• The Seasonal Fecundity of the Cladocera of McCargo Lake

      Brlan, Michael; The College at Brockport (1/1/1969)
      The fecundity of selected Cladocera was investigated from September, 1968 to August, 1969. Due to the differences in seasonal reproductivity, a sampling program of one year was followed. Data were collected from McCargo Lake, located in Orleans County in north central New York.
    • The Benthic Macroinvertebratas of Sandy Creek, with Special Reference to the Chironomidaa and Diversity Analysis

      Pask, Wayne M.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1971)
      Benthic invertebrates have long been recognized to be important to the stream ecosystem as food organisms for fish. Changes in the stream environment are often reflected in the population of benthic invertebrates. Percival and Whitehead (1929) found that insects comprise from about 60% to over 90% of the bottom fauna. They noted that the Chironomidae often made up a significant portion (40%) of mast samples. In this investigation the Chironomidae (Diptera:Nematocera) ware selected for particular attention because of their importance as fish food and their numerical abundance. Other organisms ware included in the study in an attempt to clarify the relationship of the Chironomidae to the total community. Weekly physical and chemical measurements were made throughout the study in an effort to determine some of the natural stresses these organisms must encounter. Three stations were selected to determine water chemistry changes along the length of the stream. It is possible that chemical differences may be reflected in the invertebrate communities observed. It is hoped that through such studies, eventually, a better understanding of how ecological factors are involved in the fluctuations of benthic communities will develop.
    • Seasonal Variations in the Physicochemical Parameters of McCargo Lake

      Micchia, Ronald L.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1971)
      Limnologists studying the biota of inland bodies of water must consider the physical and chemical nature of the waters and its seasonal variations in order to obtain a complete understanding of the aquatic ecosystem. In many well studied bodies of water, such as Linsley Pond, information is available on some physical and chemical parameters, but this is not so for McCargo Lake. Here, the amount of basic limnological data is very small with much of the older records inconsistent and fragmentary. A satisfactory understanding of McCargo Lake necessitates a knowledge of the physical and chemical variations which occur and directly or indirectly affect the ecosystem. A suitable method of obtaining this information is by accurate analysis of the physical and chemical data throughout the entire year. Rawson (1939) indicates that the inter-relationships of climate, physical and chemical factors affecting lakes are extremely complex and require a high degree of investigation. In fact, Fruh and Lee (1966) pointed out that a body of water is a "dynamic ecosystem" and to study it effectively an investigator must sample frequently and analyze closely its physical and chemical constituents. In this presentation the physical and chemical data are evaluated and related to seasonal changes. This was performed to make as complete a study as possible and to discover in what quantity the various elements exist in McCargo Lake throughout the year. It is anticipated that data collected as a result of this investigation will form a foundation to stimulate further research of McCargo Lake. This study, although it began as a limnological investigation, has as a result of an aeration experiment become involved in the problems of eutrophication. The "enrichment of water", be it intentional or unintentional , incorporates any and all physical , chemical and nutritive substances therein (Hasler, 1947). Through a comparison of data from both the open lake waters and the aerated.waters leads to an understanding of the direction and extent of eutrophication in McCargo Lake. Variations in the physical and chemical properties can be observed by a comprehensive limnological investigation of a body of water (Ruttner, 1953). It is to this end that this research on McCargo Lake has been conducted.
    • Effects of Aeration on Periphytic Organisms in McCargo Lake, Fancher, New York

      Fortuna Klik, Marian J.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1971)
      The experimental objective was to explore what effects aeration might have on periphytic growth and development. Previous investigators devised aerated and nonaerated experimental chambers capable of withstanding both summer storms and the rigors of winter weather. In this study it was proposed to develop a periphytic sampler that would allow both visual observation and gravimetric measurement of the growth of aquatic microorganisms that grow commonly attached to submerged objects. These organisms are referred to usually as periphyton. The periphytic sampler was suspended in each of the chambers and in an open water situation as a control. Details of the project and description of the lake are discussed under Methods and Procedures.
    • Aeration and its Effects on Zooplankton

