• A Histochemical Investigation of the Alleviation of Thallium-induced Achondroplasia in the Embryonic Chick Femur by Sorbitol, Imidazole and Histidine

      Malin, John H.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1974)
      Achondroplasia was induced in the embryonic chick by the administration of 0.6 mg of thallium sulfate onto the chorioallantoic membrane at day seven of incubation. Coinjection of sorbitol, imidazole or histidine alleviated this disease to varying degrees, depending on the particular compound and its concentration. Femurs were examined histochemically for acid mucopolysaccharide, collagen and calcium content on days ten, twelve and sixteen. When compared to controls, thallium-treated femurs contained less acid mucopolysaccharide in the cartilagenous matrix at days ten and twelve but more in the boney matrix at day sixteen. Calcium was present in greater quantities in the thallium-treated embryos at days ten and twelve but the amount was nearly equal by day sixteen. Collagen was more abundant in the thallium-treated femurs on days ten and twelve but the situation reversed on day sixteen. The minimal effective dosage for sorbitol was 3.0 umoles/egg and 10.0 umoles/egg for imidazole. Histidine did not alleviate the achondroplasia effectively at any concentration up to 12.5 umoles/egg. It is suggested that thallium produces achondroplasia by either the inhibition of acid mucopolysaccharide synthesis or its subsequent secretion into the cartilagenous matrix.
    • A Late Wisconsin Buried Peat Pollen Profile from the Valley Heads Region at South Dansville, New York

      Rynders, Theodore S.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1973)
      A peat deposit buried under 100 cm. of clay was discovered 4.25 miles southeast of Dansville, N.Y. The site is located at 1875 feet above sea level just one mile southeast of the Valley Heads Moraine border. Profile interpretation and carbon date of 15300 B.P. for the bottom of the peat indicate a pre-Valley Heads ice advance in the region with a putative 1000 year interstade between it and the Valley Heads Substage. Spruce pollen maxima are correlated to the pre-Valley Heads and the Valley Heads ice advances while a pine peak represents the Valders Substage. Migration of plant communities from the unglaciated Appalachian Refugium sixty miles to the southwest and late glacial history of the area are discussed to interpret development of present vegetation.
    • A Multi-Scale Analysis of Grassland Bird Habitat Relationships in the St. Lawrence River Valley

      Lazazzero, Sarah A.; The College at Brockport (1/31/2006)
      I used a combination of 10 vegetation variables and 10 landscape variables to model abundance and occurrence of six grassland bird species in agricultural grassland (n=55) throughout Jefferson County, NY during the 2004 and 2005 field seasons. Landscape composition was quantified by classifying the proportion of land use within a 1 km radius from the center of all survey fields. Land use classification was based on 2003 aerial photo interpretation. Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorous) and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) were the most abundant species, followed by Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarwn), Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna), Upland Sandpipers, (Bartramia longicauda) and Henslow's Sparrows (Arrmzodramus henslowii). Bird habitat models generated through best subsets regression and stepwise multiple regression indicated that perimeter-area ratio and variables associated with area, such as distance to nearest edge and distance to forest edge, generally explained most of the variance in grassland bird species richness and abundance, and individual species abundance. Vegetation variables, including grass cover, legume cover, litter depth and the number of plant species, also entered into the grassland bird-habitat models. Bobolink and Savannah Sparrow abundance increased in fields high in forb cover and plant diversity. A significant proportion of the variance in Grasshopper Sparrow and Savannah Sparrow abundance was explained by a decrease in vegetation cover, while an increase in vegetation cover explained a significant amount of the variance in Eastern Meadowlark abundance. As with the Bobolink, the most important predictor variables for Grasshopper Sparrow and Savannah Sparrow were related to area. Henslow's Sparrow abundance increased as the proportion of development in the surrounding landscape decreased. In contrast, Upland Sandpiper abundance increased as the proportion of development in the surrounding landscape increased. My models differed between years and also produced some results that differed from those of other grassland bird habitat-selection studies from the Midwest and Northeast, thus suggesting that grassland bird habitat selection is dynamic among years, and that habitat requirements are broad across regions. Average obligate grassland bird density in the agricultural grasslands of Jefferson County ranged from 0.04 to 3.77 birds/ha across both years. Grassland bird densities in Jefferson County compared favorably to grassland bird densities at 13 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuges in Region 5, thus suggesting that anthropogenic grasslands planted with non-native, cool season grasses are a valuable resource for grassland bird conservation in the Northeast.
    • A population study and management suggestions for the Denslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) at Fort, Drum, NY

