• A Chronometric Analysis of the Effect of Sex and Sensory Modality on the Running Performance of Visually Handicapped Individuals

      Silva, John M., III; Chalmers, Bonnie Lynn; The College at Brockport (8/1/1979)
      The purpose of this study was to experimentally compare the effect of two sensory aids on the running performance of 40 female and 40 male visually handicapped subjects participating in a 40 yard dash. The subjects ranged in age from 6-21 and attended various schools and institutions in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. The subjects were blocked according to sex and randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions. Those assigned to treatment one utilized an audible goal locator. Those assigned to treatment two utilized a tactual guide wire. The subjects were tested individually. A timed performance score was recorded for each subject. A 2 x 2 factorial design for the variables of sex and sensory aid was used. The analysis of variance indicated that there was no significant difference in the scores of subjects utilizing an audible goal locator as compared to a tactual guide wire. A significant (p ? .001) main effect for sex was found. Visually handicapped males performed significantly faster than females. This finding supported research concerning visually impaired males and females on various physical performance tests. No significant interactive effect was noted for the variables of sex and sensory aid. Mean examination indicated that females performed slightly faster utilizing the audible goal locator while males performed slightly faster using the tactual guide wire. Suggestions were offered in an attempt to further research concerning performances of visually handicapped individuals, in various physical settings and for evaluating the effectiveness of sensory aids.
    • A Clinical Assessment on the Role of the High School Athletic Director

      Stoldt, Kenneth Michael; The College at Brockport (8/1/1994)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the qualifications and methodologies of high school athletic directors working in New York State public schools which operate within the Section Five district. The study intends to identify tendencies which could prove to be the basis of strengths or weaknesses which are needed for the development of a successful athletic program. The study also intends to determine if there is a need for athletic directors to gain a higher level of professional preparation. This study hopes to offer many benefits. One major benefit will be to aid some practical solutions to the day to day athletic problems which arise. The second is to demonstrate the need for having a qualified person assume the role of athletic director. The intent of this study will be to survey the high school athletic directors in New York State Section Five District. The data will allow for closer examination of problem solving methodology, time management skills, organizational patterns, personnel qualifications, and many other characteristics of administration. It is believed that the data will provide evidence of similarities which exist between districts. After evaluating the data, one may be able to differentiate between characteristics as to their value to an athletic program or an administrator. Such data could prove to be valuable for an individual interested in pursuing a career in athletic administration. This investigation will examine the relationship between the position of athletic director and the personal credentials and/or job characteristics of the individual participants. Finally, several recommendations will be made for further research.
    • A Comparative Analysis of Cognitive Differences Among Female Elite and Nonelite High School Field Hockey Players and High School Physical Education Class Nonathletes

      Adams, Linda Berner; The College at Brockport (12/1/1991)
      The Empire State Games Western Scholastic Field Hockey Team (n = 14), a high school field hockey team (n = 15), and nonathletes in a high school physical education class (n = 9) were given a battery of tests and inventories to compare mental aspects such as abstract visual reasoning, concentration, sport-confidence, psychological skills relevant to exceptional performance, and competitive anxiety. Analyses included multivariate analysis of variance for each cognitive category, one way univariate analysis of variance for each subtest within a cognitive category, and a stepwise multiple regression technique to determine which tests made the greatest contribution to predicting group membership. Multiple analysis revealed that the elite group displayed significantly higher sport-confidence and selected psychological skills. Results of a stepwise multiple regression technique indicated that motivation, mental preparation, and team motivation accounted for 67% of the behavioral variance. A subsequent multivariate analysis within just the two field hockey groups revealed that the top half of the elite group displayed significantly higher trait sport-confidence and motivation than the bottom half of the nonelite group. A stepwise multiple regression analysis found that motivation, trait sport-confidence, state sport-confidence, and sequencing of information accounted for 99% of the behavioral variance. The results of this investigation indicated that there are cognitive differences already significant at the high school level, and that these factors influence the development of perceived competence.
    • A Comparison of Six Personality Factors Between Professional, College, and High School Basketball Players

