• The Effects of Massed and Distributed Practice on the Performance of a Gross Motor Skill

      Christina, William B.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1974)
      The effects of massed and distributed practice on the basketball dribbling performance of fourth grade boys was investigated. Fifteen massed practice (MP) and 15 distributed practice (DP) subjects were randomly selected from an intact class of 37. The criterion task (dribbling a basketball) and four unrelated tasks (alternate activity tasks) were employed in the investigation. Subjects practicing under MP conditions received one 6 minute practice trial on all tasks during a single practice session. Subjects practicing under DP conditions received two 3 minute practice trials on all tasks during a single practice session. The total time spent on the criterion task and alternate activities was the same for each group. The total time was 30 minutes for the entire study and six minutes during a single practice session. The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) on pre-test performance scores showed no significant differences occurring between the practice groups. The results of the ANOVA, and those of the analysis of covariance, on post-test performance scores showed significant differences to be occurring. This study found evidence to support the hypothesis that DP was more effective in the performance of a gross motor task within an applied setting than was MP.
    • Strength, Muscular Endurance, and Cardiorespiratory Endurance Changes in College Males and Females as a Function of Training

      Kenney, Gregory A.; Scotland, Bruce Michael; The College at Brockport (1/1/1976)
      The strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory trainability of men and women were investigated. The subjects, twelve male and ten females, engaged in a six week training program in which they were required to perform progressive resistance exercises using DeLorme's technique in order to increase their strength and muscular endurance. In addition, the subjects took part in a six week interval running program for the purpose of developing cardiorespiratory endurance. Prior to training each subject was tested for elbow flexion strength with Clarke's cable tensiometer. Muscular endurance was measured using Shaver's arm-lever ergometer method, and cardiorespiratory endurance according to the Astrand-Rhyming bicycle ergometer technique. Following the training program the subjects were re-tested in a manner patterned after the initial test. While both men and women increased significantly in strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory endurance following the six weeks of training there were no significant differences between the sexes in terms of their strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory trainability. However, absolute strength gains were found to be significantly greater in men than women. This difference was attributed to the predominantly male hormone testosterone which enables men to develop greater amounts of muscle mass and achieve greater strength levels than women.
    • A Training Program to Develop Specific Manual Dexterity Skills of Down’s Syndrome Children

      Patterson, Susan; The College at Brockport (1/1/1981)
      This study was designed to determine if the fine motor skills of three young Down’s Syndrome children functioning below average in manual dexterity skills could be improved through a systematic training program. The selected subjects were met individually for thirty minutes a day, four days per week (Monday through Thursday), for a period of seven weeks. Each child was trained by repeated practice on ten specific tasks involving arm, hand, and finger manipulation. Subjective data recorded during each session by the investigator indicated that, generally, all three subjects appeared to improve on the manual dexterity tasks. These results were supported by gains generally found in the Purdue Pegboard, the Crawford Small Parts Dexterity Test, and the Stromberg Dexterity Test which were administered prior to and at the completion of training. However, limitations of the study prohibit the conclusion that improvement was due to the systematic training program employed in the study.
    • Validity of the Squat-Thrust Test Component of the New York State Physical Fitness Test as a Measure of Cardiovascular Endurance

      Goodhartz, Natalie; Dorman, Mary Bates; The College at Brockport (1/1/1988)
      Many schools require the New York State Physical Fitness Test to be administered to grades four through twelve, at the beginning and end of the school year. The squat-thrusts are used to measure endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine if the squat-thrust test component of the New York state Physical Fitness Test was a valid test of aerobic endurance. Cooper's Twelve-Minute Run/Walk Test was used as the criterion measure of aerobic capacity. Eight hundred and thirty-six students were tested on the twelve-minute run/walk test and the squat-thrust test. Twenty students stopped while taking the twelve-minute run/walk test, and their results were not used. Students tested were in the fourth grade, eighth grade, eleventh grade and twelfth grade. Data were statistically analyzed by the Pearson r. The correlation coefficient was +0.30. This correlation coefficient did not indicate a significant relationship between the twelve-minute run/walk test and the squat-thrust test. It is recommended, based on these results, that Cooper’s twelve-minute run/walk test be substituted for the squat-thrust test to measure aerobic capacity. The researcher also suggests that the squat-thrust test be assessed for suitability as a measure of anaerobic capability.
    • An Analysis of Fitness, Stress and Job Performance: Concerns of Greensboro, North Carolina and Western New York Police Officers