      Kirk, Ariel D.; The College at Brockport (8/20/2014)
      The Henslow' s Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) is one of the most threatened grassland bird species in North America. It is listed as endangered, threatened, or a species of concern in 30 of 32 states and one Canadian province in its historic range. This obligate grassland breeding bird species is now clustered in smaller areas within New York State, and with fewer numbers than before. The largest concentrations currently occur in Jefferson County, NY, within the St. Lawrence Plain ecozone, particularly at the Ft. Drum military installation. The declining populations in the Northeast are likely due to breeding and wintering habitat loss, primarily resulting from changing agricultural practices and land use over time. Henslow' s Sparrow breeding behaviors and narrow habitat preferences make it a challenging species to manage for without hindering habitat for other grassland breeding birds. Specific management suggestions for Fort Drum are recommended, including seasonal timing, mowing instructions on height and needed area, and a 3-4 year rotational mowing scheme. The challenges of developing an environmental management plan for an active military training installation, including interdepartmental cooperation and flexibility within a multi-use land area, are also discussed.
    • A Quantitative Survey of the Freshwater Mussel (Unionidae) Fauna in Honeoye Creek, New York

      Cornish, Robert William; The College at Brockport (12/1/2014)
      Contemporary baseline data such as species presence, distribution, abundance, size-class structure, species-habitat relationships, and host species distributions are needed for monitoring the status and health of freshwater mussel communities in Honeoye Creek and other watersheds in New York State in the future. Quantitative surveys were performed at 20 sampling sites to assess the status of freshwater mussels in Honeoye Creek. Fifteen species were observed throughout the creek, with the highest diversity of nine species at two sites. Mussel abundance ranged from 0 to 3.15 mussels/m2. Recent recruitment was observed in five species, including Fusonaia flava, Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Strophitus undulatus, and Villosa iris. Physical and chemical habitat parameters were assessed at each of the 20 sites sampled for mussels. Instream cover, embeddedness, velocity/depth regime, and frequency of riffles were positively correlated to mussel density. Discriminant analysis produced a single function positively correlated with instream cover and velocity/ depth regime. The analysis was able to correctly classify 95% of sites based on presence/ absence of freshwater mussels. A survey of host fishes provided additional data regarding the reproductive potential of freshwater mussels. Twenty seven fish species, including 19 known mussel hosts, were caught during the surveys. Host fishes were not collected for 2 Leptodea fragilis, Potamilus alatus, and Truncilla truncata, a finding consistent with the low abundances of these three species in Honeoye Creek. While these data provide a base-line for freshwater mussel diversity, abundance and distribution, additional research is needed to monitor the status and health of freshwater mussel communities in Honeoye Creek. Future research will help identify trends in population health and target sites where management and conservation measures are needed.
    • Aeration and its Effects on Zooplankton

      Bannister, Robert D.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1971)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of aeration primarily on zooplankton.
    • Alpha and PBm as Functional Indicators of Aquatic Ecosystems

      Fry, Barry J.; The College at Brockport (12/1/1988)
      The effect of PCB ' s , DDT, phosphorus and zooplankton density on the photosynthetic parameters Alpha and PBm was investigated . If these parameters prove reliable as functional indicators , their use may simplify the process of monitoring aquatic ecosystems. Unialgal cultures were used in experiments which involved the use of radioactive carbon labeling and an artificial light incubator . Alpha and PBm increased in response to the addition of phosphorus in Anabaena flos-aquae cultures deficient in this nutrient and to increasing densities of Daphnia pulex in cultures of Chlorella vulgaris. DDT had a stimulatory effect on Alpha but not on PBm in Anabaena flos-aquae while PCB's had no effect on either parameter. Chlorophyll concentration in the incubator bottle negatively affected Alpha probably through self shading .
    • Amphibian and Bird Communities of Lake Ontario Coastal Wetlands: Disturbance Effects and Monitoring Efficiencies

