Recent Submissions

  • The Effects That Sport Specialization has on Youth Athletes

    Spulnick, Michael S (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-12-28)
    Youth sport specialization is becoming more popular than ever. Many athletes, parents and coaches think that sport specialization is the best way to reach elite level status in a sport. However, athletes, parents and coaches don’t know all of the positive and negative effects of specialization in a sport. Whereas, sport specialization may help you gain skill development, it is also correlated with higher chances of overuse injuries, psychological stress, and burnout. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and investigate the effects of sport specialization on youth athletes. It was determined that specializing in a sport can allow an athlete to attain a higher level of performance. It was also determined that overuse injuries are the biggest disadvantage when specializing in a sport. Finally, it was determined that younger athletes are at more psychological and physical risk than older athletes.
  • Effects of Early Sports Specialization on Mental Health and Physical Injuries

    Hart, Daniel J (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-31)
    In the landscape of athletics, the topic of sports specialization has recently become more prevalent. From a young age, athletes and their parents see playing sports as an avenue to earn college scholarships, as well as other monies via competition professionally and/or endorsements. With these goals in mind, some athletes see the benefits of choosing to specialize, and to only play one sport year-round. However, specializing in a single sport may also have negative consequences that may not be expected. The purpose of this synthesis is to investigate the effects of early sports specialization on mental health and physical injuries. It was reported that mental health issues from sports specialization are often associated with burnout athletes may no longer enjoy the sport, and they may end up having shortened careers. In addition, physical injuries are often due to overuse of specific body parts for particular sports. This literature review concludes that the benefits of specializing in one sport are more often outweighed by the negatives consequences.
  • The Integration of Technology in Physical Education and Teacher Perceptions of the Effect on Participation of K-12 students.

    Steedman, Olivia (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-05)
    Receiving regular physical activity is beneficial to the physical, mental, and social aspects of health among adolescents. Overall schools, and Physical Education, are essential in achieving health literacy in a population, and they contribute to the achievement of public health goals. However, in recent years, there has been a decrease in physical activity and a decrease in participation in Physical Education. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a catalyst for technology integration, as all educational disciplines were forced virtual. Technology integration in Physical Education has been slow; however, technology provides a means to promote physical activity and participation. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on the effect of the integration of technology on student participation, and the perceptions of teachers and students towards technology use in Physical Education. It was concluded that wrist worn technology is one of the easier technologies to implement into a classroom, and is becoming accepted as one of the easiest strategies to help combat the problem of obesity. It was also concluded that teacher perceptions of implementing technology depend on their prior trainings, experiences, and their environment, and teachers are unlikely to implement technology if they have not had sufficient training. Finally, it was concluded that student perceptions are affected by how teachers implement the technology, which can be both positively and negatively affect participation.
  • The Role of Coaching in the Development of Mental Toughness in Athletes

    Mooney, Cody (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-09)
    Mental toughness is an important emotional skill that can help push athletes through stressful or intense periods of competition. In an athletic setting, athletes spend the most time with their coaches, learn from their coaches, and are affected by their coaches. Coaches can help develop mental toughness in athletes by focusing on building specific elements and behaviors. Coaching strategies for developing mental toughness can be as simple as talking about experiences, to as complex as implementing specific strategies into practice. Currently, coaches understand what mental toughness is, but do not go out of their way to develop it. The strategies that coaches use to develop mental toughness can have both positive and negative effects on athletes, putting importance on the understanding of specific strategies. The purpose of this synthesis is to explore how coaches and coaching can develop and build mental toughness in athletes. This literature review concludes that developing mental toughness in athletes is simple to implement in training, and not time-consuming. Developing mental toughness in athletes will allow for athletes to succeed, inside and outside of the athletic world.
  • The Effects of Higher Intensity Levels on Physical Fitness in Physical Education

