Recent Submissions

  • The Effects of Sports Related Concussions on Retired Professional Football Players

    Anthony, Matthew (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-21)
    Concussions in the NFL have become extremely important over the last decade. As new information regarding these brain injuries is discovered, there is an increase in awareness on and off the field. Former athletes Junior Seau and Percy Harvin suffered from concussions during their playing careers and there have been lasting impacts when they retired from the NFL. Seau committed suicide while being diagnosed with CTE and Harvin was diagnosed with depression and anxiety. Researchers on the topic have found there are significant signs of future mental illness and impairments associated with concussions for retired professional football athletes. For example, there’s an increased risk of depression. It has been suggested by researchers to further the investigation on these brain injuries and come up with new innovative ways to report concussions to help these athletes ease their symptoms. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the effects of sports-related concussions on the cognitive and mental health of retired professional football athletes.
  • Overtraining in Sports and its Impact on Athletes

    Allocco, Victoria (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2021-12-12)
    Athletic participation has increased across the country for individuals of all ages. There are more opportunities to join organizations competitively, which can consist of intercollegiate or travel teams. There is pressure in society to be the best at the individual’s selected sport, which can cause some concerns. To perform at a higher level than their teammates, athletes may feel obligated to train and practice excessively. Several hours of training and practice can result in injuries or illness. These conditions could result in physical impacts, which can affect an individual’s body functions. In addition, a significant number of hours engaged in sport participation is linked to influencing one’s mental well-being. If the necessary steps aren’t taken when an athlete is overtrained, this may result in long-term or chronic damage.
  • The Impact of Adaptive Sports and Physical Activity for Veterans with Disabilities

    Mezoni, Rachel (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2022-12-16)
    Over the years, adaptive sports and physical activity has become more prominent to support individuals with disabilities. Veterans with a disability tend to have a more unique situation while living with a disability because of the demands from being in service. While reviewing existing research, it has shown that adaptive sports and physical activity impact veterans who have a disability in multiple different facets. Three key themes were found in the research: the physical, psychological, and social benefits, the impact of community engagement, and the access veterans have to programs and the conditions within the program. The purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on the impact adaptive sports and physical activity has on veterans with physical disabilities.
  • The Impact of Technology and How It Can Affect Teachers

    Galella, Nicholas (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2022-12)
    Education has never been seen as a static concept – as humans, we are always trying to evolve the system for increased success. Throughout history, we see ideas that become a reality and technology that is created, constantly transforming. Medicine can help extend a human’s life to incredible limits. Machines are able to produce at lightspeed rates. Technology entered the education system and has opened our eyes to different perspectives. It has given us the opportunity to transform performance for those that could never see it. Our modern tools seem to produce endless possibilities. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on Physical Education teachers’ perceptions of using technology in PE.
  • The Effect of Peer Influence on Student Motivation

    Castillo, Gary (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2022-12-10)
    As physical activity continues to diminish, the importance of a physical education foundation becomes a necessity for a healthy lifestyle. There is a steady decline in physical activity in teenagers ages 14 to 18 in both male and female students. Understanding what motivates teenagers to be physically active can help turn this problem around. Analysis of previous research shows that peer motivation can significantly improve a teenager’s motivation to participate in physical education or physical activity. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the effect of peer influence on a student’s motivation to participate in physical education.
  • The Effect of Time of Day and the Scheduling of Physical Education on Academic Achievement

    Castellanos, Daniella (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2022-12-16)
    Education has progressed and continues to develop to meet the needs of all students. An abundance of research has been conducted exploring functional and instructional best practices to maximize academic achievement. Research revealed separately that the time of day affects students' academic performance, and that physical education improves cognitive functioning. Combining these two strategies of purposefully scheduling physical education to affect students’ academic achievement should be considered. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on the time of day and the scheduling of physical education on academic achievement. Utilizing the positive effects of physical education and understanding time of day effects, stakeholders can create meaningful policies that have a significant impact on students' academic success.
  • Methods to Enhance Team Cohesion