      Podoliak, Jon M.; The College at Brockport (4/1/2018)
      Anthropogenic disturbance has become a major topic of study in recent years. As human populations and development have increased, anthropogenic disturbance has led to the loss or conversion of many habitat types, including forests, wetlands, prairies, and grasslands. One major ecosystem negatively affected by anthropogenic disturbance is wetlands. Lake Ontario, within the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America, has seen major development of wetlands and wetland-associated landscapes. Development in wetlands and nearby areas can lead to habitat loss and population declines of wetland-dependent species. My two-part study examined 1) effects of anthropogenic disturbance surrounding Lake Ontario coastal wetlands on anuran and bird communities, and 2) effectiveness of the Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands Monitoring Program (GLCWMP) methods for monitoring birds and anurans in Lake Ontario wetlands. In the first part of my study, I used six variables to represent anthropogenic disturbance and modelled the effects on species richness and abundance for birds and anurans. I found that wetland area was a significant predictor for increased bird species richness in wetlands, while increased levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and chloride were significant predictors of decreased anuran species richness. This could be due to the permeability of anuran skin which allows for the increased movement of chemical compounds into organisms, causing mortality or decreased breeding success in many anurans. Further, increased agricultural land surrounding wetlands was a 2 significant predictor for increased anuran species richness, which could be due to some anuran species using upland habitats post-breeding. In the second part of my study, I visited sites monitored for birds and anurans under the GLCWMP more frequently than the current methods require. I compared the richness counts between the two site visits required for bird monitoring and three site visits required for anuran monitoring under the GLCWMP with my more intensive surveys. I found that for both anurans and birds, species richness increased with the number of visits to a site. My first study supports the need for monitoring anuran species in Lake Ontario wetlands, due to disturbance. Increased nutrients from roadside runoff and agricultural land use is negatively affecting anurans. Bird species showed no negative effects from my disturbance variables, but several disturbance-tolerant species were observed in most counts. My second study supports increasing the number of visits to sites for better species richness estimates and individual species detections at individual wetlands.
    • An In Ovo Study of Actinomycin-D Effects on Early Chick Development

      McCoshen, John Adrian; The College at Brockport (8/1/1971)
      The effects of actinomycin-D on stage 1 chick blastoderms has been studied in ovo. After 48 hours exposure to 2.0 ug actinomycin-D/egg, blood island formation took place while all other organogenesis was inhibited. Visual observation of treated blastoderms indicated hemoglobin synthesis to have taken place also. These results imply that a mRNA(s) is transcribed by stage 1 in chick for blood island development. Histosections imply that translation of this system takes place about 26 hours or less after stage 1 treatment. Preliminary tests with the fluorescent dye, acridine orange, specific for RNA and DNA, indicated that neo-synthesis of RNA was inhibited 6 hours after treatment. Some cells were found to contain abundant RNA in the cytoplasm which may be the precursor information for the blood vascular system. A new in ovo technique designed to overcome anomalous development due to handling was designed for this study. Precautions to in ovo culturing are described and a possible cause of anomalous in ovo development is discussed.
    • An Investigation of Salmonine Reproduction and Factors Limiting Their Production in Sandy Creek, Monroe County, New York

