and sequencing activities in the local physical education curriculum. The fifth aspect clarifies the relationship between teaching, learning, and training in the process of personal development.
    • The Effects of Education and Experience on the Attitudes of Pre-service Physical Educators toward Teaching Children with Disabilities

      Haegele, Justin A.; The College at Brockport (2009-05-01)
      The education of children with disabilities has changed dramatically since 1970. Litigation and legislation have guaranteed students with disabilities a free and appropriate public education in an environment which would be least restrictive. This has placed some students with teachers who may not have a positive attitude toward teaching children with disabilities. Research has identified several variables which effect an educators' attitude toward teaching children with disabilities- the two most prominent being previous experience and education. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of education and experience on the attitudes of pre-service physical education educators toward teaching children with disabilities. Pre-service physical educators from The College at Brockport, State University of New York, who were enrolled in an introduction to adapted physical education course, were asked to complete a modified version of the Physical Educators' Attitudes toward Teaching the Handicapped (PEATH) questionnaire before and after their experience in the course, which included field experience. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the pre-service teachers' attitudes toward teaching children with disabilities before and after the course. Even though results were not significant, there was a trend toward pre-service attitudes becoming more favorable. The trend suggests that higher education institutions can create a positive and effective adapted physical education course in physical education teacher preparation courses that may increase positive attitudes. The lack of significance suggests that more can be done to continue to improve attitude.
    • The Effects of Participating in a Cross-Country Ski/Exercise Program Upon the Development of Physical and Motor Fitness in Mentally Retarded Adults

      Stier, William; Decker, James T.; The College at Brockport (1983-06-01)
      This study compared the development of elements of physical and motor fitness in MR adults who participated in an eight week cross-country ski/exercise program with MR adults who did not participate in such a program. The subjects were 36 MR men and women ranging in age from 18 to 36 years and in IQ from 31 to 82. The subjects were pre- and post- tested using a modified version of the AAHPER/Kennedy Foundation Special Fitness Test for Mildly Mentally Retarded Persons. The data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA for each variable and graphic post hoc analyses were calculated when interactions were significant in any of the ANOVAs. Results of the univariate analyses showed participation in the cross-country ski/exercise program did not significantly improve physical and motor fitness. On five of the seven test items (9-minute run, arm-hanging, shuttle run, long jump, and sit and reach) significant trial by group interaction effects provided evidence that the cross-country ski/exercise program was superior to the control group program (no adapted physical education) in maintaining physical and motor fitness levels. Results of this study are in accord with previous research which has indicated that MR individuals who are given programs of physical education benefit from such programs, and demonstrate a better rate of improvement than MR individuals who do not participate in physical education programs.
    • Validity of the Squat-Thrust Test Component of the New York State Physical Fitness Test as a Measure of Cardiovascular Endurance

      Goodhartz, Natalie; Dorman, Mary Bates; The College at Brockport (1988-01-01)
      Many schools require the New York State Physical Fitness Test to be administered to grades four through twelve, at the beginning and end of the school year. The squat-thrusts are used to measure endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine if the squat-thrust test component of the New York state Physical Fitness Test was a valid test of aerobic endurance. Cooper's Twelve-Minute Run/Walk Test was used as the criterion measure of aerobic capacity. Eight hundred and thirty-six students were tested on the twelve-minute run/walk test and the squat-thrust test. Twenty students stopped while taking the twelve-minute run/walk test, and their results were not used. Students tested were in the fourth grade, eighth grade, eleventh grade and twelfth grade. Data were statistically analyzed by the Pearson r. The correlation coefficient was +0.30. This correlation coefficient did not indicate a significant relationship between the twelve-minute run/walk test and the squat-thrust test. It is recommended, based on these results, that Cooper’s twelve-minute run/walk test be substituted for the squat-thrust test to measure aerobic capacity. The researcher also suggests that the squat-thrust test be assessed for suitability as a measure of anaerobic capability.
    • A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Exemplar Selection and Influence on American and English Thirteen-Year-Olds

