• A History of Computer Technology and its Impact on Academics at SUNY Brockport

      Jennings, Thomas L.; The College at Brockport (2/15/2010)
      A history of academic computing at SUNY Brockport; while administrative computing shares some common history but is only examined here in the broader context of academic computing capability; their histories occasionally intertwine but are distinct. The history of SUNY Brockport's management of the academic computing revolution containing success stories and shortcomings; It is presented in decades starting with the 1960s when computer technology was not an essential part of the campus and ends in the 21st century when computers are an integral part of the campus.
    • A History of Japanese Religion: From Ancient Times to Present

      Lloyd, Jennifer; Killigrew, John; Symonds, Shannon Reed; The College at Brockport (12/5/2005)
      The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the progression of Japanese religion from its earliest inception to the present day. In the United States, religion is considered to be a very personal phenomenon, one totally disassociated from any government control. My intention is to demonstrate that this has not always been the situation in Japan, and to explain how and why the state became so influential in the religion of its citizens. I will also attempt to explain why the disassociation of religion and the state coincided with a general wave of religious apathy that spread across the country. This thesis begins with a history of primitive Shinto, the only indigenous Japanese religion, and the introduction of Buddhism from Korea. The evolution of these religions, and the influence of Confucianism on their development, is also discussed. I then move on to the coming of Christianity, and the religious policies of the Tokugawa shogunate. A brief history of the Meiji Restoration follows, along with a detailed explanation of State Shinto, emperor worship, and the strict religious precepts of the new government, which remained in effect until the end of World War II. Following the separation of state and religion, I move on to the introduction of New Religions, with an emphasis on Soka Gakkai, one of the most popular. The thesis concludes with an analysis of current attitudes toward religion in Japan, with a focus on the opinions of college students. It is my hope that readers will come away from this thesis with a greater appreciation for the beauty and diversity that comprises the religions of Japan, and a better understanding of how and why these religions developed the way they did.
    • Charles Finney and Willam Miller : Revivalists, Reformers, and Millennialists Looking Downward and Upward

      Krug, Howard P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2008)
      William Miller was a typical preacher of the Second Great Awakening who was involved with reforms and revivals. His millennial views, which have traditionally led historians to classify him as a fringe preacher of the nineteenth century, were in actuality commonplace thinking during the Second Great Awakening. When his millennial views and methods of revival are compared to Charles Finney's, what emerges is not an oddball preacher but a widely accepted balanced millennial view that hearers of his message gravitated to and accepted. By comparing Charles Finney's millennial views and the impact of revival and reform in Rochester, New York with William Miller's millennial views and his revival and reform in Portland, Maine similarities between these two millennialist preachers of the Second Great Awakening will become apparent. Historians have often relegated William Miller to the fringe elements of society, but he and his associates were actively involved in reforms such as abolitionism and temperance, as shown by the writings of William Lloyd Garrison and Henry Jones, an early Millerite preacher. Through the use of church records and diary entries by a retired Presbyterian minister, Caleb Bradley, in Portland, Maine from 1 840, a clearer picture of the complex nature of revival and reform will emerge to correctly place William Miller in history during the Second Great A wakening for the first time.
    • Editing the Past: How Eisenstein and Vertov Used Montage to Create Soviet History

      Priest, Douglas Michael; The College at Brockport (10/1/2008)
      This study examines montage according to Sergei Eisenstein and Dziga Vertov and how their theories changed due to the political and social upheaval of the Cultural Revolution (1928-1931). In the case of both directors, montage also led to revisionism of Soviet History. By closely analyzing the writings of both directors regarding their film theories, and comparing them with the films they subsequently created, the following discussion demonstrates that both directors made conscious choices about the structure of their films that led to historical revisionism both before and after the Cultural Revolution. Their writings and films existed within the context of Soviet authority and thus reflected its ideals, yet created historical revisionism in a distinct way, in spite of political pressure. Eisenstein's intricate development of montage gave him the ability to include it in his films both before and after the Cultural Revolution in a variety of ways. Vertov's focus on documentary film as the medium to which montage was applied allowed him to continue to assert himself well into the 1930s. As a result, both film makers retained a degree of artistic freedom throughout the repressive regime of Stalinism.
    • From Denial to Acceptance: How the Confederacy Came To Terms with the American Civil War