      Abbett, Ross; The College at Brockport (11/1/2010)
      Sandy Creek is stocked annually with salmonines by the New York Department of Environmental Conservation. A good recreational fishery has been established during fall spawning migrations but spawning success and juvenile survival have not been researched. My study sought to 1) determine the extent of use of Sandy Creek by adult and juvenile salmonines in 2006 and 2007, 2) assess the creek's potential for sustaining spawning and early life history requirements, and 3) estimate salmonine production in Sandy Creek and potential recruitment to Lake Ontario. Adult Chinook and coho salmon, brown trout and rainbow trout/steelhead were captured and spawned in Sandy Creek. Suitable spawning habitat is generally restricted to the upper reaches of Sandy Creek's east and west branches because bedrock and mud substrates preclude redd construction elsewhere. Habitat and physiochemical conditions are conducive for healthy egg and larval development through winter and spring. Juvenile Chinook and coho salmon, brown trout and rainbow trout/steelhead caught in Sandy Creek were mostly in the east and west branches. Chinook salmon grew rapidly, reaching a total length of ~ 100 mm between emergence in March and out migration to Lake Ontario in June. Coho salmon and rainbow trout/steelhead occupied the headwater region of the east branch of Sandy Creek; few juvenile brown trout were captured. Water temperatures exceeded the upper thermal thresholds (>28 °C) of most salmonine species throughout most of Sandy Creek during July and August. Areal extrapolation of CPUE suggests that Sandy Creek can produce ~ 6,900 juvenile salmonines/creek ha but only the headwater regions provide suitable habitat and physiochemical conditions for salmonine survival year round. Reforestation of the riparian zone and subsequent decreases in soil erosion and summer water temperature would increase salmonine production in Sandy Creek; however, the predominantly bedrock substrate prevents spawning in 90°/o of its main stem. Sandy Creek also supports a healthy, diverse warmwater fish community.
    • An Ultrastructural Study of the Flagellar Surface Coat in Selected Chlamydomonas Species

      Laurendi, Carmen John; The College at Brockport (1/1/1974)
      This investigation has demonstrated the existence of mastigonemes on gametes of Chlamdyomonas reinhardtii and on both vegetative and gametic cells of C. moewussii and C. eugametos. The length and diameter of C. reinhardtii’s mastigonemes were different from those of the latter two species. Gamone, the gamete adhesive substance, has been isolated by the techniques of previous investigators and found to be not a single molecular species but flagellar-membrane vesicles and mastigonemes. Attempts to identify which component of this “crude” gamone fraction caused agglutination of gametes were inconclusive. Of the eight different cytochemical procedures used, only one, PTA-sucrose negative staining, was able to detect and preserve mastigonemes. In this respect, the presence of mastigonemes was useful as an indicator of the quality of the various cytochemical procedures employed. Ruthenium red and concanavalin A-peroxidase treatments revealed globules along the entire length of the flagella surface. The possibility that the globules might be artifacts is discussed.
    • Applications of Biological Integrity within the National Wildlife Refuge System Region 5

      Ehlers, Katie; The College at Brockport (1/20/2014)
      The passage of the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 (NWRSIA) and subsequent implementation of 601 FW 3: Biological Integrity, Diversity and Environmental Health Policy (hereafter, the “Integrity Policy”) represented a groundbreaking paradigm shift for refuge management. NWRSIA set forth a “mission for the System, and clear standards for its management, use, planning, and growth (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999),” by uniting the eclectic mix of refuges nationwide under the same mission, “to administer a national network of lands and waters for the conservation, management, and where appropriate, restoration of the fish, wildlife, and plant resources and their habitats within the United States for the benefit of present and future generations of Americans” (NWRSIA 1997). The act goes on to say that the Secretary of the Interior must “ensure that the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the System are maintained for the benefit of present and future generations of Americans (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999.)” NWRSIA legally formalized the concept of biological integrity as a refuge management objective, but failed to define it. As a result, field experts and refuge managers struggle to discern applications of the biological integrity concept. Given the difficulties inherent in defining biological integrity, and the ambiguities involved with applying the concept to refuge management, examining how the concept is being applied on local refuges reveals valuable information about its practicality. Ultimately, for the biological integrity concept to shape refuge management, some of the ambiguity surrounding its definition and application must be removed. With outside influences such as surrounding land-use, invasive species, and climate change altering the ecological trajectories, biological integrity, as currently defined by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, proves to be an unattainable goal.
    • Aspects of Bowfin and Northern Sunfish Biology and Ecology