      Zapata, Anthony D.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1993)
      Police Officers who have to handle stress daily, regardless of years on the force, should be in good physical condition to meet the psychological and physical stress challenges of police work. Police officers (N = 245) participated in the study. The officers consisted largely of male uniformed officers between the ages of 26-30. Data were collected using a seventy-one item police performance-fitness survey instrument and analyzed in relation to a Time on the Job (T.O.J.) variable for 1 ) 1 to 5; 2) 6 to 10; 3) 11 to 15; and 4) 15 + years on the job. The study included model fitness officers from Greensboro, N.C. and survey officers from Western New York (WNY). The questionnaire was developed to identify if physical fitness is of concern to the officers surveyed, if officers report physical fitness relates to their stress management and job performance, if model officers as compared to survey officers differ significantly in response to the survey questions and what the surveyed officers report their departments are doing for them in relation to physical fitness. The study lasted approximately two years. The level of statistical significance was set at (P < .05) for chi-square values. Ninety-three percent of the officers surveyed stated they wanted to be involved in fitness programs. Yet, only 2 % of the WNY officers reported that their departments require periodic fitness test or standards after graduation from the academy. These responses were statistically significant for all T.O.J. groups with the exception of the third group. Of the officers involved in fitness programs, 67% felt it improved their job performance. This was statistically insignificant (P > .05) for all comparisons. Final Communality estimates totals ranged between 3.50 and 3.96 showing that when sample questions from the survey were categorized according to stress, diet, department, personal fitness, fitness performance and health for factor analysis, overall, regardless of T.O.J ., there was little significant difference and that the model and survey groups were more alike than different in their responses to categorized questions. The study reveals that physical fitness is recognized by model and survey officers, but is not being promoted by Western New York Police Departments.
    • Academic Eligibility Policies in Interscholastic Athletics: A Survey of New York State School Districts

      Gerstung, Kimberly; The College at Brockport (1/1/1997)
      This research study focuses on the issue of academic eligibility policies in high school athletics. A questionnaire survey was administered to a random sample of athletic administrators (N=189) to determine the current status of eligibility standards in New York State. The results revealed that a large number of school districts (76%) have initiated athletic policies more stringent than those of the New York State Public High School Athletic Association. However, a number of schools only satisfy the Association's minimal standards. Actual policies vary greatly among the school districts surveyed. The advantages and disadvantages of eligibility policies are discussed. Finally, several recommendations for further researching academic eligibility requirements in high school athletics are offered.
    • Using an After School Martial Arts Program to Increase Student Motivation

      DeWilde, Jeffrey R.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2008)
      In education there are many factors outside of the classroom that can have an impact on student motivation; as a result school districts offer athletic and extracurricular activities that help promote learning and student success. Using the TaeKwonDo Institute’s Character Reward Program, this thesis project examines the relationship between after school program involvement and student motivation. The literature review defines and explores the history of after school programs, student motivation and character development, and how martial arts supports and encourages these attributes. The active research, a four-week study, was conducted with 20 students, grades 1-8, who were enrolled in a taekwondo after school program, as well as a control group of 20 students, grades 1-8, who attended taekwondo lessons twice a week but did not participate in the after school program. Pre and post surveys were given to both students and parents on motivation and academic achievement. Within the Character Reward Program, motivation was measured by time spent on homework, ability to complete homework and household chores without being asked, following directions from parents, and improvement shown in academic performance. Study conclusions support participation in after school programs, martial arts in particular, to increase student motivation and achievement.
    • The Effects of Proprioception and Extended Practice Sessions on Anticipatory Timing

