Recent Submissions

  • A Comparative Analysis of Cognitive Differences Among Female Elite and Nonelite High School Field Hockey Players and High School Physical Education Class Nonathletes

    Adams, Linda Berner; The College at Brockport (12/1/1991)
    The Empire State Games Western Scholastic Field Hockey Team (n = 14), a high school field hockey team (n = 15), and nonathletes in a high school physical education class (n = 9) were given a battery of tests and inventories to compare mental aspects such as abstract visual reasoning, concentration, sport-confidence, psychological skills relevant to exceptional performance, and competitive anxiety. Analyses included multivariate analysis of variance for each cognitive category, one way univariate analysis of variance for each subtest within a cognitive category, and a stepwise multiple regression technique to determine which tests made the greatest contribution to predicting group membership. Multiple analysis revealed that the elite group displayed significantly higher sport-confidence and selected psychological skills. Results of a stepwise multiple regression technique indicated that motivation, mental preparation, and team motivation accounted for 67% of the behavioral variance. A subsequent multivariate analysis within just the two field hockey groups revealed that the top half of the elite group displayed significantly higher trait sport-confidence and motivation than the bottom half of the nonelite group. A stepwise multiple regression analysis found that motivation, trait sport-confidence, state sport-confidence, and sequencing of information accounted for 99% of the behavioral variance. The results of this investigation indicated that there are cognitive differences already significant at the high school level, and that these factors influence the development of perceived competence.
  • The Socialization of Elite Blind Athletes into Sport

    Tepfer, Amanda; The College at Brockport (7/1/2004)
    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to gather information about how athletes with sensory impairments are socialized into sport, (2) to why they continue to participate and compete, (3) to what barriers, if any, they faced due to their blindness or visual impairment. Interview data were gathered from 32 elite athletes (22 males and 10 females) who competed in the 3rd Pan Am Games for the Blind. Pa1ticipants ranged in age from 17-50 (M=27.5 years). Under the classification system used by the ISBA, 1 2 of the participants were classified B1, 7 were classified B2, and 13 were classified B3. The interview protocol included open and closed-ended questions about personal attributes, socializing agents, socializing situations and barriers they faced and are currently confronted with. The participants became involved in sports between the ages of 7 and 36 (M=16.6 years). Over 80% of the participants attended public schools (K-12) with inclusive physical education classes. The other 20% either attended a segregated school for the blind or both types of schools. Results indicated family as the most important socializing agent during childhood, friends during adolescence, and the athletes themselves and coaches’ currently. These results are consistent with other developmental research studies. During all three stages examined (childhood, adolescence, and present), mothers were more influential than any other agent regardless of the participant’s gender. The three major barriers when the participants first began playing sports were perceived perceptions of others, transportation, and lack of confidence. Currently, the barriers are cost of participation, lack of participants, and perceived perceptions of others.
  • The Effects of Extrinsic Reinforcement Upon the Motor Performance of Learning Disabled Children on a Selected Motor Task

    Zachofsky, Daniel Lee; The College at Brockport (8/1/1974)
    The present investigation was conducted to study the effects of extrinsic reinforcement upon the motor performance of learning disabled children on a selected motor task. Subjects selected were sixty-eight learning disabled children. The sample was randomly divided into a Reinforcement, Non-Reinforcement, and Control group and administered a pretest and posttest on a specific motor task. A five week physical education program was provided to the Reinforcement and Non-Reinforcement groups, with no treatment provided to the Control group. Only the Reinforcement group received the experimental treatment of tangible items such as candy bars, balls, and frisbees. It was the contention of the experimenter that the inclusion of extrinsic reinforcement would improve the motor performance by learning disabled children on a selected motor task. The subjects were administered a softball throw test to measure the variables Distance, Accuracy, and Total Score. The Total Score was measured by taking the highest value of the three trials when the Accuracy score was subtracted from the Distance score. The scores were subjected to a two-way Analysis of Variance with repeated measurements. The Reinforcement group made improvements on all variables over testings. On the same variables, the Non-Reinforcement and Control groups decreased over testings. The improvements made over testings by the Reinforcement group was attributed to the inclusion of extrinsic reinforcement and/or the physical education program. No significant relationship was found between the amount of check marks a subject received and the improvements made over testings on all three variables. The check mark system approach was based on the quality of each individual's task accomplishment and appropriate functioning. The amount of check marks a subject received was not the essential factor of this approach. While the findings may indicate that extrinsic reinforcement and/or the physical education program improved the motor performance of learning disabled children, it can only be generalized to a male population and a specific motor task. Caution should be used in generalizing the findings.
  • The Effect of Weight Training on the Swimming Performance of Female Intercollegiate Competitive Swimmers