      Smith, Daniel; Bowe, William G.; The College at Brockport (12/1/1994)
      This investigation was concerned with comparing six personality factors among professional, college, and high school basketball players. The different factors measured include competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation levels, and leadership skills. A self-evaluation questionnaire was administered to five basketball teams (two high school, two college, and one professional). Each subject's questionnaire was scored and a Mental Toughness Profile for each athlete was developed. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there is a difference in personality factors among basketball players at the professional, collegiate, and high school levels. An Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences in each of the six personality factors between each of three groups. Also used was a Multiple Comparison Test for the ANOVA. The statistical significance of the results was determined using the .05 level. The results of this investigation indicated that there are personality differences between professional, college, and high school basketball players. A significant difference was demonstrated between all three groups in all the factors except leadership skills. The Multiple Comparison Test revealed that high school and professional basketball players differed significantly in all of the categories except leadership skills. The high school and college players differed significantly only in concentration skills and average scores for the combination of all six subscales. College and professional players differed significantly only in trait self-confidence. One conclusion in this investigation was that the Mental Toughness Profile used was a strong predictor of skill level when comparing professional and high school basketball players.
    • A Comparison of the Effects of Weight Training on Strength and Girth Measures of Prepubescent and Postpubescent Boys

      Winnick, Joseph; Short, Francis X.; Jones, Brian C.; The College at Brockport (5/1/1989)
      This study was designed to investigate the effects of a weight training program on strength and girth measures of prepubescent and postpubescent boys. Forty-nine subjects participated in this study. Thirty-four subjects were trained and 15 were untrained. The trained group consisted of 16 prepubescent subjects. All subjects were given a pretest which consisted of two girth measures and five strength measures. The trained group participated in an eight-week weight training program. The untrained group participated in regular physical education classes. At the conclusion of the eight weeks, both groups were posttested using the same procedures as the pretest. Data were analyzed using multivariate and univariate analyses. The trained group significantly outperformed the untrained group and both prepubescent and postpubescent boys improved their performance. It was also found that although overall performance generally favored postpubescent boys, pubescent status was not a significant factor on the development of strength and girth measures employed in this study.
    • A Comparison of the Motor Development of Deaf Children of Deaf Parents and Hearing Parents

      Volding, Lori A.; The College at Brockport (8/1/2002)
      Differences in linguistic, cognitive, and social skills are known to exist between Deaf children of Deaf parents and hearing parents; differences in motor development, however, are not known between the two groups. This study was designed to compare the motor development of 14 Deaf children of Deaf parents and 15 Deaf children of hearing parents. The 11 girls and 18 boys were 4 – 9 years old; 16 were in the 4-6 age group, and 13 were in the 7 - 9 age group. The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) was used to assess the motor development of 29 participants who attended two schools for students who are Deaf. Modifications to the procedure for administering the TGMD included visual demonstrations, the use of signing to communicate instructions, and video recordings of performance. The results of the study indicated no significant differences on motor development between Deaf children of Deaf parents and Deaf children of hearing parents.
    • A Conceptual Framework for Physical Education Based Upon Zen Teachings and Practices of Mind and Body Unity

      Fraleigh, Warren P.; Fisher, John M.; The College at Brockport (8/1/1990)
      A conceptual framework for physical education based on Zen teachings and practices of mind and body unity is composed of five aspects. First, as theory the beliefs and assumptions of mind and body unity as taught and practiced in the Zen tradition are clarified and adapted as the philosophical foundation of the conceptual framework. Personal development is identified as the value orientation. Second, the concept of right minded-ness and Ki (Chi) is identified as the fundamental principle underlying the achievement of mind and body unity. Third, the five concepts of the "Go-i" of Zen training are identified as the five concepts to be used as the conceptual framework. Fourth, the "Go-i" of Zen training is adopted as the basis for structuring, selecting and sequencing activities in the local physical education curriculum. The fifth aspect clarifies the relationship between teaching, learning, and training in the process of personal development.
    • A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Exemplar Selection and Influence on American and English Thirteen-Year-Olds