    Ferguson, Cynthia D (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05)
    Obesity is considered by many to be an epidemic at all age levels. Specifically, adolescents between the ages of 2 to 19 have increased to body fat percentages of 19.7% over the last five years. Obesity can be caused by (but not limited to) low socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, genetics, and/or physical inactivity. Those with obesity demonstrate a decrease in muscular strength, muscular endurance and cardiovascular endurance; and an increase in an fat mass, BMI, waist circumference, Fat Mass percentage, and waist circumference. An important component when it comes to overcoming or preventing obesity is exercise and exercising at the appropriate intensity level. Physical Education is an opportunity in which adolescents can achieve the recommended daily of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on the beneficial effects of incorporating higher intensity activities on physical fitness levels in Physical Education. It was concluded that integrating higher intensity activities into Physical Education improves health related fitness and body composition, can be incorporated at the primary and secondary levels, and can be added to current curriculums
  • Improving Fitness Levels of Students with Visual Impairments in Physical Education

    Tirone, Kyle (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-02)
    Visual Impairment is a form of sensory impairments that affects roughly 6.8% of children younger than 18 years of age, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Unfortantely, an analysis of previous research shows that these students have been found to have low fitness levels due to a number of factors. While there are a lot of factors that play a role into a persons fitness level, teaching strategies used by physical education teachers can be one of the most important. In order to work towards improving these students fitness levels, quality teaching strategies must be identified for physical education teachers to use on a daily basis in class. Thus, the purpose of this synthesis was to determine effective ways to improve the fitness levels of students with visual impairments in physical education. For example, preteaching, tactile modeling, physical guidance, sound sources, and rule & equipment modifications were all found as effective strategies from the literature review.
  • College Coaches Addressing Mental Health of Their Student-Athletes

    Mazzella, Mary Catherine (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-08)
    Mental health has been a hot topic of discussion across many NCAA college campuses. Student-athletes are speaking out about the high demands that are placed on them, whether they are competing at the DI level, DII, or DIII level. These demands are negatively effecting student-athletes mental health. In this synthesis project, the literature reviewed looked into college coaches’ role in addressing their student-athletes’ mental health. College coaches spend a large amount of time with their teams and research has shown that their role and attitude is essential. This literature review also showed that coaches are in a vital position to support their student-athletes with Mental Health Issues (MHIs). Coaches’ who have positive relationships with their student-athletes, create a stigma free team environment, and who are actively trying to increase their Mental Health Literacy (MHL) are better suited to help their student-athletes who are struggling.
  • The Effects of Head Trauma on Athletes who Participate in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA)

    Zaga, Naim (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-16)
    As Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) continues to grow in popularity, the importance of conducting studies on the health and safety of the athletes is imperative. Previous studies on the topic of MMA have revealed the common risks for participating in MMA. It has been suggested that athletes and coaches, as well as MMA organizations need to do a better job of improving the safety of the sport. These promotions are being advised by researchers to look into ways to make the sport safer while also aiding in the research processes. As athletes are constantly putting their bodies through physical harm, the research suggests that improvements and changes need to be made. The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on the effects of head trauma on athletes participating in Mixed Martial Arts.
  • Factors Impacting Physical Education Teachers’ Abilities to Motivate Secondary School Students to be More Physically Active

    Vranic, Jason (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-21)
    Physical movement is an essential part of human life. Without it, we would not be able to move objects, move ourselves, or engage in activities or sports that we love to play. However, analysis of previous research has shown that secondary school students have become more sedentary and their engagement in physical activity over the past decades has decreased. Physical educators have the opportunity to introduce, instruct, and engage students in physical activity from their first days in school all the way up until they graduate from high school. The goal is to not only engage students in physical activity while they are in school but also to build lifelong healthy habits that these students can engage in, far after graduation. Helping students to find the motivation within students to be physically active may be difficult, but physical educators have a great opportunity to accomplish this goal. The purpose of this synthesis project, then, is to review the literature on the different methods by which high school physical education teachers can motivate secondary students to be more physically active
  • The Impact of Forced Retirement on Professional Athletes