      Bannister, Robert D.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1971)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of aeration primarily on zooplankton.
    • Sexing Study of Interphase Duodenum and Liver Nuclei in the Sixteen-Day Chick Embryo

      Morrell, Edward; The College at Brockport (1/1/1971)
      A study was made to confirm the existence of sex chromatin or some other sexual dimorphism in the interphase nuclei of the 16-day chick embryo. A Feulgen staining procedure was performed on sectioned epithelial tissues of the intestinal villi as well as sections and squashes of liver tissues. All chromatin masses, not just those suspected to represent sex chromatin, were recorded using a blind technique. The size, location and stain intensity of these chromatin masses were recorded, and seven different studies were made comparing male and female nuclei for sexual dimorphisms. No sex chromatin was found that resembled either that of mammalian nuclei or that described by previous authors working with chick material. The chromatin bodies, regardless of sex, varied greatly in size and number from one nucleus to another within a tissue. A sexual dimorphism, however, was observed. Statistical evidence showed that male nuclei have a greater number of large chromatin bodies, and a lesser number of small chromatin bodies than female nuclei.
    • The Biomagnetic Effects on Pupation of Diapausing European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubn)

      Frierson, James L.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1972)
      Diapausing larvae of the European corn borer were exposed to a magnetic field for varying lengths of time. In three sets of experiments the time required for pupation to occur was lengthened in the treated groups indicating an inhibition of development. In a fourth group, time to pupation was reduced indicating a stimulation to development. It is believed that the type and magnitude of magnetic effects depends largely on the physiological and metabolic state of the organism.
    • Development of Resistance in Drosophila Melanogaster by Selective Pressure with Malathion (Organophosphate Insecticide)

      Chamberlain, William G.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1972)
      Two strains o f resistant Drosophila melanogaster were cultured by selective pressure with malathion. One group was exposed to a sublethal concentration for its entire life cycle while the other group was exposed to an LC_65 for twenty- four hours. The data obtained indicates that both strains developed equal degrees of resistance representing a four- fold increase in the LC_50. This appears to be the upper limit of resistance for these flies with respect to their genetic limitations. It is possible, however, that this represents a plateau of resistance and further selection might have caused an increase. Upon obtaining resistance in both strains, population studies were conducted to determine the characteristics of the resistance. Lt was found that a cessation of treatment for five generations did not significantly reduce resistance. The cross breeding of wild flies with resistant flies resulted in offspring that had a mortality curve closely matching the projected mortality curve of flies assumed to have resistance caused by a single dominant gene. There was no indication of resistance being sex linked. Finally, it was found that resistant flies are more susceptible t o malathion when they are reared at a higher temperature (30° C. instead of 25 ° C.).
    • Sperm Passage in the Female European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)

      Stutzman, Richard W.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1972)
      Mated and unmated female European corn borers raised in the laboratory were sacrificed and arbitrarily placed into two groups. The abdomens from one group were dissected and observed in saline. The abdomens from the second group were fixed, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned on a microtome. Through the use of serial section slides and serial morphology the path taken by sperm through the various ducts in the female reproductive tract was delineated. A possible time sequence is established for sperm passage between termination of copulation and arrival of sperm in the spermatheca.
    • Male Influence on the Neuro-Endocrine Control of Egg Production in the Female Milkweed Bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus - Dallas

      Herbert, James Michael; The College at Brockport (1/1/1972)
      The reproductive activity of male and female milkweed bugs is characterized by repeated, prolonged copulations during the whole adult life. This investigation was conducted to determine whether mating has any effect on egg reproduction. Virgin females were maintained under the three following conditions: 1) completely isolated from males, 2) visual contact with males through screening which prevented mating, and 3) physical access to one or two males at all times. The results in terms of number of eggs produced by females in each treatment demonstrates that egg production increased significantly when copulation could occur. It is postulated that in Oncopeltus fasciatus the actual physical stimulation of the female reproductive tract by the male during copulation initiates impulses in the ventral nerve cord which activate neurosecretory cells of the brain. Brain hormones activate the corpora cardiac and corpora allata to produce factors which stimulate protein synthesis in the fat body and yolk deposition in the ovary with a consequent increase in egg production.
    • Morphology of the Internal Reproductive System of the Male and Female European Corn Borer Ostrinia Nubilalis (Hubner)