      Martin, Morag; Daly, John P.; Moyer, Paul; Stachowski, Ann E. (5/18/2013)
      This thesis seeks to answer one of the fundamental questions of history: how did the people, in a given place and time, view their world? This work addresses Confederates, or those Southerners who supported the secession movement and the Confederate States of America, during the American Civil War, 1861-1865. This work seeks to offer a nuanced view into the minds of Confederates over the course of the war by framing their experience with the Five Step Grieving Process. This process, first described by psychiatrist Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, identifies the five major emotions a person experiences while suffering a loss. These emotions are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. This framework allows greater insight into the Confederate culture because it does not force people’s lived experiences into a cause, process, effect format. Instead, it allows flexibility in understanding the human condition as many different people faced the loss of a way of life. The five stages of the Grieving Process provide the structure for this thesis. Research rooted in the diaries, letters, newspapers, and sermons of Confederates allows their lived experience, told in their own words, to illustrate the usefulness of the five-step grieving process as an analytical framework. This approach brings together voices from women, men, soldiers, civilians, government officials and journalists from across the Confederacy. Class lines and geographical boundaries only enhance the efficacy of the framework as the Confederates worked toward accepting the doom of the American Civil War.
    • Hoboes and Vagabonds: The Cultural Construction of the American Road Hero

      Brown, Jeffrey S.; The College at Brockport (7/1/1992)
      From the early traditions of Natty Bumppo and Huck Finn to the more modern images drawn from John Dos Passos and Jack Kerouac, the journey motif has long been a stable of American literature. This thesis explores the origin of the modern road hero in American culture at the turn of the twentieth century along two divergent lines. The first is the configuration of the hobo as a heroic rebel, and the second is the making of the bohemian/intellectual vagabond. The first part of this investigation, by considering a diversity of cultural forms and viewpoints, attempts to paint a broad backdrop from which more focused study may proceed. As such, disparate phenomena such as the undertone of ambiguity behind the "tramp menace," the image of the comic tramp in popular culture, and the generation and resonance of an indigenous hobo subculture will be examined coextensively. The second section grapples with the formation of the hobo as hero, beginning with the writing of Walter Wyckoff and Josiah Flynt and proceeding with the work and persona of Jack London. This is followed, in section three, by a discussion of the intellectual vagabond. Reaching back to consider the spiritual forebear of this genre, Walt Whitman, the section culminates with an exploration of Richard Hovey, Bliss Carman and the "Vagabondia" poetry. The final section addresses the consolidation of the two major images already delineated. More suggestive than comprehensive, this discussion links the germination of the modern road hero to the parallel politicization of the hobo and the bohemian/intellectual vagabond during the first two decades of the twentieth century.
    • Hunting for Harmony: The Skaneateles Community and Utopian Socialism in Upstate New York - 1825-1853

      Torre, Jose R.; Torre, Jose; Moyer, Paul; Jones, Mitchell (5/13/2020)
      The Skaneateles Community was a utopian socialist commune that existed from 1843 to 1846 in Mottville, New York. Abolitionist lecturer John Anderson Collins founded the community on the non-resistance and no-government principles of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. Collins and his Skaneateles followers, so-called communitists, sought to live in a godless, harmonious, communist utopia, free of both chattel and wage slavery. They eschewed private property, declared the virtues of communitism and shared everything. The Panic of 1837, the first major depression of the Market Revolution made the 1840s a period of unprecedented socialist agitation and utopian practice. People sought a system that promised security and safety from the perils of speculation and market fluctuation. The Panic of 1837 aligned the material interests of the laboring class and the business class. Upstate New York became the "Volcanic District" of the socialist movement inspired by French thinker Charles Fourier. Fourierism’s doctrine of harmony between capital and labor made it attractive to both workers and businessmen affected by the depression. The Skaneateles Community found favorable conditions in Upstate New York because of their comradeship with Fourierists. Unlike the Fourierists, the Skaneateles Community advocated the abolition of all private property. Though the Fourierists thought them too radical, but they encouraged the Skaneateles communitists and wanted them to succeed.
    • Main Street, Marion, and Miscegenation: The Warren Harding Race Rumor and the Social Construction of Race and Marriage

