Recent Submissions

  • Mental Health: A Growing Concern in Collegiate Athletes

    Randise, Nicholas (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2024-05-15)
    Mental health is a topic that has been gaining a lot of traction in recent years. Unfortunately, this topic has not gained as much traction in the athletic community. Mental health can affect anyone at any time. Collegiate athletes are constantly faced with stigmas and barriers when it comes to mental health, and often times do not get the support they need. Analysis of previous research shows that mental health issues are just as prevalent in collegiate athletes and in some cases more prevalent than their nonathlete counterparts. Barriers that collegiate athletes face, especially the stigma that is in the athletic community in relation to mental health is a major factor when considering why collegiate athletes don’t get the help they need. Additionally, colleges and coaches can have a major contribution to the help-seeking behaviors of their athletes. Furthermore, previous research will support that strategies like resilience or resilience training, and mindfulness can have a very positive effect on a college athletes’ psyche and should be considered moving forward if colleges want to lower the prevalence of mental health issues in their athletes. The purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on the mental health of collegiate athletes.
  • Collegiate athletes’ coping behaviors to deal with stress and anxiety

    Pastore, Nicholas John (SUNY Brockport Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2024-05)
    The purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on collegiate athletes’ coping behaviors to deal with stress and anxiety The research shows that there's a big need for better mental health resources that fit the specific needs of athletes. It also points out how important strong support systems are in college sports programs. Many studies found that stress and anxiety are common problems for college athletes, affecting their performance and well-being. This project aims to highlight these findings and push for better mental health support for student-athletes.
  • The Prevalence of Depression Disorders in Retired Adult Athletes who have been Exposed to sub–Concussive Head Impacts Throughout their Playing Careers

    Monteleone, Alexander Mario (SUNY Brockport Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2024-05)
    This literature review examines the prevalence of depression disorders among retired adult athletes who have been exposed to sub-concussive head impacts throughout their playing careers. The study aims to synthesize existing research findings on the association between concussion history, repetitive head impacts, and depressive symptoms in retired athletes across various sports contexts. A systematic review of relevant literature yielded a critical mass of ten articles, which were analyzed to address the research questions. The review highlights several key themes, including the increased risk of depression associated with multiple concussions, the importance of understanding the long-term consequences of repetitive neurotrauma, and the need for further research to inform preventive measures and support strategies for athletes at all levels. Limitations of the studies reviewed, such as small sample sizes, retrospective reporting biases, and cross-sectional designs, are also discussed. Despite these limitations, the findings of the review provide valuable insights into the complex relationship between concussion history and mental health outcomes in retired athletes. The conclusions drawn from the literature review have implications for real-world applications, particularly in informing interventions aimed at improving the mental health and well-being of retired athletes. Recommendations for future research include conducting longitudinal studies with larger cohorts, validating findings in diverse populations, and exploring potential therapeutic interventions targeting mental health outcomes in this population.
  • Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports: On-Task Behavior in Physical Education

    Battista, Giuseppe (SUNY Brockport Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2024-05)
    Physical education teachers have similar yet different types of classroom management issues connecting to student behavior. Physical education teachers deal with the increased risk of child safety since the class is movement based while sometimes requiring equipment. What is similar is that undesired behaviors in any class take away from time on-task. Findings from previous research shows a positive correlation between the use of positive behavior interventions and supports in physical education in relation to on-task student behaviors. The purpose of this synthesis project is to review literature on the use of Positive Behavioral Supports on increasing on-task behavior in physical education.
  • Specialization in Youth Athletes and How it Affects Their Development

    Rausch, Jacob James (SUNY Brockport Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2024-05)
    Youth sport specialization has been a growing concern over the last decade. While parents feel the need to specialize their kids at a young age, they may not be fully aware of the potential risk associated with sport specialization. As youth athletes age, they need proper growing and maturation throughout early, mid, and late adolescence to achieve proper development. Prior review of literature from this study proves how sport specialization can cause negative effects through overuse injuries and dysfunctions, psychological issues, and lack of sleep which may disrupt proper development. Preventative measures such as diversity of activity, neuromuscular training interventions, and specializing at the proper age may help lower the severity of risks that sport specialization present. The purpose of this synthesis study is to review literature on youth sport specialization to determine the effect that it has on overall youth athlete development.
  • The Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet Among Athletes, Ages 18 and Older