    Kenney, Gregory A.; Schuhle, Karen M. (5/29/1984)
    The study investigated the effects of weight training on the swimming performance of female intercollegiate competitive swimmers. Twelve members of the S.U.N.Y. College at Brockport women's swim team served as subjects. Six subjects participated in a ten week weight training program as well as in the daily two hour in-water team swimming practices. The other six subjects participated in the same in-water swimming practices but not in the weight training. Pre- and rest-testing was conducted at the beginning and end of the ten week training program. Performance variables tested included a jump and reach; 25 yard mean velocity, 10 yard maximum velocity, distance/stroke at maximum velocity, and stroke rate at maximum velocity for the front crawl and breaststroke. Data analysis was conducted at a .05 level of significance using a correlated t-test. The writer failed to reject the null hypothesis for all variables tested.
  • An Examination of Psychological Differences between Elite, College, and High School Female Soccer Players

    Stuart, Moira; Schockow, Joan E.; The College at Brockport (5/1/2000)
    This study was conducted to examine the psychological differences between elite, college, and high school female soccer players. The six personality traits that were measured included competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration skills, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation levels, and leadership skills. Three self-evaluation questionnaires were administered to the U.S. Women's National Soccer Team (elite), the State University of New York at Brockport and Nazareth College women's soccer teams (college), and Brockport, Livonia, and Marcellus high school soccer teams. The three questionnaires included the Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT; Martens, Burton, and Vealey, 1990), the Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory (TSCI; Vealey, 1986), and the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ; Smith, 1994). In order to determine if the three groups differed in the psychological variables of competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration skills, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation levels, and leadership skills, a one-way MANOVA was conducted. The overall multivariate relationship was significant (Wilks' lambda = .564, F (10, 144) = 4.77 p < .001. Follow up analyses revealed that competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, mental preparation skills, and leadership skills differentiated the three groups. Specifically using Student-Newman-Keuls it was found that the college group exhibited the highest levels of competitive trait anxiety and leadership skills. The elite group differed from the other two by having the highest scores in trait self-confidence, and mental preparation skills. No significant differences were found between the three groups in concentration skills or achievement motivation levels.
  • Congruity between Assessment Criteria and Cooperating Teacher Assessment of Student Teachers

    Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Sofo, Seidu; The College at Brockport (12/1/1998)
    This study investigated the congruity between cooperating teachers' assessment of student teachers and established set of criteria for assessment during student teaching. The study also examined the substance of the comments of cooperating teachers about student teachers' performances. The final evaluation forms submitted by the cooperating teachers to the student teaching coordinator served as the main source of data. These forms were content analyzed to determine the congruity of cooperating teachers' assessment and the set of assessment criteria. The researcher developed the Brockport Supervision Analysis System—Physical Education (BSASPE) instrument for data analysis. Subjects for the study included 41 cooperating teachers (27 males and 14 females) who supervised 32 student teachers for the period Fall 1995 through Spring 1998. The student teachers (22 males and 10 females) were enrolled in the physical education teacher certification program at SUNY Brockport. The student teachers in this study taught in 34 different schools during the period covered by the study. These included 17 elementary schools, 11 middle schools, and six high schools. The results indicated that while most cooperating teachers awarded outstanding and highly competent grades to their student teachers, it was incongruent with the set of assessment criteria established by the university. However, the assessment of one student teacher awarded a non-competent grade was congruent with assessment criteria. It was also found that the cooperating teachers' comments were related to the competencies under which they were written. The study showed that cooperating teachers' comments differed with the grade levels taught by student teachers. There is the need for further research to ascertain why most cooperating teachers' assessments were not congruent with established assessment criteria, even though they had the ability to make comments related to the major competencies for student teaching.
  • Leisure Constraints on Senior Center Participation