      Turner, Bruce H.; The College at Brockport (11/1/1977)
      Utilizing arm velocity to generate varying levels of PFB, various aspects of the body's timing mechanism were researched. Performance on a coincident timing task was studied with and without KR over a four day period. The experimental design consisted of three groups, 25 subjects each, receiving either high, low or zero amounts of PFB. The response was a right hand timing task preceded by a PFB generating left hand movement. The results indicated that PFB provided for more accurate and consistent responses. Increased levels of PFB resulted in significantly more consistent responses, and in more accurate responses. Accuracy responses were significant between the movements groups and control group, but not between movement groups alone. The groups receiving KR were significantly more accurate than the NKR group but no differences were revealed for KR and NKR groups for variable error. The potential formation of a perceptual trace during KR trials may have allowed for greater consistency once KR was withdrawn. Performance over days indicated that extended practice is necessary for the most effective use of PFB. The day factor also provided possible evidence for a two stage theory of timing in which both input timing and motor programming are utilized.
    • The Effects of Toys, Prompts, and Flotation Devices on the Learning of Water Orientation Skills for Preschoolers with or without Developmental Delays

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Clawson, Cindy A.; The College at Brockport (11/1/1999)
      The work of children is play; and in that work, toys can be used to educate, provide enjoyment and help build the foundation of social skills. One of the guidelines from the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) regarding developmentally appropriate practice is that children learn through interacting with their environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of toys, prompts, and flotation devices on the learning of water orientation skills for preschoolers with or without developmental delays. The 42 participants (ages 3 - 5 yr., male/female) were volunteers from a community preschool aquatics program. They were pre- and posttested with the Water Orientation Skills Checklist - Advanced (WOC-A) developed by Killan, Arena-Ronde, and Bruno (1987). The children were recruited to either the control-19 or intervention- 23 groups. The children received swimming lessons for 4 weeks, 30 minutes twice a week. The control group lessons consisted of demonstration and practice and the intervention group lessons consisted of environmental arrangements enhanced with toys, prompts, and flotation devices. The data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric statistics. The findings demonstrated that with the Mann-Whitney z score of .33 at the .05 level, the toys, prompts, and flotation devices did not significantly enhance the preschoolers' learning of water orientation skills. An important finding, however, is that while the toys, prompts, and flotation devices did not enhance water skills, they also did not hinder the learning of swimming skills, as both groups' mean score of improvement was 11 points.
    • Group Differences in Balance between Individuals with and without Intellectual Disabilities Following a Progressive Overload Powerlifting Program

      Kozub, Francis M.; Collier, Douglas; Williams, Christopher; Rispoli, Thomas R.; The College at Brockport (11/13/2013)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a core-lifting program on functional balance in persons with intellectual disabilities (ages 27 - 43). This study compared balance results from a group of young adults with intellectual disabilities to a comparison group made up of college aged, typically developing peers (ages 21-27). The intervention lasted six weeks and included one day of progressive powerlifting using three sets of six to eight repetitions as outlined by the Special Olympics Powerlifting Coaches Guide (Special Olympics, 2011). An important research question for this study was to determine if strength improvements in the target population were linked to balance. Results included a lack of association between task analysis scores and balance as measured by force plates (p > .05). Further posttest strength findings resulted in the comparison group significantly outscoring the experimental group on maximum squat rate of force development (ROFD), average squat ROFD, and squat maximum force, F(1, 15) = 5.19, p < .05, F(1, 15) = 21.99, p < .05, F(1, 15) = 28.02, p < .05 respectively. With respect to strength changes over the intervention, the experimental group did not improve in strength over the six week intervention (p > .05). Finally, no relationship was found between balance and strength during pre or posttesting which contradicts the notion that strength gains are associated with balance in these participants with intellectual disabilities. In summary, the intervention length was targeted as too short to achieve the desired strength changes.
    • A Comparative Analysis of Cognitive Differences Among Female Elite and Nonelite High School Field Hockey Players and High School Physical Education Class Nonathletes