      Haynes, James M.; Sanderson-Kilchenstein, David; The College at Brockport (12/1/2015)
      Bowfin (Amia calva) are currently being harvested at high rates in the Mississippi River system for the sale of their roe as a caviar alternative. I evaluated the effect that this industry could have if it expands to include the Great Lakes by describing population characteristics of bowfin from Braddock Bay, Monroe Co., NY. Pectoral fin ray sections were used to age 51 bowfin, and back-calculated length-at-age data were used to fit the Von Bertalanffy growth model. Theoretical maximum length was estimated to be 753 mm TL, the coefficient of growth 0.262, and time at length zero -0.023 years. These values resemble populations described from the upper Mississippi River that grow slower and live longer than populations in the south, and therefore would be affected more by commercial harvesting. Aquaculture could provide an alternative to wild harvest, but no established protocols exist. I attempted captive breeding (tanks and ponds) and tested the acceptance of a commercial and a handmade artificial diet. The 55 bowfin did not respond well to captivity: no breeding was observed and most fish lost weight, but they lost significantly less weight on the handmade artificial diet (P = 0.007). Low-intensity culture of bowfin may not be possible using the conditions I tested while artificial propagation likely will require induction by hormone injection. For many years, wild northern sunfish (Lepomis peltastes) in New York State have been restricted to a single 3.7 km section of lower Tonawanda Creek (LTWC), Erie County near Buffalo, NY, and the species is listed “threatened” in the state. A recovery program has been carried out by NYS Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) since 2005 to reintroduce the species into historic waters other than lower Tonawanda Creek and to establish new populations in other apparently suitable areas. I sampled on 30 days in 2013 and 2014 by boat and backpack electroshocking in the 3.7 km section of LTWC and at stocking sites within the Niagara River watershed. No pure northern sunfish were captured at any sites. I compared data from 2005, when boat electrofishing of LTWC produced 23 northern sunfish, to my 2013-2014 data to investigate changes in the fish community. From 2005 to 2013 capture of the aggressive, non-native green sunfish (L. cyanellus) increased from 27.7 to 288.3 fish caught per hour of electroshocking (CPUE), a 941% increase. Sensitive species have diminished, including darters and logperches (Etheostoma and Percina spp., respectively; -91% CPUE) and redhorses (Moxostoma spp.; -48% CPUE), and invasive species have increased, such as round goby (Neogobius melanostomus; +200% CPUE). Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed a significant difference in the LTWC fish community between years (R = 0.806, P = 0.001), and non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) showed a strong separation of fish communities between the two sampling periods. Several suspected hybrid sunfish were collected in 2013 and 2014, and microsatellite DNA analysis confirmed eight bluegill (L. macrochirus) x northern sunfish hybrids, as well as 19 other Lepomis hybrids. It is likely that the fish community of LTWC has changed so it can no longer support northern sunfish. Future stocking efforts should focus on water bodies with suitable habitat conditions and low green sunfish and round goby abundance.
    • Assessing Industrial Contamination of Brockport Creek After Removal of Contaminated Sediment

      Chalupnicki, Marc A.; The College at Brockport (12/1/2006)
      This project assessed the condition of Brockport Creek and a tributary following removal of contaminated sediment from the tributary in 2002. Before the cleanup, PCB concentrations in sediments ranged from 1, 730 to 34,900 µg/kg; after the cleanup they ranged from 288 to 432 µg/kg, below water quality criteria for aquatic organisms and human health. The number of heavy metals detected in sediments after the cleanup decreased from 22 to eight, and their concentrations also decreased. After the cleanup, concentrations of metals ranged from 0.8 to 172 µg/kg; some values were above water quality criteria for aquatic organisms and human health, especially for Zinc. The benthic macroinvertebrate community at the cleanup site was severely degraded; all but one of the other six sampled sites exhibited characteristics of moderately polluted or disturbed invertebrate communities. Daphnia and larval Pimephales were more sensitive to sediment exposure than Hyallela and adult Pimephales. No patterns of toxicity were observed in relation to location of sediment samples in Brockport Creek for test organism weight, length or offspring production, but survival rates were generally higher in the area of the cleanup site than at sites farther up- and downstream in Brockport Creek. The cleanup of the contaminated tributary appears to have been successful, but sediment quality in other parts of Brockport Creek warrants further study.
    • Assessing the Potential of PRTOLl as a Bioremedial Agent Using Non-Isotopic, 16S-rRNA Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes

      Stricker, Jason; The College at Brockport (10/1/1999)
      This investigation focuses on the bioremediation of toluene in freshwater, anaerobic conditions by the recently isolated bacterial strain PRTOL1, and the development of a rapid and efficient quantitative method using 16S-rRNA targeted, fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes to directly detect and monitor this strain in situ. This investigation also focuses on the application of this method to determine the effects of amending the soil with various carbon sources on the population of PRTOL1.
    • Bacterial Interference in Human and Canine Resident Cutaneous Microflora

      Jann, Henry W.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1974)
      This study represented an attempt to learn more about the phenomenon of cooperative bacterial interference. The accomplishments of this work are the following: 1. Bacteria from the various regions of the skin of man and dog were isolated and identified. 2. The following assays were developed to test bacterial interference: a. Modified Crowe technique b. Spot technique 1. Nutritional spot technique 2. Combined spot technique c. Membrane filter technique 1. Overlay membrane filter technique 2. Double spot membrane filter technique d. Concentrated Broth technique 1. Plate scrapping technique Data has been obtained from the above assays which support the hypothesis that the members of the resident canine cutaneous microflora do cooperate in preventing skin infection. The prevention is implicated, by this study, as being the result of cooperative antibioticproduction by the cutaneous microflora. The fact that cooperation could not be demonstrated using the human microflora is probably a function of the assays used rather than the phenomenon of cooperative bacterial interference. The only real way to measure cooperative bacterial interference is to quantitate the mg of antibiotic produced by combined cultures of various test strains.
    • Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Changes Following Zebra Mussel Colonization of Southwestern Lake Ontario

      Stewart, Timothy W.; The College at Brockport (8/1/1993)
      Changes in abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting a natural cobble and artificial reef substrate in southwestern Lake Ontario were quantified following invasion of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Post-zebra mussel invasion data (1991-92) were statistically compared with pre-invasion data (1983) from the same sites. By 1991-92 zebra mussels comprised 73% and 90% of cobble and artificial reef macroinvertebrates, respectively, replacing the amphipod Gammarus fasciatus as the numerically dominant taxon at both sites. Overall abundance of non-zebra mussel taxa was significantly greater (p < 0.05) at cobble and artificial reef sites in 1991-92, than in 1983 before zebra mussels were present. Taxa exhibiting significant population increases at the cobble site during the time period separating the two studies were the annelids Manayunkia speciosa, Spirosperma ferox and unidentified tubificids; the gastropods Helisoma anceps,Physa heterostropha, Stagnicola catascopium, Valvata tricarinata, Goniobasis livescens and Amnicola limosa; and the arthropods Gammarus fasciatus and Orconectes propinquis. Significant population increases of Physa heterostropha, Goniobasis livescens, Amnicola limosa, Gammarus fasciatus and the trichopteran Polycentropus were observed at the artificial reef site. Although a few taxa sampled infrequently in 1983 were not collected in 1991-92, no taxa have decreased significantly since 1983. Comparisons of community composition in 1983 and 1991-92 suggest the cobble community has changed more than the artificial reef community. These changes are likely positive, as species richness was greater at cobble and artificial reef sites in 1991-92 relative to 1983, and Simpson's Diversity showed no decline. Though other factors may have contributed to observed native macroinvertebrate community changes, my results support theories that zebra mussels are facilitating energy transfer to the benthos by filter-feeding, and that mussel shoals are providing additional habitat for native invertebrate taxa.
    • Biogeochemical cycling in restored and unrestored coastal wetlands of Lake Ontario