    Udd, Edward; Toon, Carrie L.; The College at Brockport (6/17/2002)
    The purpose of this study was to determine which factors most greatly influence senior center participation levels. Some of the factors which were analyzed include perceived degree of arthritis, perceived quality of life, and demographic variables such as age, gender, race, living arrangements, marital status, highest level of completed education, income, and method of transportation to and from the senior centers. It was hypothesized that all these factors have an effect on level of participation to some degree. The participants in this study included 74 women and 31 men who ranged in age from 55 to 88 years (M = 74.67) and attended one of three different senior centers in Monroe County, New York. In order to determine which factor or factors most affected senior center participation, a twenty-three question survey was developed. This survey was divided into four sections, senior center, arthritis, quality of life, and demographic information. Several multiple regressions calculations indicate that level of support from family and friends, gender, income, and living arrangements had the strongest correlation to senior center participation levels.
  • Strength, Muscular Endurance, and Cardiorespiratory Endurance Changes in College Males and Females as a Function of Training

    Kenney, Gregory A.; Scotland, Bruce Michael; The College at Brockport (1/1/1976)
    The strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory trainability of men and women were investigated. The subjects, twelve male and ten females, engaged in a six week training program in which they were required to perform progressive resistance exercises using DeLorme's technique in order to increase their strength and muscular endurance. In addition, the subjects took part in a six week interval running program for the purpose of developing cardiorespiratory endurance. Prior to training each subject was tested for elbow flexion strength with Clarke's cable tensiometer. Muscular endurance was measured using Shaver's arm-lever ergometer method, and cardiorespiratory endurance according to the Astrand-Rhyming bicycle ergometer technique. Following the training program the subjects were re-tested in a manner patterned after the initial test. While both men and women increased significantly in strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory endurance following the six weeks of training there were no significant differences between the sexes in terms of their strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory trainability. However, absolute strength gains were found to be significantly greater in men than women. This difference was attributed to the predominantly male hormone testosterone which enables men to develop greater amounts of muscle mass and achieve greater strength levels than women.
  • The reliability of the New York Statewide Assessment Rubric for Badminton at the Commencement Level when used by a Master-Teacher, a Student-Teacher, and Peer.

    Carson, David Alan; The College at Brockport (8/1/2003)
    The purpose of this study was to provide physical education professionals with empirical data that supports the current literature on authentic assessment. The recent literature points out the benefits of authentic assessment: it encourages students to think and perform at a "higher level", relates to unit and curriculum goals, and it improves teacher and student accountability. A rubric is the most widely used authentic assessment tool in physical education and peer authentic assessment is a common assessment style. The New York Statewide Rubric at the Commencement Level in Badminton was the assessment tool used in the study and the students were assessed using peer assessment. Sixteen co-ed high school physical education students were involved in the study. A master-teacher, a student-teacher, and each peer used the New York Statewide Rubric at the Commencement Level in Badminton over a four day period. The results of the master-teacher, the student-teacher, and peers were put through a reliability analysis. The final statistical results support that the New York Statewide Assessment at the Commencement Level is reliable when used by a master-teacher, a student-teacher, and peer. Specific procedures and findings are presented along with a detailed discussion which includes future directions.
  • The Effects of Imagery on Competitive Anxiety in High School Wrestlers