      Parker, Alison; O'Brien, Kenneth; Lang, Stephen K.; The College at Brockport (10/1/2013)
      In the final weeks of the 1920 presidential election campaign, an eccentric college professor from Ohio, William Estabrook Chancellor, distributed a series of leaflets across the Midwest that claimed the Republican candidate and future president, Warren G. Harding, was racially “impure.” Much has been written about Chancellor, his racist theories, which were based on the “scientific racism” of the time, and his relationship to the Democratic Party. What has not been examined, however, is how his allegations about Harding were connected broadly to the social construction of whiteness in America in the twentieth century. In this context, the Harding race rumor is not at all a marginal moment in the history of the twenty-ninth president. Rather, it helps to show that Warren Harding's experience with the race dichotomy of the early twentieth century had much in common with that of other persons accused of mixed-race status at the time. Harding's extended family members were put under severe risk of being discredited and disenfranchised in a nation where it only took a hint of white racial “impurity” to deprive a person of the privileges of whiteness. As such, there is ample reason to reconsider the ways we remember Warren Harding's life and presidency
    • Men of Steel & Sentinels of Liberty: Superman and Captain America as Civilians and Soldiers in World War II

      Daly, John P.; Morris, William; Carter Soles; Deverell, Richard D.; The College at Brockport (12/7/2013)
      This thesis examines Superman and Captain America comics during World War II, arguing that they portray the civilians’ and soldiers’ experiences of the war, respectively. The thesis begins by examining the creators’ backgrounds and how they influenced later portrayals of the war before proceeding to explore the wartime comics. During the war, DC used Superman as escapist fare to distract from the war while Timely Comics used Captain America to explore the issues of the war, such as portrayals of the Nazis and Japanese. The third and fourth chapters focus on these two issues: portrayals of Nazis and the Japanese. Both comics carefully distinguished between Germans and Nazis, avoiding racial stereotyping of Caucasians. The Japanese, however, were the most prevalent in a series of bluntly racist portrayals of non-whites in the comics. Superman and Captain America comics reinforced white supremacy and cast the war in racial terms. The two characters and their respective publishers used the relatively new medium of comic books to engage World War II in distinctly different ways, allowing the comics to portray the civilians’ and soldiers’ respective experiences.
    • Navigating “the Ocean of Matrimony:” Marital Expectations and Experiences in Virginia, 1779-1835

      Martin, Morag; Ireland, Owen S.; Alison Parker; Stocking, Richard J.; The College at Brockport (5/12/2017)
      Though historians continue to add important insight on marital expectations and experiences in early national Virginia, a more encompassing examination is necessary. This thesis examines marriage in three interconnected ways to augment the growing study of marital beliefs and realities. First, sermons, hymns, published religious literature, church minutes, and circular letters describe what Protestant Virginia clergy wrote about matrimony. Second, letters, journals, published books, and newspapers illustrate what lay Virginians expected from marriage. Finally, letters, diaries, autobiographies, and secondary sources offer a glimpse into the everyday experiences of spouses in the Old Dominion. Taken together, this study concludes that from 1779 to 1835, Virginians struggled to reconcile the companionate ideal with the traditional patriarchal marriage model.
    • "Nervous Diseases" and the Politics of Healing in America, 1869-1919

      Bessette, Matthew; The College at Brockport (8/15/2011)
      This paper follows the discourse of "nervous diseases" in America as it was articulated and contested by various lay, religious, and medical healers from the late nineteenth-century through the First World War. Specifically, it inquires into how their various diagnoses, treatments, and regimens either shaped or reinforced the structure of the social order and the individual's designated role within it. On the one hand, while dissenting interpretations and healing modalities challenged this discourse, their underlying ideological agreement with it, in crucial respects, accounts for why they failed to alter or decenter it. On the other hand, a majority of neurologists, psychiatrists, psychopathologists, psychotherapists, and social workers, along with a number of lay healers, theorists, and journalists, attenuated, and ultimately suppressed, the subversive implications of alternative theories and healing proposals. In both these ways, a dominant set of interpretations and treatments cohered which, by the second decade of the twentieth century, stabilized the prevailing order and translated into new structures of control.
    • Opera Houses of the Genesee Country: Perceived Indicators of Economic and Cultural Success