      Shapiro, Miriam F.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1973)
      The gross morphology of the internal reproductive organs of the adult male and female European corn borer is described. The adults were laboratory reared progeny and descended from wild specimens collected in the Rochester area, Western N.Y. The male system displayed 2 major variations in the paired vasa deferentia. In 8% of 75 recently emerged males, each of the ducts arising from the testis, had a single expansion before merging with the narrow portions of the ducts. These expansions have been referred to as the seminal vesicles or upper vasa deferentia. In 88% of the 75 males, the ducts showed 2 expansions; the single expansion immediately followed by a second, smaller expansion, shaped somewhat like a tear-drop. A stable, distinguishing characteristic of the male tract is the large flask-like or ampulliform extensions of the accessory glands. These bodies were found in all males upon dissection. The female reproductive tract showed fewer variations. However, this species on emergence shows a transparency of the spermathecal complex, the lateral oviducts, the common oviduct and the bursal duct. After insemination, only the bursal duct displays a transparency. The female emerges with unripe eggs and at this stage of development has the capacity to receive the spermatophore immediately after wing drying. The male was not observed to copulate until after the first or second day.
    • The Life History of Parargyractis canadensis Munroe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) of Sandy Creek (Monroe County, New York)

      Lavery, Michael Arthur; The College at Brockport (1/1/1973)
      Population s of Parargyractis canadensis Munroe that existed in Sandy Creek (Monroe County, N.Y.) were studied from 7 October 1971 to 28 October 1972. Being a new species only recently described by Munroe (1972) it was possible for the first time to document its complete life history. Previous to this study the immature forms of P. canadensis had never been reported. During this study, it was also possible to obtain quantitative estimates of the density and distribution of immature forms of P. Canadensis at three different areas of Sandy Creek. These immature stages averaged 270.2/m2 for the 1971-72 overwintering generation and 358.2/ m2 for the 1972 summer generation. Larvae and pupae were found to be uniformly distributed from bank to bank .
    • A Late Wisconsin Buried Peat Pollen Profile from the Valley Heads Region at South Dansville, New York

      Rynders, Theodore S.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1973)
      A peat deposit buried under 100 cm. of clay was discovered 4.25 miles southeast of Dansville, N.Y. The site is located at 1875 feet above sea level just one mile southeast of the Valley Heads Moraine border. Profile interpretation and carbon date of 15300 B.P. for the bottom of the peat indicate a pre-Valley Heads ice advance in the region with a putative 1000 year interstade between it and the Valley Heads Substage. Spruce pollen maxima are correlated to the pre-Valley Heads and the Valley Heads ice advances while a pine peak represents the Valders Substage. Migration of plant communities from the unglaciated Appalachian Refugium sixty miles to the southwest and late glacial history of the area are discussed to interpret development of present vegetation.
    • The Degradation of Octane in Continuous Culture