    Summers, Justin S (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-21)
    The Impact of forced retirement on professional athletes is prevalent throughout all professional sports. This review explores the key factors associated with involuntary retirement from sport, the impact it has on professional athlete’s wellbeing, and the process of preparing for retirement as a whole. Throughout the process of gathering information there was a total of 10 critical mass peer reviewed articles that included a total of 469 participants. Researchers used various data collection methods to gather information. Findings indicated a variety of important variables that coexist throughout the process of forced retirement in sports; including one’s overall life satisfaction, various stressors, and the most common in injuries. It is clear that involuntary retirement is a tragic outcome caused by a professional athlete’s passion to compete for his/her choice of sport.
  • The Impact of Physical Activity and Physical Education on Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

    Smith, LaToria (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-23)
    Physical activity is one of the most essential factors to physical and mental health and is vital to children. Understanding the importance of living a healthy lifestyle and being physically active is beneficial to children’s futures. While important for all children, physical activity is especially important for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD typically have difficulty with their executive functioning – that is, their abilities to plan, organize, concentrate on one task, and switch focus when needed. Regular physical activity improves executive functioning by reducing symptoms of ADHD such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity (Verret et al., 2012). It is important, then, that physical educators improve their lessons in order to provide lessons with maximum activity, emotional, and behavioral support for students with ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on the impact of physical activity and Physical Education on elementary students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • The Effects of Sport Management Organizations on Job Satisfaction

    Schultz, Dillon (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-15)
    As the demands of a career in sport management grow, it is increasingly important to examine the level of satisfaction employees derive from their jobs in sport. Analysis of previous research demonstrates that employees that are more satisfied with their jobs perform better and are more committed to the organization. Modern coaches have more responsibilities than ever before, being more akin to managers than coaches have been in the past. Ensuring that coaches have the resources and support to meet the ever-changing demands of sport management is critical for the success of the organization. It is recommended for sport management organizations to improve the job satisfaction of employees to facilitate better performance and less turnover among staff members. The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on the effects of sport management organizations on job satisfaction.
  • The Impact of Obesity and Inactivity in Adolescent students on Academic Achievement as Demonstrated by Grade Point Average (GPA)

    Santoro, Zachary (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-16)
    Obesity not only impacts adults, but it is also continuing to impact adolescents in many ways. The health consequences of obesity may be more well known, but obesity may also pose a potential risk to adolescents’ academic achievements. Today, across the globe, adolescents are being negatively impacted more and more by obesity affecting their academic performance and achievements as displayed by several studies.
  • Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Students’ Behavior in Physical Education

    Reed, Austin (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2023-05-09)
    As school presents a unique challenge for children with behavioral issues the topic of how to deal with challenging behaviors has become an increasingly important topic. The importance of positive behavioral interventions and supports and its effect it has on students’ behavior in physical education has come into focus. Analysis of previous research shows that rewarding students when they engage in productive behaviors that will later be expected of them in different contexts creates a positive association with those behaviors, thus incentivizing those students to engage in those behaviors in the future. Positive behavioral interventions and supports had significantly impacted students’ behavior in physical education, students with disabilities versus students without disabilities, and student outcomes. Research has suggested that students are motivated to be rewarded when they engage in productive behaviors. It also suggests that positive behavioral interventions and supports demonstrates improvements in disciplinary behavior, school climate, organizational health, student bullying behavior and peer victimization, and academic achievement. The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on positive behavioral interventions and supports and its effect on students’ behavior in physical education
  • The Factors that Affect Social Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Physical Education

    Conte, Cody (SUNY Brockport, Department of Education and Human Development, 2023-04-22)
    Students with disabilities are not often the target participants for sports or most athletic students in physical education (PE) classes. Because of this and other social differences, students with disabilities are rarely socially accepted by their teachers or peers in PE class. Students with disabilities are more likely to be bullied than their counterparts and have to jump through many barriers to experience a truly inclusive environment in physical education. In order for students with disabilities to be successful and included in the sport and PE environment, teachers must make appropriate modifications and accommodations to each lesson and activity, as well as learn their students, listen to their students, and create an environment where all students are included and can be accepted. Less emphasis should be put on athletic abilities and more on working together, being active, and doing your best. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the social acceptance of students with disabilities in physical education.
  • The Stigma Surrounding Mental Health Disorders in Collegiate Athletes: A Synthesis of the Research Literature