      Oakes, Jane E.; The College at Brockport (5/17/2003)
      During the half-century following the end of the Civil War, over fifty opera houses were built across the Genesee Country of New York State- a region extending from the western edge of the Finger Lakes to the eastern border of the Niagara region. Although little different from their earlier counterparts, called 'halls', the conscious choice to call a newly built or acquired entertainment hall an opera house reflected a desire on the part of both town and builder to be thought of as appreciative of higher culture and the arts, and of having the financial stability to create and support such a venue. These opera houses were what I believe to be perceived indicators of a town's cultural and economic progress: that is, they were understood on the part of the financier and community at large to be visible evidence to outsiders of the town's cultural sensitivity and financial security. In addition, the construction of an opera house conferred on the builder/financier a secure place within the town's social hierarchy as that of benefactor and promoter of the common good. Eloquent speeches outlining the town's gratitude for such a place of entertainment were often a major part of opening night ceremonies at the new opera house. Thus, the perception of an opera house as being representative of economic and cultural success exists on a dual level- that of the political entity and its inhabitants, and that of the individual builder. Leisure time was increasing during the last part of the 19th century, due to changes in technology and labor laws, and in many social circles attending performances at the local opera house was considered to be preferable to attending those at vaudeville theaters, burlesque houses, circuses, or taverns. Opera houses were perceived as offering a higher, more morally desirable quality of entertainment than many other venues- a perception often utilized by acting companies and theater managers in their advertising. By studying the plays, touring and local acts, newspaper advertisements and playbills associated with local opera houses, it is possible to further our understanding of how a community's opera house reflected cultural transitions during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These changes were happening nationally as well, as an agrarian society changed to one more urban- and industrially- based. New technologies, economic growth, and increasingly more complex national rail infrastructure influenced the rise in popularity of the opera house both in the study region and on the national level. Conversely, all these factors also played a role in the demise of the opera house as cultural icon. Still, even though their heyday has long since passed, many citizens of towns which possessed one of these structures have spoken with pride in the fact that their town once had one. More than a century after these structures were built, the perception that an opera house represented their town's elevated level of prosperity and cultural achievement still exists in this region today.
    • Rochester Coughed The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in Rochester, New York

      Cody, Daniel D.; The College at Brockport (8/15/2010)
      A massive war engulfed the world in 1918. Enormous armies of men laid waste to each other with appalling casualties. However, all of mankind was threatened by an invisible killer much deadlier than any war. This menace to humanity killed more people in a shorter time period than any other event recorded in history. Millions died in just a little over a year. This massive killer was influenza. As the Great War held the attention of the world, influenza circled the globe spreading infection and death everywhere. The science of man was unable to identify it and therefore unable to combat it. Comfort care and prayer were the tools that most people resorted to when influenza invaded their homes. Rochester, New York was no exception to the pandemic in 1918. The citizens of Rochester read about the influenza outbreak just outside of Boston and watched in horror as it spread like a spider web across America. Rochester knew influenza was coming. Influenza invaded Rochester, killed hundreds, and then abruptly left. For a few deadly weeks in the fall of 1918, Rochester was held captive by this invisible killer. This is the story of influenza in Rochester, New York in 1918. A human face is put on the tragedy that grasped Rochester. This is the story of the battle the people of Rochester fought against influenza. There were winners and losers. A massive volunteer effort brought the full resources of the population to bear down on influenza, people helping people regardless of class or status. This is the account of hard work, long hours, fear, perseverance, and community. This is when Rochester coughed.
    • Soothing the Savage Beast: Music in the Cultural Cold War, 1945-1991

      Martin, Morag; Daly, John P.; Leslie, W. Bruce; Clark, Shellie M.; The College at Brockport (5/16/2015)
      From the beginning of the Cold War, music was recognized by governments as a powerful tool to persuade people that their particular way of life was superior, a “soft power” to be wielded in the cultural battle that resulted when atomic power raised the stakes of military conflict. Musicians and consumers, however, were not without agency in the messages they produced and embraced, and their messages frequently came into conflict with both communism and the Western world. Utilizing government documents, news sources, oral histories, and song lyrics, this paper examines the interplay of music, government, and the people during the Cold War. The study of the effects of music on Cold War politics and the relationships of people to their own governments provides evidence of the power of music to influence historical events, and illuminates the lengths to which government agencies have gone to control that influence.
    • The 'Art' of Majesty: Displaying the Stuart Monarchy, 1603-1714

      Martin, Morag; Schutte, Kimberly; Martin, Morag; Louis-Broyld, Fabrice; The College at Brockport (4/1/2014)
      After the much beloved, but single and childless, Elizabeth Tudor, the Stuarts of Scotland were next in line for the throne of England. They came to power in a century of political change fo the Monarchy. The 'Art' of Majesty looks at how the Stuarts attempted to display itself to the world. Serving a more political rather than artistic purpose, these portraits hide much more than they reveal. At a time when the Monarchy needed to project idealized images of majesty, it is these hidden stories which are often the most valuable.
    • The Ambition of Cincinnatus