    Leddy, Colin (SUNY Brockport Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2022-12-01)
    Athletics are extremely competitive, and organizations will attempt to maximize the potential of their programs. Being a sound, cohesive unit leads to stronger bonds and a better experience for members of a team. The road to building a unified team is nonlinear; it has been suggested that certain methods of team-building can enhance the perceptions of cohesion. It is believed that being achieving high perceptions of team cohesion can positively influence results. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on methods to enhance team cohesion.
  • Anxiety and Its’ Effect on Sport Performance

    Allen, Burlin (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2022-12-07)
    As the mental health aspect in sport have become an increasingly important topic, the importance of the effect it has on the athlete and their performance has come into focus. Analysis of previous research shows that anxiety is present in athletes and can have an impact on their performance. It has been suggested that the type of sport an athlete participates in may play a part of their cognitive anxiety levels. It has also been suggested that anxiety relieving techniques should be advised and implemented into athletes’ daily routine to help limit anxiety and promote sport performance. Performance-based anxiety can have a detrimental impact on the athlete. The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on performance-based anxiety and its effect on the athlete.
  • The Impact of Student Choice on Elementary and Middle School Physical Education

    Sweet, Adam (SUNY Brockport, Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, 2022-12-14)
    For decades the concern of child and adolescent health has progressively increased. Physical educators have the responsibility to not only teach students how to effectively be physically active, but also find the best strategies to help encourage and motivate students to be active in physical education as well as outside of school. This literature review shows that providing students with various types of student choice is one way physical educators can help students find joy in physical activity to promote lifelong learners. While student choice may not lead to consistent increases in physical activity it is shown in this review to lead to consistent increases in student motivation and engagement. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the impact of student choice in elementary and middle school physical education.
  • The Socialization of Elite Blind Athletes into Sport

    Tepfer, Amanda; The College at Brockport (2004-07-01)
    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to gather information about how athletes with sensory impairments are socialized into sport, (2) to why they continue to participate and compete, (3) to what barriers, if any, they faced due to their blindness or visual impairment. Interview data were gathered from 32 elite athletes (22 males and 10 females) who competed in the 3rd Pan Am Games for the Blind. Pa1ticipants ranged in age from 17-50 (M=27.5 years). Under the classification system used by the ISBA, 1 2 of the participants were classified B1, 7 were classified B2, and 13 were classified B3. The interview protocol included open and closed-ended questions about personal attributes, socializing agents, socializing situations and barriers they faced and are currently confronted with. The participants became involved in sports between the ages of 7 and 36 (M=16.6 years). Over 80% of the participants attended public schools (K-12) with inclusive physical education classes. The other 20% either attended a segregated school for the blind or both types of schools. Results indicated family as the most important socializing agent during childhood, friends during adolescence, and the athletes themselves and coaches’ currently. These results are consistent with other developmental research studies. During all three stages examined (childhood, adolescence, and present), mothers were more influential than any other agent regardless of the participant’s gender. The three major barriers when the participants first began playing sports were perceived perceptions of others, transportation, and lack of confidence. Currently, the barriers are cost of participation, lack of participants, and perceived perceptions of others.
  • A Comparative Analysis of Cognitive Differences Among Female Elite and Nonelite High School Field Hockey Players and High School Physical Education Class Nonathletes

    Adams, Linda Berner; The College at Brockport (1991-12-01)
    The Empire State Games Western Scholastic Field Hockey Team (n = 14), a high school field hockey team (n = 15), and nonathletes in a high school physical education class (n = 9) were given a battery of tests and inventories to compare mental aspects such as abstract visual reasoning, concentration, sport-confidence, psychological skills relevant to exceptional performance, and competitive anxiety. Analyses included multivariate analysis of variance for each cognitive category, one way univariate analysis of variance for each subtest within a cognitive category, and a stepwise multiple regression technique to determine which tests made the greatest contribution to predicting group membership. Multiple analysis revealed that the elite group displayed significantly higher sport-confidence and selected psychological skills. Results of a stepwise multiple regression technique indicated that motivation, mental preparation, and team motivation accounted for 67% of the behavioral variance. A subsequent multivariate analysis within just the two field hockey groups revealed that the top half of the elite group displayed significantly higher trait sport-confidence and motivation than the bottom half of the nonelite group. A stepwise multiple regression analysis found that motivation, trait sport-confidence, state sport-confidence, and sequencing of information accounted for 99% of the behavioral variance. The results of this investigation indicated that there are cognitive differences already significant at the high school level, and that these factors influence the development of perceived competence.
  • The Effects of Extrinsic Reinforcement Upon the Motor Performance of Learning Disabled Children on a Selected Motor Task