      Melnick, Merrill J.; Dodd, Sarah-Jane; The College at Brockport (1993-07-12)
      The problem was to identify the public and private exemplars of American and English 13-year-olds, understand the reasons behind their choices and determine influence levels. 50 subjects were selected from an American junior high school; 50 more from an English comprehensive school of comparable size and location. Socio-economic similarity was tested using the Hollingshead two-factor index of social position (1957). Only subjects falling in class groups II or Ill ("middle class") were studied. The total sample included 18 English females, 18 English males, 18 American females and 19 American males. Data were gathered using a paper-and-pencil instrument. Results were categorized using Harris' (1987) schemas for exemplar domain and attributes. Finally, exemplar influence was determined using McEvoy and Erickson's (1981) five-point typology. Subjects in both countries more frequently selected male exemplars, and considered more people "admired" than "heroic." American subjects chose more private exemplars than the English. Entertainment exemplars were selected most often by females, and sports exemplars by males. Influence level averaged 2.4 for English subjects and 2. 7 for American subjects on a scale of 1-5 (with one representing least influence). Only male subjects registered the highest level of influence.
    • Verbal Versus Active Play Learning: Their Effectiveness on Symbol Recall in Three and Four-Year-Old Children

      Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose; Dorman, Mark R.; The College at Brockport (1992-12-01)
      This study investigated the contribution of the motor activity learning medium (MALM) to the development of symbol recall in three and four-year-old children. Eighteen pre-schoolers from Gananda Day Care, in Macedon, New York, were used in this study. They were assigned to either a verbal learning group or an active learning group using a stratified random sampling technique. The children were pre-tested for prior knowledge of the symbols; pi, sigma, theta, and omega of the Greek alphabet. These symbols were taught to children in the verbal learning and active learning groups for thirty minutes for two consecutive days with verbal and active learning teaching methods respectively. A post-test was performed after the second day of instruction and the results were recorded. A retention follow-up test was performed ten days later and the results were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test of Differences. While a post-test and a ten-day follow-up test indicated a nonsignificant difference between the verbal learning and the active learning groups in performance, both groups showed gains on test scores. Although the results failed to show statistically significant differences in symbol recall between the two teaching methods, the mean scores for the active play group were higher for both the posttest and follow-up measures. The results showed a positive trend in favor of the active play method.
    • The Relationship between NCAA Volleyball Statistics and Team Performance in Women’s Intercollegiate Volleyball

      Short, Francis X.; Estabrook, Nancy L.; The College at Brockport (1996-08-01)
      The purpose of this investigation was to determine relationships among NCAA statistical categories and the success of women's intercollegiate volleyball teams. The investigator used 1994 NCAA box score statistics collected by the NCAA statistics department. These data were entered into a computer and analyzed using sub-programs from SPSSX. Means and standard deviations for each match statistic by match record and divisional alignment were run along with correlational coefficients for all statistics and indices of success (points per game, game record, and match record). Multiple regression equations were run to predict success as defined by points per game. Attack percentage was found to be the most important correlate of team success regardless of divisional alignment. Blocking was also important for Division I and II teams, but serving was more critical to Division III success. The resultant regression equations were able to account for 64-88 percent of the variance in predicting team success across the three divisions. The results demonstrated that success can be predicted to some extent in women's intercollegiate volleyball using NCAA match statistics, but prediction accuracy might be improved by including statistics currently missing from NCAA box scores (eg., passing accuracy).
    • Effect of Two Volleyball Arm Swings on Post-Impact Ball Velocity

      Short, Francis X.; Bowman, Jonathan A.; The College at Brockport (2001-07-01)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist between post-impact ball velocities generated by the bow-and-arrow arm swing (BAS) and circular arm swing (CS) in volleyball spiking. Ten female collegiate volleyball players were videotaped using two-dimensional cinematography. Markers were placed at the hip, shoulder, elbow wrist, end of the fingers, and the ball. Three videotaped trials of the BAS and the CS techniques for each subject were analyzed with Peak 5 Performance Analysis System. The mean post-impact ball velocity for the BAS was 12.72 m/s (SD = 1.30, SE = 0.41). The mean post-impact ball velocity for the CS was 13.26 m/s (SD = 1.49, SE = 0.47). A dependent t-test (t_(9) = -3.131) revealed significant differences (p = 0.012) between the CS and BAS post-impact ball velocity. No significant difference between CS and BAS pre-impact hand speed was found, which suggests that other factors (the time of contact between the hand and the ball and the transfer of angular momentum) affect ball velocity.
    • A Chronometric Analysis of the Effect of Sex and Sensory Modality on the Running Performance of Visually Handicapped Individuals

