Now showing items 21-32 of 32

    • The Role of Religion in the Civil War

      Bensley, Todd Matthew; The College at Brockport (2004-05-12)
      Antebellum America was shaped by the Second Great Awakening, a series of religious revivals that swept across all regions of the United States and affected the lives of all Americans. The evangelical preachers who led the revivals emphasized the need to improve society to prepare for the Millennium, or second coming of Christ. The desire for reform led to calls by many northerners for the abolition of slavery. The abolitionists argued that slavery went against the teachings in the Bible. Supporters of slavery countered this attack by pointing out specific passages in the Bible that seemed to prop up slavery. These arguments led to sectional schisms in the Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist churches. The breakup of these churches foreshadowed the Civil War. Once the war broke out, religion was used by the soldiers and their leaders to sustain their will to fight. Religion played a significant role in the coming of, and the fighting in, the Civil War.
    • Hoboes and Vagabonds: The Cultural Construction of the American Road Hero

      Brown, Jeffrey S.; The College at Brockport (1992-07-01)
      From the early traditions of Natty Bumppo and Huck Finn to the more modern images drawn from John Dos Passos and Jack Kerouac, the journey motif has long been a stable of American literature. This thesis explores the origin of the modern road hero in American culture at the turn of the twentieth century along two divergent lines. The first is the configuration of the hobo as a heroic rebel, and the second is the making of the bohemian/intellectual vagabond. The first part of this investigation, by considering a diversity of cultural forms and viewpoints, attempts to paint a broad backdrop from which more focused study may proceed. As such, disparate phenomena such as the undertone of ambiguity behind the "tramp menace," the image of the comic tramp in popular culture, and the generation and resonance of an indigenous hobo subculture will be examined coextensively. The second section grapples with the formation of the hobo as hero, beginning with the writing of Walter Wyckoff and Josiah Flynt and proceeding with the work and persona of Jack London. This is followed, in section three, by a discussion of the intellectual vagabond. Reaching back to consider the spiritual forebear of this genre, Walt Whitman, the section culminates with an exploration of Richard Hovey, Bliss Carman and the "Vagabondia" poetry. The final section addresses the consolidation of the two major images already delineated. More suggestive than comprehensive, this discussion links the germination of the modern road hero to the parallel politicization of the hobo and the bohemian/intellectual vagabond during the first two decades of the twentieth century.
    • Navigating “the Ocean of Matrimony:” Marital Expectations and Experiences in Virginia, 1779-1835

      Martin, Morag; Ireland, Owen S.; Alison Parker; Stocking, Richard J.; The College at Brockport (2017-05-12)
      Though historians continue to add important insight on marital expectations and experiences in early national Virginia, a more encompassing examination is necessary. This thesis examines marriage in three interconnected ways to augment the growing study of marital beliefs and realities. First, sermons, hymns, published religious literature, church minutes, and circular letters describe what Protestant Virginia clergy wrote about matrimony. Second, letters, journals, published books, and newspapers illustrate what lay Virginians expected from marriage. Finally, letters, diaries, autobiographies, and secondary sources offer a glimpse into the everyday experiences of spouses in the Old Dominion. Taken together, this study concludes that from 1779 to 1835, Virginians struggled to reconcile the companionate ideal with the traditional patriarchal marriage model.
    • Opera Houses of the Genesee Country: Perceived Indicators of Economic and Cultural Success