    Zachofsky, Daniel Lee; The College at Brockport (1974-08-01)
    The present investigation was conducted to study the effects of extrinsic reinforcement upon the motor performance of learning disabled children on a selected motor task. Subjects selected were sixty-eight learning disabled children. The sample was randomly divided into a Reinforcement, Non-Reinforcement, and Control group and administered a pretest and posttest on a specific motor task. A five week physical education program was provided to the Reinforcement and Non-Reinforcement groups, with no treatment provided to the Control group. Only the Reinforcement group received the experimental treatment of tangible items such as candy bars, balls, and frisbees. It was the contention of the experimenter that the inclusion of extrinsic reinforcement would improve the motor performance by learning disabled children on a selected motor task. The subjects were administered a softball throw test to measure the variables Distance, Accuracy, and Total Score. The Total Score was measured by taking the highest value of the three trials when the Accuracy score was subtracted from the Distance score. The scores were subjected to a two-way Analysis of Variance with repeated measurements. The Reinforcement group made improvements on all variables over testings. On the same variables, the Non-Reinforcement and Control groups decreased over testings. The improvements made over testings by the Reinforcement group was attributed to the inclusion of extrinsic reinforcement and/or the physical education program. No significant relationship was found between the amount of check marks a subject received and the improvements made over testings on all three variables. The check mark system approach was based on the quality of each individual's task accomplishment and appropriate functioning. The amount of check marks a subject received was not the essential factor of this approach. While the findings may indicate that extrinsic reinforcement and/or the physical education program improved the motor performance of learning disabled children, it can only be generalized to a male population and a specific motor task. Caution should be used in generalizing the findings.
  • The Effect of Weight Training on the Swimming Performance of Female Intercollegiate Competitive Swimmers

    Kenney, Gregory A.; Schuhle, Karen M. (1984-05-29)
    The study investigated the effects of weight training on the swimming performance of female intercollegiate competitive swimmers. Twelve members of the S.U.N.Y. College at Brockport women's swim team served as subjects. Six subjects participated in a ten week weight training program as well as in the daily two hour in-water team swimming practices. The other six subjects participated in the same in-water swimming practices but not in the weight training. Pre- and rest-testing was conducted at the beginning and end of the ten week training program. Performance variables tested included a jump and reach; 25 yard mean velocity, 10 yard maximum velocity, distance/stroke at maximum velocity, and stroke rate at maximum velocity for the front crawl and breaststroke. Data analysis was conducted at a .05 level of significance using a correlated t-test. The writer failed to reject the null hypothesis for all variables tested.
  • Strength, Muscular Endurance, and Cardiorespiratory Endurance Changes in College Males and Females as a Function of Training

    Kenney, Gregory A.; Scotland, Bruce Michael; The College at Brockport (1976-01-01)
    The strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory trainability of men and women were investigated. The subjects, twelve male and ten females, engaged in a six week training program in which they were required to perform progressive resistance exercises using DeLorme's technique in order to increase their strength and muscular endurance. In addition, the subjects took part in a six week interval running program for the purpose of developing cardiorespiratory endurance. Prior to training each subject was tested for elbow flexion strength with Clarke's cable tensiometer. Muscular endurance was measured using Shaver's arm-lever ergometer method, and cardiorespiratory endurance according to the Astrand-Rhyming bicycle ergometer technique. Following the training program the subjects were re-tested in a manner patterned after the initial test. While both men and women increased significantly in strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory endurance following the six weeks of training there were no significant differences between the sexes in terms of their strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory trainability. However, absolute strength gains were found to be significantly greater in men than women. This difference was attributed to the predominantly male hormone testosterone which enables men to develop greater amounts of muscle mass and achieve greater strength levels than women.
  • The reliability of the New York Statewide Assessment Rubric for Badminton at the Commencement Level when used by a Master-Teacher, a Student-Teacher, and Peer.