      Lane, Kenneth Allen; The College at Brockport (7/26/2011)
      George Washington was a deliberate political actor, motivated by a desire for self-aggrandizement and social status. He operated within the strictures of a patronage system, advancing his personal interest through the employment of a deferential and disinterested persona. Washington gained preferment and position at a steady pace by offering loyal service to numerous patrons, concealing his ambitions in accordance with the etiquette of Virginian politics. The maintenance of his persona developed into the superintending care of Washington's early career, as it became a prevalent trope within his letters. A combination of youthful overconfidence and numerous frustrations and failures in the field occasioned the slow deterioration of that persona. Washington tactlessly quarreled with his primary patron over issues of his proper recognition and status, causing a breach in that relationship. He eventually resigned, declaring the primary motivations for his service were rank and salary. Contravening a narrative consensus in the modem historiography, The Ambition of Cincinnatus concludes that Washington was an inventive political actor who crafted a persona of deference and disinterested service to advance his selfish ambitions.
    • The American Obsession: The Continuing Influence of the American Civil War on Popular Culture and the Evolution of Lost Cause Mythology

      Latella, David; The College at Brockport (1/1/2009)
      America is obsessed with its Civil War. Within months of its end, those who won and lost the war began fashioning their own mythologies as to its cause and the reasons for its outcome. Of these, the Myth of the Lost Cause is, perhaps, the best known Civil War myth. Lost Cause mythology provides a framework which both explains or refutes the acknowledged causes for the American Civil War and disputes the causes for the war's end. Lost Cause mythology deifies the Southern soldier and idealizes the Southern way of life including its "peculiar institution" of slavery. The Myth of the Lost Cause and other Civil War mythologies are not confined to dusty shelves and arcane historical studies, however. In fact, the Civil War is a part of every-day American life. It influences the American zeitgeist with its pervasive presence in popular culture, literature, film, and television. The effects of this influence, however, and their extent, have changed over the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. The Lost Cause mythology, so popular at the beginning of the twentieth century, has faded from prominence. While many continue to cling to its beliefs, Lost Cause mythology is waning in popular culture. It has been replaced in two ways. First, the Civil War has become a trope, a storytelling device used in everything from car chase movies to cooking shows. Second, the "what if' question that wonders why the South.lost-the hidden core of the Lost Cause mythology-has become mainstream. The Civil War is, now, as much an exercise in speculative and alternative history as it is an example of traditional historical study.
    • The Collapse of the Confederacy: Class Dissent, Unionism, and Desertion

      Hendel, Adam; The College at Brockport (2/15/2009)
      The following is a study of the collapse of the Confederacy during the American Civil War. This· study focuses on class dissent, unionism, and desertion in the Confederate Army as the major contributing factors to the collapse of the Confederacy. The South during the American Civil War was a deeply divided region with poor whites fighting against the planter elites. These deep social tensions caused many within the South to abandon the Confederate cause. Throughout the South before and during the Civil War there were large pockets of people who never supported the Confederacy. In East Tennessee, Arkansas, and West Virginia Unionists waged a violent and brutal guerrilla war in an attempt to destroy the Confederacy. In addition to Unionists, many Southerners who supported the Confederacy at the start of the war carried these social tensions from the home front into the army. By the second year of the war desertion in the Confederate Army was becoming a major problem. The common Confederate soldier quickly realized that they were fighting a rich man's war. The wealthy planters were not willing to do their part by either fighting or support the families of those soldiers who were blooding the battlefields. In the end, the Confederacy sealed its fate even before the first shots of the war were fired since they were never able to get all Southerners to back ·their cause.
    • The Development of the Corporation in New Hampshire From 1760 to 1820

      Torre, Jose R.; Spiller, James; Bermudes, Robert; The College at Brockport (5/28/2015)
      This essay argues the American corporations formed in the 1790s were a direct outgrowth of the positive experience the people had with colonial corporations. Due to restrictions placed by the king on the types of corporations permissible in the colonies, the corporations that were created were town-based, that is they were created to perform the responsibilities the province gave to the towns. In the 1760s and 1770s the far-flung, poor towns of New Hampshire could not provide for themselves the type of infrastructure the province demanded: roads, causeways, and bridges. The people, recognizing the value the colonial corporations provided to their towns, expanded their use after independence and the 1780s economic depression. This essay uses New Hampshire as the basis for study. Primary source materials include: petitions, corporate charters (laws), town inventories, and journals of the legislature. The corporations studied are colonial era towns, ferries, and lotteries; Confederation era toll bridges; and Constitutional era canals, social libraries, turnpikes, and manufacturing.