    Tracy, Derek Ryan (SUNY Brockport Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2024-05)
    For many athletes, finishing at the top of their respective sport is what motivates them to push themselves beyond their limits. Countless hours are spent in the weight room and on the field trying to stay ahead of their opponents. However, it is not just how strong an athlete is, or how cerebral they might be that separates themselves from their competition. Nutrition and diets also play a key component in the athlete’s overall well-being. Does a specific diet put an athlete at any sort of competitive advantage? The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on the benefits of a vegetarian diet among athletes, ages 18 and older.
  • The Effects That Sport Specialization has on Youth Athletes

    Spulnick, Michael S (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-12-28)
    Youth sport specialization is becoming more popular than ever. Many athletes, parents and coaches think that sport specialization is the best way to reach elite level status in a sport. However, athletes, parents and coaches don’t know all of the positive and negative effects of specialization in a sport. Whereas, sport specialization may help you gain skill development, it is also correlated with higher chances of overuse injuries, psychological stress, and burnout. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and investigate the effects of sport specialization on youth athletes. It was determined that specializing in a sport can allow an athlete to attain a higher level of performance. It was also determined that overuse injuries are the biggest disadvantage when specializing in a sport. Finally, it was determined that younger athletes are at more psychological and physical risk than older athletes.
  • The Effects That Sport Specialization has on Youth Athletes

    Spulnick, Michael S (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-12-28)
    Youth sport specialization is becoming more popular than ever. Many athletes, parents and coaches think that sport specialization is the best way to reach elite level status in a sport. However, athletes, parents and coaches don’t know all of the positive and negative effects of specialization in a sport. Whereas, sport specialization may help you gain skill development, it is also correlated with higher chances of overuse injuries, psychological stress, and burnout. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and investigate the effects of sport specialization on youth athletes. It was determined that specializing in a sport can allow an athlete to attain a higher level of performance. It was also determined that overuse injuries are the biggest disadvantage when specializing in a sport. Finally, it was determined that younger athletes are at more psychological and physical risk than older athletes.
  • Effects of Early Sports Specialization on Mental Health and Physical Injuries

    Hart, Daniel J (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-31)
    In the landscape of athletics, the topic of sports specialization has recently become more prevalent. From a young age, athletes and their parents see playing sports as an avenue to earn college scholarships, as well as other monies via competition professionally and/or endorsements. With these goals in mind, some athletes see the benefits of choosing to specialize, and to only play one sport year-round. However, specializing in a single sport may also have negative consequences that may not be expected. The purpose of this synthesis is to investigate the effects of early sports specialization on mental health and physical injuries. It was reported that mental health issues from sports specialization are often associated with burnout athletes may no longer enjoy the sport, and they may end up having shortened careers. In addition, physical injuries are often due to overuse of specific body parts for particular sports. This literature review concludes that the benefits of specializing in one sport are more often outweighed by the negatives consequences.
  • The Integration of Technology in Physical Education and Teacher Perceptions of the Effect on Participation of K-12 students.

    Steedman, Olivia (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-05)
    Receiving regular physical activity is beneficial to the physical, mental, and social aspects of health among adolescents. Overall schools, and Physical Education, are essential in achieving health literacy in a population, and they contribute to the achievement of public health goals. However, in recent years, there has been a decrease in physical activity and a decrease in participation in Physical Education. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a catalyst for technology integration, as all educational disciplines were forced virtual. Technology integration in Physical Education has been slow; however, technology provides a means to promote physical activity and participation. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on the effect of the integration of technology on student participation, and the perceptions of teachers and students towards technology use in Physical Education. It was concluded that wrist worn technology is one of the easier technologies to implement into a classroom, and is becoming accepted as one of the easiest strategies to help combat the problem of obesity. It was also concluded that teacher perceptions of implementing technology depend on their prior trainings, experiences, and their environment, and teachers are unlikely to implement technology if they have not had sufficient training. Finally, it was concluded that student perceptions are affected by how teachers implement the technology, which can be both positively and negatively affect participation.
  • The Role of Coaching in the Development of Mental Toughness in Athletes