    Carson, David Alan; The College at Brockport (2003-08-01)
    The purpose of this study was to provide physical education professionals with empirical data that supports the current literature on authentic assessment. The recent literature points out the benefits of authentic assessment: it encourages students to think and perform at a "higher level", relates to unit and curriculum goals, and it improves teacher and student accountability. A rubric is the most widely used authentic assessment tool in physical education and peer authentic assessment is a common assessment style. The New York Statewide Rubric at the Commencement Level in Badminton was the assessment tool used in the study and the students were assessed using peer assessment. Sixteen co-ed high school physical education students were involved in the study. A master-teacher, a student-teacher, and each peer used the New York Statewide Rubric at the Commencement Level in Badminton over a four day period. The results of the master-teacher, the student-teacher, and peers were put through a reliability analysis. The final statistical results support that the New York Statewide Assessment at the Commencement Level is reliable when used by a master-teacher, a student-teacher, and peer. Specific procedures and findings are presented along with a detailed discussion which includes future directions.
  • Leisure Constraints on Senior Center Participation

    Udd, Edward; Toon, Carrie L.; The College at Brockport (2002-06-17)
    The purpose of this study was to determine which factors most greatly influence senior center participation levels. Some of the factors which were analyzed include perceived degree of arthritis, perceived quality of life, and demographic variables such as age, gender, race, living arrangements, marital status, highest level of completed education, income, and method of transportation to and from the senior centers. It was hypothesized that all these factors have an effect on level of participation to some degree. The participants in this study included 74 women and 31 men who ranged in age from 55 to 88 years (M = 74.67) and attended one of three different senior centers in Monroe County, New York. In order to determine which factor or factors most affected senior center participation, a twenty-three question survey was developed. This survey was divided into four sections, senior center, arthritis, quality of life, and demographic information. Several multiple regressions calculations indicate that level of support from family and friends, gender, income, and living arrangements had the strongest correlation to senior center participation levels.
  • Congruity between Assessment Criteria and Cooperating Teacher Assessment of Student Teachers

    Ocansey, Reginald T-A.; Sofo, Seidu; The College at Brockport (1998-12-01)
    This study investigated the congruity between cooperating teachers' assessment of student teachers and established set of criteria for assessment during student teaching. The study also examined the substance of the comments of cooperating teachers about student teachers' performances. The final evaluation forms submitted by the cooperating teachers to the student teaching coordinator served as the main source of data. These forms were content analyzed to determine the congruity of cooperating teachers' assessment and the set of assessment criteria. The researcher developed the Brockport Supervision Analysis System—Physical Education (BSASPE) instrument for data analysis. Subjects for the study included 41 cooperating teachers (27 males and 14 females) who supervised 32 student teachers for the period Fall 1995 through Spring 1998. The student teachers (22 males and 10 females) were enrolled in the physical education teacher certification program at SUNY Brockport. The student teachers in this study taught in 34 different schools during the period covered by the study. These included 17 elementary schools, 11 middle schools, and six high schools. The results indicated that while most cooperating teachers awarded outstanding and highly competent grades to their student teachers, it was incongruent with the set of assessment criteria established by the university. However, the assessment of one student teacher awarded a non-competent grade was congruent with assessment criteria. It was also found that the cooperating teachers' comments were related to the competencies under which they were written. The study showed that cooperating teachers' comments differed with the grade levels taught by student teachers. There is the need for further research to ascertain why most cooperating teachers' assessments were not congruent with established assessment criteria, even though they had the ability to make comments related to the major competencies for student teaching.
  • The Effects of Imagery on Competitive Anxiety in High School Wrestlers