      Oakes, Jane E.; The College at Brockport (2003-05-17)
      During the half-century following the end of the Civil War, over fifty opera houses were built across the Genesee Country of New York State- a region extending from the western edge of the Finger Lakes to the eastern border of the Niagara region. Although little different from their earlier counterparts, called 'halls', the conscious choice to call a newly built or acquired entertainment hall an opera house reflected a desire on the part of both town and builder to be thought of as appreciative of higher culture and the arts, and of having the financial stability to create and support such a venue. These opera houses were what I believe to be perceived indicators of a town's cultural and economic progress: that is, they were understood on the part of the financier and community at large to be visible evidence to outsiders of the town's cultural sensitivity and financial security. In addition, the construction of an opera house conferred on the builder/financier a secure place within the town's social hierarchy as that of benefactor and promoter of the common good. Eloquent speeches outlining the town's gratitude for such a place of entertainment were often a major part of opening night ceremonies at the new opera house. Thus, the perception of an opera house as being representative of economic and cultural success exists on a dual level- that of the political entity and its inhabitants, and that of the individual builder. Leisure time was increasing during the last part of the 19th century, due to changes in technology and labor laws, and in many social circles attending performances at the local opera house was considered to be preferable to attending those at vaudeville theaters, burlesque houses, circuses, or taverns. Opera houses were perceived as offering a higher, more morally desirable quality of entertainment than many other venues- a perception often utilized by acting companies and theater managers in their advertising. By studying the plays, touring and local acts, newspaper advertisements and playbills associated with local opera houses, it is possible to further our understanding of how a community's opera house reflected cultural transitions during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These changes were happening nationally as well, as an agrarian society changed to one more urban- and industrially- based. New technologies, economic growth, and increasingly more complex national rail infrastructure influenced the rise in popularity of the opera house both in the study region and on the national level. Conversely, all these factors also played a role in the demise of the opera house as cultural icon. Still, even though their heyday has long since passed, many citizens of towns which possessed one of these structures have spoken with pride in the fact that their town once had one. More than a century after these structures were built, the perception that an opera house represented their town's elevated level of prosperity and cultural achievement still exists in this region today.
    • Soothing the Savage Beast: Music in the Cultural Cold War, 1945-1991

      Martin, Morag; Daly, John P.; Leslie, W. Bruce; Clark, Shellie M.; The College at Brockport (2015-05-16)
      From the beginning of the Cold War, music was recognized by governments as a powerful tool to persuade people that their particular way of life was superior, a “soft power” to be wielded in the cultural battle that resulted when atomic power raised the stakes of military conflict. Musicians and consumers, however, were not without agency in the messages they produced and embraced, and their messages frequently came into conflict with both communism and the Western world. Utilizing government documents, news sources, oral histories, and song lyrics, this paper examines the interplay of music, government, and the people during the Cold War. The study of the effects of music on Cold War politics and the relationships of people to their own governments provides evidence of the power of music to influence historical events, and illuminates the lengths to which government agencies have gone to control that influence.
    • A History of Japanese Religion: From Ancient Times to Present

      Lloyd, Jennifer; Killigrew, John; Symonds, Shannon Reed; The College at Brockport (2005-12-05)
      The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the progression of Japanese religion from its earliest inception to the present day. In the United States, religion is considered to be a very personal phenomenon, one totally disassociated from any government control. My intention is to demonstrate that this has not always been the situation in Japan, and to explain how and why the state became so influential in the religion of its citizens. I will also attempt to explain why the disassociation of religion and the state coincided with a general wave of religious apathy that spread across the country. This thesis begins with a history of primitive Shinto, the only indigenous Japanese religion, and the introduction of Buddhism from Korea. The evolution of these religions, and the influence of Confucianism on their development, is also discussed. I then move on to the coming of Christianity, and the religious policies of the Tokugawa shogunate. A brief history of the Meiji Restoration follows, along with a detailed explanation of State Shinto, emperor worship, and the strict religious precepts of the new government, which remained in effect until the end of World War II. Following the separation of state and religion, I move on to the introduction of New Religions, with an emphasis on Soka Gakkai, one of the most popular. The thesis concludes with an analysis of current attitudes toward religion in Japan, with a focus on the opinions of college students. It is my hope that readers will come away from this thesis with a greater appreciation for the beauty and diversity that comprises the religions of Japan, and a better understanding of how and why these religions developed the way they did.
    • The 'Art' of Majesty: Displaying the Stuart Monarchy, 1603-1714

      Martin, Morag; Schutte, Kimberly; Martin, Morag; Louis-Broyld, Fabrice; The College at Brockport (2014-04-01)
      After the much beloved, but single and childless, Elizabeth Tudor, the Stuarts of Scotland were next in line for the throne of England. They came to power in a century of political change fo the Monarchy. The 'Art' of Majesty looks at how the Stuarts attempted to display itself to the world. Serving a more political rather than artistic purpose, these portraits hide much more than they reveal. At a time when the Monarchy needed to project idealized images of majesty, it is these hidden stories which are often the most valuable.
    • The Development of the Corporation in New Hampshire From 1760 to 1820