    Mooney, Cody (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-09)
    Mental toughness is an important emotional skill that can help push athletes through stressful or intense periods of competition. In an athletic setting, athletes spend the most time with their coaches, learn from their coaches, and are affected by their coaches. Coaches can help develop mental toughness in athletes by focusing on building specific elements and behaviors. Coaching strategies for developing mental toughness can be as simple as talking about experiences, to as complex as implementing specific strategies into practice. Currently, coaches understand what mental toughness is, but do not go out of their way to develop it. The strategies that coaches use to develop mental toughness can have both positive and negative effects on athletes, putting importance on the understanding of specific strategies. The purpose of this synthesis is to explore how coaches and coaching can develop and build mental toughness in athletes. This literature review concludes that developing mental toughness in athletes is simple to implement in training, and not time-consuming. Developing mental toughness in athletes will allow for athletes to succeed, inside and outside of the athletic world.
  • The Effects of Higher Intensity Levels on Physical Fitness in Physical Education

    Ferguson, Cynthia D (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05)
    Obesity is considered by many to be an epidemic at all age levels. Specifically, adolescents between the ages of 2 to 19 have increased to body fat percentages of 19.7% over the last five years. Obesity can be caused by (but not limited to) low socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, genetics, and/or physical inactivity. Those with obesity demonstrate a decrease in muscular strength, muscular endurance and cardiovascular endurance; and an increase in an fat mass, BMI, waist circumference, Fat Mass percentage, and waist circumference. An important component when it comes to overcoming or preventing obesity is exercise and exercising at the appropriate intensity level. Physical Education is an opportunity in which adolescents can achieve the recommended daily of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on the beneficial effects of incorporating higher intensity activities on physical fitness levels in Physical Education. It was concluded that integrating higher intensity activities into Physical Education improves health related fitness and body composition, can be incorporated at the primary and secondary levels, and can be added to current curriculums
  • Improving Fitness Levels of Students with Visual Impairments in Physical Education

    Tirone, Kyle (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-02)
    Visual Impairment is a form of sensory impairments that affects roughly 6.8% of children younger than 18 years of age, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Unfortantely, an analysis of previous research shows that these students have been found to have low fitness levels due to a number of factors. While there are a lot of factors that play a role into a persons fitness level, teaching strategies used by physical education teachers can be one of the most important. In order to work towards improving these students fitness levels, quality teaching strategies must be identified for physical education teachers to use on a daily basis in class. Thus, the purpose of this synthesis was to determine effective ways to improve the fitness levels of students with visual impairments in physical education. For example, preteaching, tactile modeling, physical guidance, sound sources, and rule & equipment modifications were all found as effective strategies from the literature review.
  • College Coaches Addressing Mental Health of Their Student-Athletes

    Mazzella, Mary Catherine (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-08)
    Mental health has been a hot topic of discussion across many NCAA college campuses. Student-athletes are speaking out about the high demands that are placed on them, whether they are competing at the DI level, DII, or DIII level. These demands are negatively effecting student-athletes mental health. In this synthesis project, the literature reviewed looked into college coaches’ role in addressing their student-athletes’ mental health. College coaches spend a large amount of time with their teams and research has shown that their role and attitude is essential. This literature review also showed that coaches are in a vital position to support their student-athletes with Mental Health Issues (MHIs). Coaches’ who have positive relationships with their student-athletes, create a stigma free team environment, and who are actively trying to increase their Mental Health Literacy (MHL) are better suited to help their student-athletes who are struggling.
  • The Effects of Head Trauma on Athletes who Participate in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA)