    Smith, Daniel; Vandenburg, Lynwood G.; The College at Brockport (7/1/1992)
    The purpose of this investigation was to study imagery as an effective tool for decreasing competitive anxiety in high school wrestlers. The investigation was conducted using 27 subjects from a high school wrestling team. The subjects were selected for a treatment or control group by a pretest SCAT score. Both groups consisted of high to low anxiety subjects. The treatment group received an imagery program designed to decrease competitive anxiety. The contact sessions were fifteen minutes in length, culminating into 22 sessions over a nine week period. Both groups were pretested and posttested using the Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT) (Martens, 1977), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) (Martens, Vealey, Burton, Bump, & Smith, 1990). Utilizing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) design, differences in SCAT and each sub-component of the CSAI-2 inventories (Cognitive, Somatic and State Self-confidence) were evaluated. The results showed significant reduction in state anxiety for the treatment group, specifically the cognitive and somatic components. There was a trend developing for improved self-confidence, although it was not statistically significant. The trait anxiety results showed no significant difference between treatment and control groups. The investigation showed that imagery can be an effective tool in decreasing competitive state anxiety.
  • Using an After School Martial Arts Program to Increase Student Motivation

    DeWilde, Jeffrey R.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2008)
    In education there are many factors outside of the classroom that can have an impact on student motivation; as a result school districts offer athletic and extracurricular activities that help promote learning and student success. Using the TaeKwonDo Institute’s Character Reward Program, this thesis project examines the relationship between after school program involvement and student motivation. The literature review defines and explores the history of after school programs, student motivation and character development, and how martial arts supports and encourages these attributes. The active research, a four-week study, was conducted with 20 students, grades 1-8, who were enrolled in a taekwondo after school program, as well as a control group of 20 students, grades 1-8, who attended taekwondo lessons twice a week but did not participate in the after school program. Pre and post surveys were given to both students and parents on motivation and academic achievement. Within the Character Reward Program, motivation was measured by time spent on homework, ability to complete homework and household chores without being asked, following directions from parents, and improvement shown in academic performance. Study conclusions support participation in after school programs, martial arts in particular, to increase student motivation and achievement.
  • Investigation of Teaching Strategies Used in First Grade Classrooms that could be Applied in Physical Education to Support the Development of Literacy Skills

    Cruz, Luz M.; Robinson, Marjorie Oster; The College at Brockport (5/1/2003)
    This thesis focuses on strategies used to teach first graders literacy skills that could be implemented in a physical education program that would benefit the development of both physical education skills and literacy skills in first graders. Qualitative research was selected to be the method of investigation and data collection consisted of observations, interviews, and document analysis. The review of literature includes literature related to the integration of academics into physical education, national and state standards for physical education and language arts, how children gain literacy skills, the practical application of integrating language arts into physical education, and the effect that integrating language arts has on the acquisition of physical education objectives. Two first grade teachers were selected and volunteered to participate in this study. I observed six times in each of their classrooms and interviewed each teacher three times during the observation process. Three students from each classroom were interviewed to get a student's perspective on learning literacy skills. The data were analyzed for strategies that were common to both classrooms. These common strategies were then measured against criteria for implementation in my physical education. Three strategies were selected to be implemented and had support in professional literature. I implemented the three strategies with the two classrooms in which I observed and in two additional first grades. All of these classes were videotaped and the videotapes were analyzed by two Language Arts experts for the effectiveness and usefulness of implementing the selected strategies. The three strategies implemented were the use of a K-W-L chart, reading aloud books related to physical education, and providing a print rich environment. The Language Arts experts determined that these three strategies were effective and useful strategies, benefiting both physical education and language arts. These three strategies also have support in the professional literature. Future research in this area may result in additional classroom strategies being identified for use in the gymnasium. This study may also encourage physical educators to observe what strategies are being used in their schools and adapt these strategies for use in their classes.
  • Effects of Visual Impairment, Gender, and Age on Self-Determination Opportunities at Home, with Friends, with Health Care, at School, and in Physical Education