      Melnick, Merrill J.; Dodd, Sarah-Jane; The College at Brockport (7/12/1993)
      The problem was to identify the public and private exemplars of American and English 13-year-olds, understand the reasons behind their choices and determine influence levels. 50 subjects were selected from an American junior high school; 50 more from an English comprehensive school of comparable size and location. Socio-economic similarity was tested using the Hollingshead two-factor index of social position (1957). Only subjects falling in class groups II or Ill ("middle class") were studied. The total sample included 18 English females, 18 English males, 18 American females and 19 American males. Data were gathered using a paper-and-pencil instrument. Results were categorized using Harris' (1987) schemas for exemplar domain and attributes. Finally, exemplar influence was determined using McEvoy and Erickson's (1981) five-point typology. Subjects in both countries more frequently selected male exemplars, and considered more people "admired" than "heroic." American subjects chose more private exemplars than the English. Entertainment exemplars were selected most often by females, and sports exemplars by males. Influence level averaged 2.4 for English subjects and 2. 7 for American subjects on a scale of 1-5 (with one representing least influence). Only male subjects registered the highest level of influence.
    • A Descriptive Analysis of Selected Personality Traits of Student Teachers in Physical Education

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Lu, Chunlei; The College at Brockport (12/1/2000)
      This study investigated changes in six personality traits over a course of a teaching semester. The personality traits measured included anxiety, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, motivation, and cooperation. An adapted Psychological Skills Inventory for Sport (PSIS) questionnaire was administered to student teachers before (PRE), at mid-term (MID), and immediate after (POST) a student teaching period. Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance (rm MANOVA) and rm ANOVA and t-test of Scheffe were used to analyze differences for each the selected personality traits in terms of time (PRE, MID, and POST). The results reported significant differences in anxiety, concentration, confidence in terms of PRE, MID, and POST. It was also found that mental preparation changes significantly in terms of the time of PRE and POST. Significant differences in terms of time were not found for motivation and cooperation.
    • A Training Program to Develop Specific Manual Dexterity Skills of Down’s Syndrome Children

      Patterson, Susan; The College at Brockport (1/1/1981)
      This study was designed to determine if the fine motor skills of three young Down’s Syndrome children functioning below average in manual dexterity skills could be improved through a systematic training program. The selected subjects were met individually for thirty minutes a day, four days per week (Monday through Thursday), for a period of seven weeks. Each child was trained by repeated practice on ten specific tasks involving arm, hand, and finger manipulation. Subjective data recorded during each session by the investigator indicated that, generally, all three subjects appeared to improve on the manual dexterity tasks. These results were supported by gains generally found in the Purdue Pegboard, the Crawford Small Parts Dexterity Test, and the Stromberg Dexterity Test which were administered prior to and at the completion of training. However, limitations of the study prohibit the conclusion that improvement was due to the systematic training program employed in the study.
    • Academic Eligibility Policies in Interscholastic Athletics: A Survey of New York State School Districts

      Gerstung, Kimberly; The College at Brockport (1/1/1997)
      This research study focuses on the issue of academic eligibility policies in high school athletics. A questionnaire survey was administered to a random sample of athletic administrators (N=189) to determine the current status of eligibility standards in New York State. The results revealed that a large number of school districts (76%) have initiated athletic policies more stringent than those of the New York State Public High School Athletic Association. However, a number of schools only satisfy the Association's minimal standards. Actual policies vary greatly among the school districts surveyed. The advantages and disadvantages of eligibility policies are discussed. Finally, several recommendations for further researching academic eligibility requirements in high school athletics are offered.
    • Academic Learning Time in Physical Education in Ghana – A Descriptive Analytic Study