      Torre, Jose R.; Spiller, James; Bermudes, Robert; The College at Brockport (2015-05-28)
      This essay argues the American corporations formed in the 1790s were a direct outgrowth of the positive experience the people had with colonial corporations. Due to restrictions placed by the king on the types of corporations permissible in the colonies, the corporations that were created were town-based, that is they were created to perform the responsibilities the province gave to the towns. In the 1760s and 1770s the far-flung, poor towns of New Hampshire could not provide for themselves the type of infrastructure the province demanded: roads, causeways, and bridges. The people, recognizing the value the colonial corporations provided to their towns, expanded their use after independence and the 1780s economic depression. This essay uses New Hampshire as the basis for study. Primary source materials include: petitions, corporate charters (laws), town inventories, and journals of the legislature. The corporations studied are colonial era towns, ferries, and lotteries; Confederation era toll bridges; and Constitutional era canals, social libraries, turnpikes, and manufacturing.
    • Charles Finney and Willam Miller : Revivalists, Reformers, and Millennialists Looking Downward and Upward

      Krug, Howard P.; The College at Brockport (2008-01-01)
      William Miller was a typical preacher of the Second Great Awakening who was involved with reforms and revivals. His millennial views, which have traditionally led historians to classify him as a fringe preacher of the nineteenth century, were in actuality commonplace thinking during the Second Great Awakening. When his millennial views and methods of revival are compared to Charles Finney's, what emerges is not an oddball preacher but a widely accepted balanced millennial view that hearers of his message gravitated to and accepted. By comparing Charles Finney's millennial views and the impact of revival and reform in Rochester, New York with William Miller's millennial views and his revival and reform in Portland, Maine similarities between these two millennialist preachers of the Second Great Awakening will become apparent. Historians have often relegated William Miller to the fringe elements of society, but he and his associates were actively involved in reforms such as abolitionism and temperance, as shown by the writings of William Lloyd Garrison and Henry Jones, an early Millerite preacher. Through the use of church records and diary entries by a retired Presbyterian minister, Caleb Bradley, in Portland, Maine from 1 840, a clearer picture of the complex nature of revival and reform will emerge to correctly place William Miller in history during the Second Great A wakening for the first time.
    • Main Street, Marion, and Miscegenation: The Warren Harding Race Rumor and the Social Construction of Race and Marriage

      Parker, Alison; O'Brien, Kenneth; Lang, Stephen K.; The College at Brockport (2013-10-01)
      In the final weeks of the 1920 presidential election campaign, an eccentric college professor from Ohio, William Estabrook Chancellor, distributed a series of leaflets across the Midwest that claimed the Republican candidate and future president, Warren G. Harding, was racially “impure.” Much has been written about Chancellor, his racist theories, which were based on the “scientific racism” of the time, and his relationship to the Democratic Party. What has not been examined, however, is how his allegations about Harding were connected broadly to the social construction of whiteness in America in the twentieth century. In this context, the Harding race rumor is not at all a marginal moment in the history of the twenty-ninth president. Rather, it helps to show that Warren Harding's experience with the race dichotomy of the early twentieth century had much in common with that of other persons accused of mixed-race status at the time. Harding's extended family members were put under severe risk of being discredited and disenfranchised in a nation where it only took a hint of white racial “impurity” to deprive a person of the privileges of whiteness. As such, there is ample reason to reconsider the ways we remember Warren Harding's life and presidency
    • Men of Steel & Sentinels of Liberty: Superman and Captain America as Civilians and Soldiers in World War II

      Daly, John P.; Morris, William; Carter Soles; Deverell, Richard D.; The College at Brockport (2013-12-07)
      This thesis examines Superman and Captain America comics during World War II, arguing that they portray the civilians’ and soldiers’ experiences of the war, respectively. The thesis begins by examining the creators’ backgrounds and how they influenced later portrayals of the war before proceeding to explore the wartime comics. During the war, DC used Superman as escapist fare to distract from the war while Timely Comics used Captain America to explore the issues of the war, such as portrayals of the Nazis and Japanese. The third and fourth chapters focus on these two issues: portrayals of Nazis and the Japanese. Both comics carefully distinguished between Germans and Nazis, avoiding racial stereotyping of Caucasians. The Japanese, however, were the most prevalent in a series of bluntly racist portrayals of non-whites in the comics. Superman and Captain America comics reinforced white supremacy and cast the war in racial terms. The two characters and their respective publishers used the relatively new medium of comic books to engage World War II in distinctly different ways, allowing the comics to portray the civilians’ and soldiers’ respective experiences.