      Adams, Linda Berner; The College at Brockport (12/1/1991)
      The Empire State Games Western Scholastic Field Hockey Team (n = 14), a high school field hockey team (n = 15), and nonathletes in a high school physical education class (n = 9) were given a battery of tests and inventories to compare mental aspects such as abstract visual reasoning, concentration, sport-confidence, psychological skills relevant to exceptional performance, and competitive anxiety. Analyses included multivariate analysis of variance for each cognitive category, one way univariate analysis of variance for each subtest within a cognitive category, and a stepwise multiple regression technique to determine which tests made the greatest contribution to predicting group membership. Multiple analysis revealed that the elite group displayed significantly higher sport-confidence and selected psychological skills. Results of a stepwise multiple regression technique indicated that motivation, mental preparation, and team motivation accounted for 67% of the behavioral variance. A subsequent multivariate analysis within just the two field hockey groups revealed that the top half of the elite group displayed significantly higher trait sport-confidence and motivation than the bottom half of the nonelite group. A stepwise multiple regression analysis found that motivation, trait sport-confidence, state sport-confidence, and sequencing of information accounted for 99% of the behavioral variance. The results of this investigation indicated that there are cognitive differences already significant at the high school level, and that these factors influence the development of perceived competence.
    • Verbal Versus Active Play Learning: Their Effectiveness on Symbol Recall in Three and Four-Year-Old Children

      Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose; Dorman, Mark R.; The College at Brockport (12/1/1992)
      This study investigated the contribution of the motor activity learning medium (MALM) to the development of symbol recall in three and four-year-old children. Eighteen pre-schoolers from Gananda Day Care, in Macedon, New York, were used in this study. They were assigned to either a verbal learning group or an active learning group using a stratified random sampling technique. The children were pre-tested for prior knowledge of the symbols; pi, sigma, theta, and omega of the Greek alphabet. These symbols were taught to children in the verbal learning and active learning groups for thirty minutes for two consecutive days with verbal and active learning teaching methods respectively. A post-test was performed after the second day of instruction and the results were recorded. A retention follow-up test was performed ten days later and the results were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test of Differences. While a post-test and a ten-day follow-up test indicated a nonsignificant difference between the verbal learning and the active learning groups in performance, both groups showed gains on test scores. Although the results failed to show statistically significant differences in symbol recall between the two teaching methods, the mean scores for the active play group were higher for both the posttest and follow-up measures. The results showed a positive trend in favor of the active play method.
    • A Comparison of Six Personality Factors Between Professional, College, and High School Basketball Players

      Smith, Daniel; Bowe, William G.; The College at Brockport (12/1/1994)
      This investigation was concerned with comparing six personality factors among professional, college, and high school basketball players. The different factors measured include competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation levels, and leadership skills. A self-evaluation questionnaire was administered to five basketball teams (two high school, two college, and one professional). Each subject's questionnaire was scored and a Mental Toughness Profile for each athlete was developed. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there is a difference in personality factors among basketball players at the professional, collegiate, and high school levels. An Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences in each of the six personality factors between each of three groups. Also used was a Multiple Comparison Test for the ANOVA. The statistical significance of the results was determined using the .05 level. The results of this investigation indicated that there are personality differences between professional, college, and high school basketball players. A significant difference was demonstrated between all three groups in all the factors except leadership skills. The Multiple Comparison Test revealed that high school and professional basketball players differed significantly in all of the categories except leadership skills. The high school and college players differed significantly only in concentration skills and average scores for the combination of all six subscales. College and professional players differed significantly only in trait self-confidence. One conclusion in this investigation was that the Mental Toughness Profile used was a strong predictor of skill level when comparing professional and high school basketball players.
    • Personal Characteristics of Beginning, Intermediate, and Advanced Sport Performers