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Ammah, Jonathan Osbert Ayi; The College at Brockport (9/1/1998)
      The purpose of this study was to utilize the Academic Learning Time-Physical Education (ALT-PE) observational instrument to describe the ALT-PE patterns of students in physical education classes. The Academic Learning Time - Physical Education (ALT-PE) Version 2 with slight modification was used for data collection. Five graduate students served as observers/coders. Eleven undergraduate preservice teachers from the University College of Education of Winneba, Ghana and their Junior Secondary School students were the subjects for the study. In all, 60 lessons were observed using 160 target students. Data collected were treated using percentages and mean scores. The results of this study indicate that the overall ALT-PE accrued by the students was 20%, and ALT-PE was moderately higher for male student teachers than female student teachers. There was difference in ALT-PE scores between boys and girls. Low-skilled students accrued less ALT-PE than medium-skilled and high-skilled students. A great deal of time was spent in transitions (19%), waiting (19%), and warm-up (14.7%).
    • Adapted Physical Education at the State University of New York College at Brockport, (1968-1993)

      Winnick, Joseph; Biata, Kevin Andrew; The College at Brockport (7/1/1999)
      This study was designed to record and summarize accomplishments associated with the adapted physical education program at SUNY Brockport from 1968 to 1993. Information was collected from a variety of primary and secondary sources and accomplishments were summarized as they pertained to four areas related to the adapted physical education program: professional preparation, funded research, athletic services, and faculty. In summary, the SUNY Brockport master's degree concentration in adapted physical education was implemented in 1968 and was the first in the United States. For 21 years between 1971 and 1993 the concentration was financially assisted by the U.S. Department of Education. In 1981, an undergraduate concentration in adapted physical education was initiated. Between 1968 and 1993, three major research projects related to the physical fitness of individuals with disabilities were funded by the U.S. Department of Education. In regard to athletic services, Brockport hosted several games at the county, state, and international levels. In the first 25 years, 10 individuals served as faculty members in association with the professional preparation program. Dr. Francis X. Short served as a faculty member in the professional preparation program, as a researcher on funded research projects, and as a contributor to other service activities from 1979. Dr. Winnick began at Brockport in 1965 and he was responsible for initiating both the graduate and undergraduate professional preparation programs; directing funded professional preparation and research projects, and contributing to on-campus athletic activities for the entire first 25 years of the program.
    • An Analysis of Fitness, Stress and Job Performance: Concerns of Greensboro, North Carolina and Western New York Police Officers

      Zapata, Anthony D.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1993)
      Police Officers who have to handle stress daily, regardless of years on the force, should be in good physical condition to meet the psychological and physical stress challenges of police work. Police officers (N = 245) participated in the study. The officers consisted largely of male uniformed officers between the ages of 26-30. Data were collected using a seventy-one item police performance-fitness survey instrument and analyzed in relation to a Time on the Job (T.O.J.) variable for 1 ) 1 to 5; 2) 6 to 10; 3) 11 to 15; and 4) 15 + years on the job. The study included model fitness officers from Greensboro, N.C. and survey officers from Western New York (WNY). The questionnaire was developed to identify if physical fitness is of concern to the officers surveyed, if officers report physical fitness relates to their stress management and job performance, if model officers as compared to survey officers differ significantly in response to the survey questions and what the surveyed officers report their departments are doing for them in relation to physical fitness. The study lasted approximately two years. The level of statistical significance was set at (P < .05) for chi-square values. Ninety-three percent of the officers surveyed stated they wanted to be involved in fitness programs. Yet, only 2 % of the WNY officers reported that their departments require periodic fitness test or standards after graduation from the academy. These responses were statistically significant for all T.O.J. groups with the exception of the third group. Of the officers involved in fitness programs, 67% felt it improved their job performance. This was statistically insignificant (P > .05) for all comparisons. Final Communality estimates totals ranged between 3.50 and 3.96 showing that when sample questions from the survey were categorized according to stress, diet, department, personal fitness, fitness performance and health for factor analysis, overall, regardless of T.O.J ., there was little significant difference and that the model and survey groups were more alike than different in their responses to categorized questions. The study reveals that physical fitness is recognized by model and survey officers, but is not being promoted by Western New York Police Departments.
    • An Analysis of the Qualifications and Perceived Effectiveness of Athletic Directors in the Maryland Public Secondary School Athletic Association