      Silva, John M., III; Chalmers, Bonnie Lynn; The College at Brockport (1979-08-01)
      The purpose of this study was to experimentally compare the effect of two sensory aids on the running performance of 40 female and 40 male visually handicapped subjects participating in a 40 yard dash. The subjects ranged in age from 6-21 and attended various schools and institutions in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. The subjects were blocked according to sex and randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions. Those assigned to treatment one utilized an audible goal locator. Those assigned to treatment two utilized a tactual guide wire. The subjects were tested individually. A timed performance score was recorded for each subject. A 2 x 2 factorial design for the variables of sex and sensory aid was used. The analysis of variance indicated that there was no significant difference in the scores of subjects utilizing an audible goal locator as compared to a tactual guide wire. A significant (p ? .001) main effect for sex was found. Visually handicapped males performed significantly faster than females. This finding supported research concerning visually impaired males and females on various physical performance tests. No significant interactive effect was noted for the variables of sex and sensory aid. Mean examination indicated that females performed slightly faster utilizing the audible goal locator while males performed slightly faster using the tactual guide wire. Suggestions were offered in an attempt to further research concerning performances of visually handicapped individuals, in various physical settings and for evaluating the effectiveness of sensory aids.
    • The Effects of Weight Training on Self-Esteem

      Smith, Daniel; Carpenter, Jeffrey; The College at Brockport (1991-12-02)
      The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of weight training on self-esteem. The investigator used a pretest-posttest randomized group design, using Fox' Physical Self-Perception Profile, in two high schools. The experimental group consisted of members of beginning weight training classes offered as part of the physical education curriculum. The control group was comprised of students in regular health classes. The investigation was conducted over a period of five weeks with three sessions per week for the experimental group. The weight training sessions lasted approximately 40 minutes and were supervised by district physical education teachers. Using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), results in two of the five subscales demonstrated that the experimental group improved significantly more than the control. In the other three subscales, the experimental group had greater improvement but no statistical significance was evident.
    • Instructional Preferences in Aquatics for Children with Visual Impairments and Their Instructors

      Cieslak, Fabiana; The College at Brockport (2013-12-01)
      The aim of this study was to determine which instructional strategies athletes with visual impairments and their coaches would prefer during swimming classes. Thirteen athletes with visual impairments and fourteen coaches participated in interviews to reveal their preferences. A thematic analysis was utilized to ensure the analysis was undertaken in a theoretically and methodologically sound manner. Three key themes emerged, each a compilation of a set of subthemes. The first theme, physical guidance, included a quicker learning process and passive and active learning. The second theme, tactile modeling, was comprised of barriers and better instruction. The final theme that emerged from the data was teaching strategies, which encapsulated subthemes it depends of the situation and child feedback. The results revealed an in depth analysis of children with visual impairments’ and coaches’ preferences in swimming. Additionally, results provided further assistance for teachers and professionals who work in the field of visual impairments and physical education.
    • The Effects of Toys, Prompts, and Flotation Devices on the Learning of Water Orientation Skills for Preschoolers with or without Developmental Delays

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Clawson, Cindy A.; The College at Brockport (1999-11-01)
      The work of children is play; and in that work, toys can be used to educate, provide enjoyment and help build the foundation of social skills. One of the guidelines from the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) regarding developmentally appropriate practice is that children learn through interacting with their environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of toys, prompts, and flotation devices on the learning of water orientation skills for preschoolers with or without developmental delays. The 42 participants (ages 3 - 5 yr., male/female) were volunteers from a community preschool aquatics program. They were pre- and posttested with the Water Orientation Skills Checklist - Advanced (WOC-A) developed by Killan, Arena-Ronde, and Bruno (1987). The children were recruited to either the control-19 or intervention- 23 groups. The children received swimming lessons for 4 weeks, 30 minutes twice a week. The control group lessons consisted of demonstration and practice and the intervention group lessons consisted of environmental arrangements enhanced with toys, prompts, and flotation devices. The data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric statistics. The findings demonstrated that with the Mann-Whitney z score of .33 at the .05 level, the toys, prompts, and flotation devices did not significantly enhance the preschoolers' learning of water orientation skills. An important finding, however, is that while the toys, prompts, and flotation devices did not enhance water skills, they also did not hinder the learning of swimming skills, as both groups' mean score of improvement was 11 points.