      Smith, Daniel; Chiesi, Danielle R.; The College at Brockport (12/1/1997)
      This study investigated differences in six sport specific personal characteristics as a function of skill level. The characteristics included competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation, and leadership. A self-evaluation questionnaire was administered to students in beginning, intermediate, and advanced physical education activity classes at the State University of New York, College at Brockport. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison test statistics were used to analyze differences for each of the six personal characteristics and a mental toughness composite score across the three groups of performers. The results revealed significant differences in achievement motivation in favor of advanced performers over beginners, and advanced performers over intermediate performers. Advanced performers also made better use of their mental preparation skills than beginners. In the area of concentration, intermediate performers posted significantly better scores than beginners. Significant differences among and between the three skill-groups were not found for any of the other personal characteristics under investigation. The failure to find additional differences among the three groups of sport performers was explained by the fact that the questionnaires used to obtain the data were designed for the sport context, not a physical education environment.
    • Examination of Students Engagement in a Block-Schedule Innovation Program

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Kyemenu-Sarsa, Isaac Kwa; The College at Brockport (12/1/1997)
      Innovations in education occur in an attempt to bring about improvement in the educational process. But not all innovations tum out to have positive effect on the educational process. Kirk (1988) noted that it is possible to present an innovation that embodies some new idea without it ever bringing about any genuine change in what people think or do. Block-scheduling developed about five ago is one innovation that has attracted attention in recent years and is gaining ground with an increasing number of schools block-scheduling. The schedule has as its aim, a reduced number of periods per day, (usually four), but with extended time blocks. Students in this schedule therefore meet once or twice for a particular subject depending on the rotation of the block. The purpose of the study was to examine students' academic learning time in physical education (ALT- PE) within the new time frame of a block-scheduled program. The study also compared the pre-test and post-test scores of four health-related physical fitness items. These are, one-mile run, curl-ups, pushups (for girls), pull-ups (for boys), and sit and reach. Data were collected on ALT- PE and pre and post-test fitness scores. Analysis consisted of determining percentages of time spent in various components of the lesson and a t-test was used to determine significant difference between pre and post fitness scores. Results indicated that the block-schedule produced an ALT- PE of approximately 37% of class time. The research also found that, it was possible to improve the level of fitness in one-mile run, curl-ups, push-ups, pull-ups and sit and reach during fitness unit. This represents a higher percentage rate of ALT- PE compared to what has previously been reported in traditionally scheduled physical education classes.
    • Congruity between Assessment Criteria and Cooperating Teacher Assessment of Student Teachers

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Sofo, Seidu; The College at Brockport (12/1/1998)
      This study investigated the congruity between cooperating teachers' assessment of student teachers and established set of criteria for assessment during student teaching. The study also examined the substance of the comments of cooperating teachers about student teachers' performances. The final evaluation forms submitted by the cooperating teachers to the student teaching coordinator served as the main source of data. These forms were content analyzed to determine the congruity of cooperating teachers' assessment and the set of assessment criteria. The researcher developed the Brockport Supervision Analysis System—Physical Education (BSASPE) instrument for data analysis. Subjects for the study included 41 cooperating teachers (27 males and 14 females) who supervised 32 student teachers for the period Fall 1995 through Spring 1998. The student teachers (22 males and 10 females) were enrolled in the physical education teacher certification program at SUNY Brockport. The student teachers in this study taught in 34 different schools during the period covered by the study. These included 17 elementary schools, 11 middle schools, and six high schools. The results indicated that while most cooperating teachers awarded outstanding and highly competent grades to their student teachers, it was incongruent with the set of assessment criteria established by the university. However, the assessment of one student teacher awarded a non-competent grade was congruent with assessment criteria. It was also found that the cooperating teachers' comments were related to the competencies under which they were written. The study showed that cooperating teachers' comments differed with the grade levels taught by student teachers. There is the need for further research to ascertain why most cooperating teachers' assessments were not congruent with established assessment criteria, even though they had the ability to make comments related to the major competencies for student teaching.
    • The Perceptions of the Teacher Certification Students Regarding their Program of Study while at SUNY Brockport in Two Timelines