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Robinson, Barbara Lynn; The College at Brockport (12/1/2002)
    Research on Self-Determination Theory has been conducted on many aspects of an individual's across the lifespan. Studies have researched the effects of self-determined behaviors on general education, athletic sport participation, and an individual's control of their own needs. However, few studies have been conducted on self-determination opportunities that are provided in physical education. Studies indicate an importance of self-determination in all aspects of ones life with regard to perceived competence, motivation, goal setting, choice making and achievement of positive outcomes. Few studies have been conducted regarding the effects of self-determination on the lives of individuals with visual impairment or deaf-blindness. The current study examined self-determination opportunities across the following domains: at home, with friends, with health care, at school, and during physical education of students with visual impairments and deaf-blindness. Fifty-four students, 31 boys and 23 girls (ages 8 to 23 years), who participated in a one-week summer sport camp were surveyed. The variables studied were: level of visual impairments, gender, and age. A 2X2X3 MANOVA and post hoc analysis indicated that a significant difference for level of visual impairment was present; however, no significant differences were indicated for gender and age. All classifications of visual impairment scored low across all domains studied. It was concluded that self-determination opportunities are not being provided to students with visual impairments.
  • The Effect of Auditory Cues on the Bowling Performance of the Visually Handicapped

    French, Ronald W.; Reid, Carol Linda; The College at Brockport (8/1/1975)
    The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of an auditory cue on the bowling performance of visually handicapped students. The sample consisted of thirty visually handicapped subjects (fifteen congenital and fifteen acquired). Subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of bowling tasks. The task involved bowling with and without an audible goal locater. It was hypothesized that the utilization of the audible goal locater would significantly improve the bowling performance of visually handicapped students. This study further investigated the relationship between onset of visual impairment and bowling performance. Based on statistical analysis the hypothesis was supported. It was found that bowling performance was significantly superior with the utilization of the audible goal locater than without for both acquired and congenitally visually handicapped students. Further, bowling performance of the acquired visually handicapped was significantly superior to the bowling performance of the congenitally visually handicapped with and without the audible goal locater. It was concluded that the utilization of the audible goal locater can increase bowling performance of the visually handicapped.
  • The Perceptions of the Teacher Certification Students Regarding their Program of Study while at SUNY Brockport in Two Timelines

    Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Rotich Sagero, Jerono Phylis; The College at Brockport (12/1/1998)
    Research has supported the need for curriculum and program reformation, but relatively little work has been done on how programs have been reformed. Furthermore, minimal research attention has been given to the perceptions of the students on their programs of study. This research was designed to examine the perceptions of students on their teacher education programs of study while at SUNY college at Brockport. A total of 78 Students who completed between 1989 and 1996 completed the survey questionnaire which was a measure of their perceptions. They were categorized into two different timelines; timeline -one consisted of those who graduated between 1989 and the spring of 1993 and timeline-two consisted of those who graduated between the fall of 1993 and 1996. Descriptive analysis of data revealed that both programs had an impact on the individual students. When the perceptions of the students from the two timelines were compared, it was found that the students in timeline- two generally rated their program to be more beneficial for their present employment as opposed to those in timeline -one. Therefore, there is a reason to believe that the changes which were effected between the fall of 1993 to 1996 may have been a factor in their perceptions.
  • The Relationship between Motor Skill Activity Choice and the Acquisition of Skill and Attitudes Toward Physical Education in Seventh Grade Boys

    Hurwitz, Richard; Miskell, Stephen P.; The College at Brockport (8/1/1982)
    This study compared the acquisition of skill and attitudes toward physical education manifested by seventh grade boys who were provided with choice during a basketball unit to those of seventh grade boys who were not provided with choice. The subjects were pre and posttested using portion of the AAHPER Basketball Skills Test Manual for Boys and the Kneer Attitude Inventory. The data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance. Following a significant multivariate F value, a post hoc analysis was conducted on each dependent variable. Results of the univariate analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the groups on the dribble test. Neither group improved in the underbasket shot, perhaps due to the complexity of the skill. Subjects in the control (no choice) group demonstrated a higher degree of skill on the foul shot test after instruction, while the members of the experimental (choice) group performed significantly better on the speed pass test. Members of the experimental group reported more positive attitudes toward physical education, although these results reflected a significant disordinal interaction between the groups. The investigator determined that some of the results of this study may be explained by applying Gentile's (1972) notion of a continuum of open and closed skills. The findings of the present study suggest that physical educators might do well to apply a shared decision making (choice) method of instruction when teaching open motor skills, and to use a teacher directed (no choice) method of instruction to facilitate the learning of closed motor skills. Skills that fall in between open and closed might be taught equally as well by either method of instruction.
  • The Lived Experience of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Physical Activity