    Smith, Daniel; Vandenburg, Lynwood G.; The College at Brockport (1992-07-01)
    The purpose of this investigation was to study imagery as an effective tool for decreasing competitive anxiety in high school wrestlers. The investigation was conducted using 27 subjects from a high school wrestling team. The subjects were selected for a treatment or control group by a pretest SCAT score. Both groups consisted of high to low anxiety subjects. The treatment group received an imagery program designed to decrease competitive anxiety. The contact sessions were fifteen minutes in length, culminating into 22 sessions over a nine week period. Both groups were pretested and posttested using the Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT) (Martens, 1977), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) (Martens, Vealey, Burton, Bump, & Smith, 1990). Utilizing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) design, differences in SCAT and each sub-component of the CSAI-2 inventories (Cognitive, Somatic and State Self-confidence) were evaluated. The results showed significant reduction in state anxiety for the treatment group, specifically the cognitive and somatic components. There was a trend developing for improved self-confidence, although it was not statistically significant. The trait anxiety results showed no significant difference between treatment and control groups. The investigation showed that imagery can be an effective tool in decreasing competitive state anxiety.
  • An Examination of Psychological Differences between Elite, College, and High School Female Soccer Players

    Stuart, Moira; Schockow, Joan E.; The College at Brockport (2000-05-01)
    This study was conducted to examine the psychological differences between elite, college, and high school female soccer players. The six personality traits that were measured included competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration skills, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation levels, and leadership skills. Three self-evaluation questionnaires were administered to the U.S. Women's National Soccer Team (elite), the State University of New York at Brockport and Nazareth College women's soccer teams (college), and Brockport, Livonia, and Marcellus high school soccer teams. The three questionnaires included the Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT; Martens, Burton, and Vealey, 1990), the Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory (TSCI; Vealey, 1986), and the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ; Smith, 1994). In order to determine if the three groups differed in the psychological variables of competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration skills, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation levels, and leadership skills, a one-way MANOVA was conducted. The overall multivariate relationship was significant (Wilks' lambda = .564, F (10, 144) = 4.77 p < .001. Follow up analyses revealed that competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, mental preparation skills, and leadership skills differentiated the three groups. Specifically using Student-Newman-Keuls it was found that the college group exhibited the highest levels of competitive trait anxiety and leadership skills. The elite group differed from the other two by having the highest scores in trait self-confidence, and mental preparation skills. No significant differences were found between the three groups in concentration skills or achievement motivation levels.
  • Investigation of Teaching Strategies Used in First Grade Classrooms that could be Applied in Physical Education to Support the Development of Literacy Skills

    Cruz, Luz M.; Robinson, Marjorie Oster; The College at Brockport (2003-05-01)
    This thesis focuses on strategies used to teach first graders literacy skills that could be implemented in a physical education program that would benefit the development of both physical education skills and literacy skills in first graders. Qualitative research was selected to be the method of investigation and data collection consisted of observations, interviews, and document analysis. The review of literature includes literature related to the integration of academics into physical education, national and state standards for physical education and language arts, how children gain literacy skills, the practical application of integrating language arts into physical education, and the effect that integrating language arts has on the acquisition of physical education objectives. Two first grade teachers were selected and volunteered to participate in this study. I observed six times in each of their classrooms and interviewed each teacher three times during the observation process. Three students from each classroom were interviewed to get a student's perspective on learning literacy skills. The data were analyzed for strategies that were common to both classrooms. These common strategies were then measured against criteria for implementation in my physical education. Three strategies were selected to be implemented and had support in professional literature. I implemented the three strategies with the two classrooms in which I observed and in two additional first grades. All of these classes were videotaped and the videotapes were analyzed by two Language Arts experts for the effectiveness and usefulness of implementing the selected strategies. The three strategies implemented were the use of a K-W-L chart, reading aloud books related to physical education, and providing a print rich environment. The Language Arts experts determined that these three strategies were effective and useful strategies, benefiting both physical education and language arts. These three strategies also have support in the professional literature. Future research in this area may result in additional classroom strategies being identified for use in the gymnasium. This study may also encourage physical educators to observe what strategies are being used in their schools and adapt these strategies for use in their classes.

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