      Williams, Clay; Amatangelo, Kathryn L.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Wolfanger, Cassandra (1/11/2019)
      Wetlands provide many ecosystem services, including carbon burial and nutrient pollution remediation from excessive anthropogenic inputs. In response to loss and degradation of Laurentian Great Lake coastal wetlands, restoration efforts along the southern shore of Lake Ontario in recent years aimed to improve habitat quality and biodiversity. It is currently unclear if these restorations impacted biogeochemical processes of key nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon. To determine if restoration improved nutrient retention from terrestrial inputs and what factors drive dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, I analyzed water chemistry, watershed land use, and hydrological connectivity of four restored and four unrestored wetlands over the growing season of 2017 under storm and base flows. All wetlands showed nutrient retention abilities with lower N and P concentrations than their tributaries, but unrestored wetlands had significantly higher nutrient loading and reduction. DOM composition was not significantly affected by restoration, but restored wetlands contained higher concentrations of DOM. N was best removed in the spring, and P was best removed in the fall, with some variation across flow condition. DOM concentration was higher during storm flow and DOM character increased in microbial-like components from spring to fall. DOM, N, and P concentrations correlated positively with agricultural land use across wetlands. The control of watershed-scale land use on downstream water quality coupled with unusually wet conditions of 2017 when these wetlands were sampled may explain why small-scale recent habitat restoration did play a more significant role in N, P, and DOM dynamics. Studying biogeochemistry in wetlands under finer spatial and temporal resolutions over longer time periods may contribute information for future restorative efforts and management practices imposed on Great Lakes coastal wetlands to preserve their health and value.
    • Causes and Impacts of Thiamine Deficiency Complex in Lake Ontario Salmonines

      Rinchard, Jacques; James Haynes; Connerton, Michael; Futia, Matthew Harrison (12/12/2018)
      For at least 50 years, salmonine species in the Great Lakes region have been suffering from a vitamin deficiency termed Thiamine Deficiency Complex (TDC) (Marcquenski and Brown 1997; Ketola et al. 1999). TDC impacts salmonines at alevin and adult stages, although the most common impacts are observed before first-feeding (Honeyfield et al. 1998; Fitzsimons et al. 1999; Lee et al. 2009). Alevins with TDC experience various neurological problems including lethargy, hyperexcitability, spiraled swimming, and ultimately death (Fitzsimons 1995). However, alevins that do not die directly from TDC may die from secondary effects that limit their feeding and predator avoidance (Fitzsimons et al. 2009; Ivan et al. 2018). Therefore, TDC can reduce offspring survival drastically, limiting wild recruitment and survival in hatcheries. However, thiamine treatments under hatchery conditions have been able to reduce TDC, increasing offspring survival significantly (Fitzsimons 1995; Koski et al. 1999; Fitzsimons et al. 2001; Lee et al. 2009; Futia et al. 2017). Adult salmonines can also experience symptoms of TDC when deficiencies are severe (Brown et al. 2005). Common symptoms include wiggling behavior while swimming, lethargy, and occasionally mortality (Brown et al. 2005; Futia et al. 2017). Thiamine deficiency in salmonines is not limited to the Great Lakes. In New York’s Finger Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Baltic Sea, various salmonine species suffer from thiamine deficiency (Fisher et al. 1995; Bengtsson et al. 1999; J. Rinchard, The College at Brockport, Brockport, New York, personal communication, 2018). Despite thiamine deficiency being an international issue that has been occurring for decades, the specific cause has yet to be determined. However, two hypotheses have been proposed: 1) degradation of thiamine by the thiamine-degrading enzyme, thiaminase (Honeyfield et al. 2002; Tillitt et al. 2005), and 2) increased use of thiamine as an antioxidant in response to high dietary lipid content (Lukienko et al. 2000; Keinänen et al. 2012). While both of these hypotheses are plausible, neither has been proven to cause thiamine deficiencies in wild populations. In the Great Lakes region, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) are associated with the occurrence of TDC. Honeyfield et al. (2005) demonstrated that feeding exclusively on alewife induced TDC in adult salmonines. Furthermore, following the collapse of the alewife population in Lake Huron, wild recruitment of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) increased (Fitzsimons et al. 2010; Riley et al. 2011). Alewife have elevated thiaminase activity (Tillitt et al. 2005); however, the source of the thiaminase is unknown (Richter et al. 2012). Alewife also have greater lipid content than other abundant offshore prey fish in the Great Lakes (Happel et al. 2017); however, relationships between lipid content of prey and the occurrence of TDC in salmonines has not been proven. In my thesis study, the extent of TDC for five salmonine species (brown trout Salmo trutta, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, coho salmon O. kisutch, lake trout, and steelhead trout O. mykiss) in Lake Ontario was determined from 2015 to 2017. The severity of TDC was determined based on thiamine concentrations in egg, liver, and muscle tissue as well as the occurrence of TDC-induced offspring mortality. Additionally, dietary influence on thiamine concentrations was evaluated. Using fatty acid signature analysis, the inclusion of alewife, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in salmonine diets was determined. Lipid content of whole-body prey fish and various tissues of predator species were determined to investigate the influence of fat content on thiamine concentrations. Lastly, the potential effect of lipid peroxidation on salmonine thiamine concentrations was determined by comparing the proportions of fatty acids, grouped based on degrees of unsaturation (i.e., saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated), in egg and belly flap tissue with thiamine concentrations.
    • Changes in the Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community of Southwestern Lake Ontario Following Invasion by Dreissena Mussels, the Amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus, and the Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus: A Long-term (1983-2014) Perspective