    Kretchman, R. Scott; Mueller, Lois Marie; The College at Brockport (4/1/1982)
    This study attempted to discover the actual lived nature or lived experience of motivation in physical activity, focusing on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This was done by phenomenologically analyzing intrinsic, extrinsic and general motivation, doing a self-study of motivation as experienced in physical activity, and studying other's motivation through an interview process. Focus centered on six areas: the motivation responsible for initiating and continuing activity, the pattern of motivation within an activity, the effect of past experiences on future motivation, whether a hierarchy of motives exists, whether intrinsic and extrinsic motives are additive, detractive or both, and the role of play, great moments, flow experiences, and peak experiences in the process of motivation. The phenomenology was used to analyze the interview material and self-study in regard to these six areas. Based on this analysis, conclusions were drawn. The primary motivation for initiating or continuing activity may be either intrinsic or extrinsic. No definite pattern of motivation was found. The past experiences of subjects seemed to have some effect on their present and future doing. A hierarchy of motives seemed to exist in most cases. However, this ranking was seldom clear and often changing. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors may be additive or detractive or simply co-exist. Finally, play, flow and peak experiences were seen to be primarily intrinsic, while great moments fell into either an intrinsic or extrinsic category depending how they were perceived. This study supports the belief that reference to involvement in a physical activity as being intrinsically or extrinsically motivated is too simplistic, misleading and often incorrect.
  • The Effect of Brailling and Physical Guidance on the Self-Efficacy of Children who are Blind

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; O'Connell, Megan E.; The College at Brockport (5/1/2001)
    Children who are blind experience deficits in fitness and motor skills (Lieberman and McHugh, 2001; Skaggs and Hopper, 1996; Skellenger, Rosenblum and Jaeger, 1997). In addition children who are blind possess low self-efficacy (Craft and Hogan, 1985). Skill level, opportunities and self-efficacy may increase with proper instruction. Children in general benefit from instruction, yet there is limited research on modeling techniques and self-efficacy for children who are blind. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of brailling and physical guidance teaching techniques on the self-efficacy of children who are blind during goal ball skills. In addition, the study determined which sources of self-efficacy, proposed be Bandura (1997), had the greatest effect on the self-efficacy of the participants of the study. The self-efficacy of children who are blind was analyzed using two different teaching methods for the sport of goal ball. Counselors in a one-week summer camp were paired with campers who are blind 1:1 and randomly assigned a teaching technique. Brailling and physical guidance both coupled with explanation were studied to determine whether or not they helped in increasing self-efficacy in goal ball skills and which one elicited a greater improvement. This study also analyzed the sources of efficacy. A pre posttest self-efficacy questionnaire (5 point Likert Scale) was used for the self-efficacy, open ended questions were used to determine sources, and counselor journals were also used in collecting information for the sources. Results determined that both brailling and physical guidance significantly (p < .05) increased self-efficacy scores. The results provide evidence that both brailling and physical guidance have an effect on the self-efficacy of participants who are blind. Both physical guidance and brailling significantly increased the participant's efficacious level within groups. Self-efficacy score differences (between pre and post-test) between physical guidance and brailling was not examined and it was not determined whether these pre/post test scores differences were significant. When looking at the statistical outcomes of brailling vs. physical guidance in pretest and posttest scores, the results reveal that there were no significant differences between physical guidance and brailling in pretest scores or posttest scores. When analyzing the sources of self-efficacy, verbal persuasion and vicarious experience (Bandura, 1997) increased, past performance remained the same, and physiological state had no effect after the one week intervention was completed. Based on the results of the current study, the following conclusions can be made: 1. Modeling techniques for participants who are blind in goal ball, enhanced self-efficacy for the participants in both physical guidance and brailling groups. 2. Both physical guidance and brailling enhanced every participant's self-efficacy. Although a stronger case was found with physical guidance, no significant differences were found between the two modeling techniques. 3. The sources of efficacy that influenced the participant's self-efficacy the most were vicarious experience in the lead with 76%, past performance 54%, verbal persuasion 45% and physiological state accounted for less than 100%.
  • The Effects of Training on Preservice Teachers using Computerized Systematic Observation