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Rotich Sagero, Jerono Phylis; The College at Brockport (12/1/1998)
      Research has supported the need for curriculum and program reformation, but relatively little work has been done on how programs have been reformed. Furthermore, minimal research attention has been given to the perceptions of the students on their programs of study. This research was designed to examine the perceptions of students on their teacher education programs of study while at SUNY college at Brockport. A total of 78 Students who completed between 1989 and 1996 completed the survey questionnaire which was a measure of their perceptions. They were categorized into two different timelines; timeline -one consisted of those who graduated between 1989 and the spring of 1993 and timeline-two consisted of those who graduated between the fall of 1993 and 1996. Descriptive analysis of data revealed that both programs had an impact on the individual students. When the perceptions of the students from the two timelines were compared, it was found that the students in timeline- two generally rated their program to be more beneficial for their present employment as opposed to those in timeline -one. Therefore, there is a reason to believe that the changes which were effected between the fall of 1993 to 1996 may have been a factor in their perceptions.
    • A Descriptive Analysis of Selected Personality Traits of Student Teachers in Physical Education

      Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Lu, Chunlei; The College at Brockport (12/1/2000)
      This study investigated changes in six personality traits over a course of a teaching semester. The personality traits measured included anxiety, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, motivation, and cooperation. An adapted Psychological Skills Inventory for Sport (PSIS) questionnaire was administered to student teachers before (PRE), at mid-term (MID), and immediate after (POST) a student teaching period. Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance (rm MANOVA) and rm ANOVA and t-test of Scheffe were used to analyze differences for each the selected personality traits in terms of time (PRE, MID, and POST). The results reported significant differences in anxiety, concentration, confidence in terms of PRE, MID, and POST. It was also found that mental preparation changes significantly in terms of the time of PRE and POST. Significant differences in terms of time were not found for motivation and cooperation.
    • Effects of Visual Impairment, Gender, and Age on Self-Determination Opportunities at Home, with Friends, with Health Care, at School, and in Physical Education

      Lieberman, Lauren J.; Robinson, Barbara Lynn; The College at Brockport (12/1/2002)
      Research on Self-Determination Theory has been conducted on many aspects of an individual's across the lifespan. Studies have researched the effects of self-determined behaviors on general education, athletic sport participation, and an individual's control of their own needs. However, few studies have been conducted on self-determination opportunities that are provided in physical education. Studies indicate an importance of self-determination in all aspects of ones life with regard to perceived competence, motivation, goal setting, choice making and achievement of positive outcomes. Few studies have been conducted regarding the effects of self-determination on the lives of individuals with visual impairment or deaf-blindness. The current study examined self-determination opportunities across the following domains: at home, with friends, with health care, at school, and during physical education of students with visual impairments and deaf-blindness. Fifty-four students, 31 boys and 23 girls (ages 8 to 23 years), who participated in a one-week summer sport camp were surveyed. The variables studied were: level of visual impairments, gender, and age. A 2X2X3 MANOVA and post hoc analysis indicated that a significant difference for level of visual impairment was present; however, no significant differences were indicated for gender and age. All classifications of visual impairment scored low across all domains studied. It was concluded that self-determination opportunities are not being provided to students with visual impairments.
    • Perceptions of Artificial Turf Regarding the Effects of Football Playing Surfaces on Injury Rates

      Schneider, Robert C.; Hammond, James; The College at Brockport (12/1/2002)
      The perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III college football coaches (based on their interactions with interscholastic and intercollegiate football players) regarding the effects of football playing surfaces on athlete injury was investigated. The subjects were all (237 total) NCAA Division III football coaches. Based on the existing literature and input from a panel of expert Division III coaches, a questionnaire was formed. Results showed that 48% of the coaches surveyed, strongly agreed or agreed that artificial turf poses a greater risk to injury than natural grass.