      Beck, Bonnie; Bell, Janice A.; The College at Brockport (8/1/1979)
      The study identified through questionnaire format, the personal characteristics and professional qualifications of athletic directors in the member schools of the Maryland Public Secondary School Athletic Association. Also determined was the essentiality of the listed qualifications for the position of athletic director. The following was found about the responding athletic directors: 72.5 percent were between 30 and 49 years of age, 7.4 percent were female, and less than 6 percent were Negro. Additional findings were: 26 of the 47 qualifications were rated as essential, the rank-order of qualifications differed according to the size of the school, athletic directors and principals agreed on the essential qualifications, "related" education courses was the most important category, and intercollegiate and interscholastic athletic directors agreed on the order of essential qualifications for the position of athletic director. The athletic directors in the Maryland Public Secondary School Athletic Association were found to be well qualified in terms of general education, coaching experience, sports participation, and professional involvement, but not as well qualified in terms of administrative experience and "related" education courses.
    • An Appraisal of the Implementation Process of Sport Policy in Ghana

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Baba, Jatong Ahmed; The College at Brockport (4/1/2000)
      To implement policy, the local implementers must find a way to make sense of the goals, assumptions, and expectations associated with the policy and to reconcile them with their own organizational culture. In doing this, problems and conflicts may arise as a result of several factors that seem unavoidable and desirable from the bottom-up perspective. Several policy reforms and reorganization of administrative departments of sport in Ghana have not succeeded to arrest the rate of performance decline. It appears that the implementation process is much more complex than the introduction of a few administrative adjustments. The focus of this study was to identify the strategies and problems of the implementation process of current sport policy in Ghana. The results will contribute to a better understanding of the phenomenon and help implementers modify their strategies as well as develop their own coping mechanisms to survive the tide of the decline in sport performance. The principal data collection technique was the administration of a structured questionnaire to 40 subjects purposively selected for their key role in the implementation process in Ghana. Data obtained was augmented with the review of available documents deemed relevant to the study. The qualitative method of analysis was used because it was deemed more relevant in understanding the phenomenon under investigation. An analysis of the data identified several problems and challenges. Some of the major problems were the acute financial constraints that implementers encounter, over-dependence on meager grants from the government, differential government treatment of sport agencies, and over-centralized management control. The study also identified some of the challenges that the implementation process faces such as: the lack of discretionary powers to allow decentralized agencies to make decisions based on existing constraints, the lack of motivation and commitment by implementers to compete for private sector resources, and absence of authority and/or commitment by implementers to employ other strategies in the acquisition of resources beyond current traditional sources.
    • An Examination of Psychological Differences between Elite, College, and High School Female Soccer Players

      Stuart, Moira; Schockow, Joan E.; The College at Brockport (5/1/2000)
      This study was conducted to examine the psychological differences between elite, college, and high school female soccer players. The six personality traits that were measured included competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration skills, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation levels, and leadership skills. Three self-evaluation questionnaires were administered to the U.S. Women's National Soccer Team (elite), the State University of New York at Brockport and Nazareth College women's soccer teams (college), and Brockport, Livonia, and Marcellus high school soccer teams. The three questionnaires included the Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT; Martens, Burton, and Vealey, 1990), the Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory (TSCI; Vealey, 1986), and the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ; Smith, 1994). In order to determine if the three groups differed in the psychological variables of competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration skills, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation levels, and leadership skills, a one-way MANOVA was conducted. The overall multivariate relationship was significant (Wilks' lambda = .564, F (10, 144) = 4.77 p < .001. Follow up analyses revealed that competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, mental preparation skills, and leadership skills differentiated the three groups. Specifically using Student-Newman-Keuls it was found that the college group exhibited the highest levels of competitive trait anxiety and leadership skills. The elite group differed from the other two by having the highest scores in trait self-confidence, and mental preparation skills. No significant differences were found between the three groups in concentration skills or achievement motivation levels.
    • Associations between Family Factors and Pre-adolescent Children’s Fitness