    Marriott, Stephen T.; The College at Brockport (8/1/2009)
    Although systematic observation software systems are being used in teacher preparation programs, research investigating the type and amount of training pre-service educators need to use this software to code teaching behaviors is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in three training protocols for pre-service physical educators using the Behavioral Evaluation Strategies and Taxonomy software system for the first time. Participants were 31 pre-service physical education teacher education students enrolled in a methods of elementary physical education instruction course at a midsized college located in western New York State. Data were collected using a function from the BEST software system that automatically charted frequencies of each behavior recorded by the user. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0). Descriptive statistics were obtained and an ANOV A was used to determine whether there were differences (and level or significance) between four different training group means. Each experimental group was compared to the control group using Dunnett post-hoc tests. An unpaired t-test (two-tailed) was used to determine whether there were differences (and level of significance) between the participants who received a training video and the participants who did not. Results of ANOVA determined differences to be significant at p=0.060 between the four groups. Dunnett post-hoc tests determined significance levels for the following comparisons between the Control Group (CG) and Training Protocol 1 (p =0.284), CG and Training Protocol 2 (p =0.041), and CG and Training Protocol 3 (p = 0.075). Results of the unpaired t-test (two-tailed) indicated participants viewing the training video increased their ability to identify a greater amount of feedback at p = 0.025. The results of this study suggest using video training techniques to train pre-service physical education teachers to use systematic observation software.
  • The Effects of Tension Recognition and Control on Beginning Taekwon-Do Instruction

    Frederick, Bruce; Park, Young Don; The College at Brockport (6/1/1981)
    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Jacobson's differential relaxation techniques on beginning instruction in Taekwon-Do, a Korean form of self defense. The subjects for this study consisted of twenty-two male and two female students enrolled in an introductory performance course in Taekwon-Do within the physical education program at the State University College at Brockport, Brockport, New York, Videotaped evaluation of the students' techniques by master instructors was employed to measure improvement and skill level of the subjects. The test measured body position, leg or arm position, breathing, focus, relaxation, power, and stance of the subject while he/she performed two basic routines normally required for the promotion to yellow stripe, (Saju Jirugi and Saju Chagi). The class, consisting of twenty-four students, was randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received identical instruction in Taekwon-Do for approximately fifty minutes per day, three days per week for seven weeks. During the last ten minutes of class, one group received instruction in Jacobsonian methods of tension recognition and control (differential relaxation) while the other group practiced independently under the supervision of a black belt instructor. Prior to their separation into two groups, all of the students were pre tested on their ability to perform the two test routines, Six weeks later, the students were post tested on their ability to perform the same two routines. Both the pre test and post test were recorded on videotape and scored by five master instructors (one 8th, two 7th, and two 5th degree black belts in Taekwon-Do). An analysis of simple main effects demonstrated a significant (p ‹ 0.5) improvement of the experimental group over the improvement of the control group. Within the scope and the limitations of this study, it is concluded that a ten minute instructional program in Jacobsonian methods of tension recognition and control, when given simultaneously with instruction in Taekwon-Do, three days per week, for six weeks, resulted in significant improvement in beginners, performance of the beginner patterns Four Directional Punch (Saju Jirugi) and Four Directional Kick (Saju Chagi).

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