    Hopple, Christine; Buccheri, Holly (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-23)
    Mental health issues are a growing problem for many individuals. For student-athletes, the stigma that comes from seeking help is especially difficult. Student-athletes fall under three subgroups this being “emerging adults” ages 18-24, second enrolled in secondary education and third student-athletes compete in high-level sport adding unique stressors their non-athletic peers do not have. Each one has its own risk for developing a mental health issue. As student-athletes, they are under more stress than their non-athletic counterparts. Research has shown that public and personal stigmas plays a key role in why individuals will not seek help. Primary reasons for not seeking therapy are the stigmas of being seen when seeking counseling, and others assuming an underlying personal weakness not expected of athletes. Researchers are beginning to measure these stressors, identify factors involved with stigmas, and understand help-seeking. With the use of new emerging computer technologies, student-athletes are being offered specialized interactive software programs to combat stigmas and allow a safe environment so that anonymity is not compromised. Athletic staffs are slowly becoming more involved in mental health issues and should receive mental health training to assist their athletes. The purpose of this synthesis was to investigate the role that stigmas have on mental health issues with student-athletes
  • The Effects of Sports Related Concussions on Retired Professional Football Players

    Anthony, Matthew (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-21)
    Concussions in the NFL have become extremely important over the last decade. As new information regarding these brain injuries is discovered, there is an increase in awareness on and off the field. Former athletes Junior Seau and Percy Harvin suffered from concussions during their playing careers and there have been lasting impacts when they retired from the NFL. Seau committed suicide while being diagnosed with CTE and Harvin was diagnosed with depression and anxiety. Researchers on the topic have found there are significant signs of future mental illness and impairments associated with concussions for retired professional football athletes. For example, there’s an increased risk of depression. It has been suggested by researchers to further the investigation on these brain injuries and come up with new innovative ways to report concussions to help these athletes ease their symptoms. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the effects of sports-related concussions on the cognitive and mental health of retired professional football athletes.
  • Overtraining in Sports and its Impact on Athletes

    Allocco, Victoria (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-12)
    Athletic participation has increased across the country for individuals of all ages. There are more opportunities to join organizations competitively, which can consist of intercollegiate or travel teams. There is pressure in society to be the best at the individual’s selected sport, which can cause some concerns. To perform at a higher level than their teammates, athletes may feel obligated to train and practice excessively. Several hours of training and practice can result in injuries or illness. These conditions could result in physical impacts, which can affect an individual’s body functions. In addition, a significant number of hours engaged in sport participation is linked to influencing one’s mental well-being. If the necessary steps aren’t taken when an athlete is overtrained, this may result in long-term or chronic damage.
  • The Impact of Adaptive Sports and Physical Activity for Veterans with Disabilities

    Mezoni, Rachel (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2022-12-16)
    Over the years, adaptive sports and physical activity has become more prominent to support individuals with disabilities. Veterans with a disability tend to have a more unique situation while living with a disability because of the demands from being in service. While reviewing existing research, it has shown that adaptive sports and physical activity impact veterans who have a disability in multiple different facets. Three key themes were found in the research: the physical, psychological, and social benefits, the impact of community engagement, and the access veterans have to programs and the conditions within the program. The purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on the impact adaptive sports and physical activity has on veterans with physical disabilities.
  • The Impact of Technology and How It Can Affect Teachers

    Galella, Nicholas (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2022-12)
    Education has never been seen as a static concept – as humans, we are always trying to evolve the system for increased success. Throughout history, we see ideas that become a reality and technology that is created, constantly transforming. Medicine can help extend a human’s life to incredible limits. Machines are able to produce at lightspeed rates. Technology entered the education system and has opened our eyes to different perspectives. It has given us the opportunity to transform performance for those that could never see it. Our modern tools seem to produce endless possibilities. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on Physical Education teachers’ perceptions of using technology in PE.

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