      Scheidt, Douglas M.; Bellnier, Kim Lizabeth; The College at Brockport (5/1/1996)
      This study examined the associations between family factors including: parental support/involvement, parental exercise behavior, parental rewards, children's perceptions of parental exercise behavior and children's fitness. The data were collected via a questionnaire for parents and a questionnaire for the fifth grade children from The Village Elementary School in Hilton, New York. The PACER test for cardiorespiratory endurance from the FITNESSGRAM test battery was also administered to the fifth grade students. Only paternal behaviors were significantly related to children's fitness. Therefore, a post hoc analysis was conducted to examine possible gender differences. For the variables of parental involvement/support, and parental exercise behavior there was a statistically significant relationship found between paternal involvement, paternal exercise habits and girls' fitness. In addition, there was a significant association found between girls' perceptions of father's exercise behavior and girls' fitness. There was no relationship found between parental rewards and children's fitness. Children's activity was significantly associated with their own fitness and children's perceptions of their parent's exercise behavior was correlated with their parent's self-report of personal exercise behavior. Implications of this study include the importance of father's modeling of exercise and its relationship with daughter's fitness.
    • Changing Attitudes toward Physically Disabled persons using a Videotape Sport Intervention

      Short, Francis X.; Bett, Allan; The College at Brockport (8/1/1991)
      The study investigated the effect of a videotape intervention on the attitudes toward physically disabled persons. The subjects were 86 elementary and secondary students from the same school district. Utilizing a stratified random sampling technique, subjects were assigned to control and experimental groups for each age range (11 to 13 and 16 to 19z0. All subjects completed the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons Scale, Form 0, on three occasions with two-week intervals. The experimental group witnessed a 17-minute videotape of a wheelchair basketball game before the second administration. Results of the study indicated that the experimental group experienced a positive gain in attitude between the first and second administrations while the control group did not. This positive gain, however, decreased by the third administration but remained significantly higher than the first administration. The subject's age was not a significant factor in attitude change. The study concluded that a sport videotape is an effective way to change attitudes toward disabled persons but that the resultant change decreases over time.
    • Congruity between Assessment Criteria and Cooperating Teacher Assessment of Student Teachers

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Sofo, Seidu; The College at Brockport (12/1/1998)
      This study investigated the congruity between cooperating teachers' assessment of student teachers and established set of criteria for assessment during student teaching. The study also examined the substance of the comments of cooperating teachers about student teachers' performances. The final evaluation forms submitted by the cooperating teachers to the student teaching coordinator served as the main source of data. These forms were content analyzed to determine the congruity of cooperating teachers' assessment and the set of assessment criteria. The researcher developed the Brockport Supervision Analysis System—Physical Education (BSASPE) instrument for data analysis. Subjects for the study included 41 cooperating teachers (27 males and 14 females) who supervised 32 student teachers for the period Fall 1995 through Spring 1998. The student teachers (22 males and 10 females) were enrolled in the physical education teacher certification program at SUNY Brockport. The student teachers in this study taught in 34 different schools during the period covered by the study. These included 17 elementary schools, 11 middle schools, and six high schools. The results indicated that while most cooperating teachers awarded outstanding and highly competent grades to their student teachers, it was incongruent with the set of assessment criteria established by the university. However, the assessment of one student teacher awarded a non-competent grade was congruent with assessment criteria. It was also found that the cooperating teachers' comments were related to the competencies under which they were written. The study showed that cooperating teachers' comments differed with the grade levels taught by student teachers. There is the need for further research to ascertain why most cooperating teachers' assessments were not congruent with established assessment criteria, even though they had the ability to make comments related to the major competencies for student teaching.