    Zaga, Naim (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-16)
    As Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) continues to grow in popularity, the importance of conducting studies on the health and safety of the athletes is imperative. Previous studies on the topic of MMA have revealed the common risks for participating in MMA. It has been suggested that athletes and coaches, as well as MMA organizations need to do a better job of improving the safety of the sport. These promotions are being advised by researchers to look into ways to make the sport safer while also aiding in the research processes. As athletes are constantly putting their bodies through physical harm, the research suggests that improvements and changes need to be made. The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on the effects of head trauma on athletes participating in Mixed Martial Arts.
  • Factors Impacting Physical Education Teachers’ Abilities to Motivate Secondary School Students to be More Physically Active

    Vranic, Jason (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-21)
    Physical movement is an essential part of human life. Without it, we would not be able to move objects, move ourselves, or engage in activities or sports that we love to play. However, analysis of previous research has shown that secondary school students have become more sedentary and their engagement in physical activity over the past decades has decreased. Physical educators have the opportunity to introduce, instruct, and engage students in physical activity from their first days in school all the way up until they graduate from high school. The goal is to not only engage students in physical activity while they are in school but also to build lifelong healthy habits that these students can engage in, far after graduation. Helping students to find the motivation within students to be physically active may be difficult, but physical educators have a great opportunity to accomplish this goal. The purpose of this synthesis project, then, is to review the literature on the different methods by which high school physical education teachers can motivate secondary students to be more physically active
  • The Impact of Forced Retirement on Professional Athletes

    Summers, Justin S (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-21)
    The Impact of forced retirement on professional athletes is prevalent throughout all professional sports. This review explores the key factors associated with involuntary retirement from sport, the impact it has on professional athlete’s wellbeing, and the process of preparing for retirement as a whole. Throughout the process of gathering information there was a total of 10 critical mass peer reviewed articles that included a total of 469 participants. Researchers used various data collection methods to gather information. Findings indicated a variety of important variables that coexist throughout the process of forced retirement in sports; including one’s overall life satisfaction, various stressors, and the most common in injuries. It is clear that involuntary retirement is a tragic outcome caused by a professional athlete’s passion to compete for his/her choice of sport.
  • The Impact of Physical Activity and Physical Education on Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

    Smith, LaToria (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-23)
    Physical activity is one of the most essential factors to physical and mental health and is vital to children. Understanding the importance of living a healthy lifestyle and being physically active is beneficial to children’s futures. While important for all children, physical activity is especially important for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD typically have difficulty with their executive functioning – that is, their abilities to plan, organize, concentrate on one task, and switch focus when needed. Regular physical activity improves executive functioning by reducing symptoms of ADHD such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity (Verret et al., 2012). It is important, then, that physical educators improve their lessons in order to provide lessons with maximum activity, emotional, and behavioral support for students with ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on the impact of physical activity and Physical Education on elementary students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • The Effects of Sport Management Organizations on Job Satisfaction

    Schultz, Dillon (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-15)
    As the demands of a career in sport management grow, it is increasingly important to examine the level of satisfaction employees derive from their jobs in sport. Analysis of previous research demonstrates that employees that are more satisfied with their jobs perform better and are more committed to the organization. Modern coaches have more responsibilities than ever before, being more akin to managers than coaches have been in the past. Ensuring that coaches have the resources and support to meet the ever-changing demands of sport management is critical for the success of the organization. It is recommended for sport management organizations to improve the job satisfaction of employees to facilitate better performance and less turnover among staff members. The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on the effects of sport management organizations on job satisfaction.
  • The Impact of Obesity and Inactivity in Adolescent students on Academic Achievement as Demonstrated by Grade Point Average (GPA)

    Santoro, Zachary (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-16)
    Obesity not only impacts adults, but it is also continuing to impact adolescents in many ways. The health consequences of obesity may be more well known, but obesity may also pose a potential risk to adolescents’ academic achievements. Today, across the globe, adolescents are being negatively impacted more and more by obesity affecting their academic performance and achievements as displayed by several studies.

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