      Haynes, James M.; Bailey, Katherine L.; The College at Brockport (8/1/2015)
      Successive invasions of the Laurentian Great Lakes by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels, the amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus, and the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), all of Ponto-Caspian origin, have altered benthic macroinvertebrate communities, but the impacts of these invasions may differ short- and long-term and in magnitude. Changes in diversity and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrate communities at long-term cobble and artificial reef study sites in southwestern Lake Ontario were quantified using dome suction sampling in July and September 2014, following invasion of the round goby after the year 2000. Using Non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling (nMDS), Analysis of Similarities (ANOSIM) and Similarity Percentages (SIMPER), abundance estimates for native benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were compared with past sampling years (1983, pre-invasion of dreissenids; 1991-1992, early post-invasion of dreissenids; and 1999-2000, ~10 years post-invasion of dreissenids and early post-invasion of E. ischnus). Oligochaetes were the dominant taxon in 2014 (1193.9 ± 18.3 [SEM] m-2 at the cobble and 982.3 ± 32.2 m-2 at the reef sites, July and September abundances combined), followed by E. ischnus (101.2 ± 2.1 m-2 at the cobble and 599.9 ± 5.5 m-2 at the reef sites), and Chironomidae (63.4 ± 26.5 m-2 at the cobble and 215.9 ± 19.3 m-2 at the reef sites). By 2014, chironomid richness had increased >100% since 1991-1992. For the first time during the 31 year sampling period, gastropods and sphaeriid clams were absent, which contributed to low Simpson’s Diversity in 2014. Between 2000 and 2014, D. bugensis almost completely replaced D. polymorpha, and E. ischnus replaced Gammarus fasciatus as the dominant amphipod. Results in 2014 were in strong contrast with those reported from 1983, 1991-1992, and 1999-2000, when gastropods and sphaeriid clams, as well as the native amphipod G. fasciatus, were dominant members of the benthic macroinvertebrate community. These results suggest that the 2014 benthic macroinvertebrate communities underwent greater change after invasion of the round goby than the communities did after the dreissenid and E. ischnus invasions (~1990 and ~1994, respectively). The loss of gastropods and native clams, coupled with increases in oligochates and chironomids at the study sites, likely will have important effects on benthic and pelagic food webs in Lake Ontario.