      Chang, Jui-Yu; The College at Brockport (1/1/1973)
      The purpose of this study is to use the technique of continuous culture to study the microbial degradation of oil in aquatic environments. Although much work has been done in the field of biodegradation of oil and hydrocarbons, very little of this work has used continuous culture techniques. The continuous system is an open system which will provide a condition more similar to the natural environment. It is the hope that the mechanisms of oil breakdown by bacteria in nature will be more understandable by the use of this technique. In this study a normal alkane, octane, was chosen as the principle substrate to test the feasibility of the continuous culture approach. The reason octane was chosen was because: a) it is very slightly soluble in water b) its mechanism of degradation is known c) it is available in chemically pure form and d) it is relatively non-volatile. Using mixed population and pure culture studies, we hoped to gain insight into how fast bacteria degrade hydrocarbons, to what degree the degradation rate is affected by environmental factors and whether the mixed populations of bacteria compete with each other during the degradation process. Since hydrocarbons are poorly soluble in water, it has been thought that the hydrocarbons must be mechanically dispersed in the water phase in order to get microbial degradation. However, these dispersion techniques are difficult to incorporate into continuous culture systems. For example, large amounts of hydrocarbon are required, the amount of hydrocarbon dispersed must be constant with time and rubber tubing is required which will not be affected by the hydrocarbons. To circumvent these problems, a continuous culture system was designed in which the hydrocarbon is floated on the surface of a water column under conditions in which it was not dispersed. The purpose of such a device was to show in fact that the hydrocarbon could be degraded in this type of continuous culture system and to demonstrate the factors that affect the degradation process.
    • Juvenile Hormone Metabolism in the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana, (L.)

      Massare, John Steve; The College at Brockport (1/1/1973)
      his study confirms the results of Slade and Zibitt, (1972), and Ajami and Riddiford, (1973), that juvenile hormone in insects is predominately metabolized by esterase attack at the methyl ester as well as by epoxide hydration. We were unable however to find the JH acid – diol metabolite present in any of our extracts. Many esterases were found in the hemolymph, gut, and fat body of male nymphs of Periplaneta americana, with the fat body containing these enzymes in greater abundance than the other tissues. Tracing experiments carried out on last instar male nymphs show significant amounts of label present in the gut and excrement after six hours. We were unable to show any evidence of binding of juvenile hormone in last instar male nymphs. It appears that on a wet weight of tissue basis, that last instar nymphs possess a greater ability to degrade 3H - Cecropia juvenile hormone to JH – acid than younger nymphs.
    • Modified Nucleotides of Mitochondrial Transfer Ribonucleic Acids

      Morry, David William; The College at Brockport (1/1/1973)
      32P-labeled low molecular weight RNA was extracted from mitochondria of KB cells. Thin layer chromatography was used to separate and quantitate the various nucleotides. The amount of label incorporated into modified nucleotides of mitochondrial LMW RNA was 5.6% of the total amount incorporated into all nucleotides of this RNA. The value obtained in the same way for cytoplasmic LMW RNA was 10.9%. This is the only data available on modified nucleotide content of mitochondrial LMW RNA.
    • Ornithine aminotransferase : Purification and Properties from Beef Kidney and Molecular Weight from Rat Liver

      Strayer, Dana; The College at Brockport (1/1/1973)
      Ornithine aminotransferase was purified from beef kidney 100-fold by acetone fractionation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Heat, pH, and ammonium sulfate treatments were found to be impractical as purification procedures. The enzyme from beef kidney was less stable to temperature and pH changes than it is from other sources. The specific activity of the enzyme in the medulla was about six times greater than it is in the cortex. The pH optimum was found to be 8.0. The Michaelis constants for L-ornithine and -ketoglutarate were 2.0 mM and 7.1 mM respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by para-chloromercuribenzoic acid and iodoacetamide showing that sulfhydryl groups are required for enzyme activity. A metal ion is not required for activity as evidenced by stability to EDTA. L-norvaline inhibited the reaction by 43%, but glutamate, a product of the reaction, did not inhibit significantly. Pure rat liver ornithine aminotransferase was used for molecular weight studies. The molecular weight of the whole enzyme was determined to be 203,000 ± 13,000 by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex G-200. The enzyme has four sub-units and the molecular weight of each was determined to be 52,000 ± 2000 by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
    • Mating Behavior of the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)

      Ratigan, Hugh Lewis; The College at Brockport (1/1/1973)
      The European corn borers for this study were raised on artificial diet. The adult moths were placed in cage for mating and their behavior was observed. The moths’ day-night cycle was reversed so that work with cinematography could be done in a darkened room during the day. Mating crosses were made between male and female adult moths from Minnesota, New York, and Wisconsin strains. The moths’ mating behavior is described and the crossing of geographical strains is documented.
    • Effect of Actinomycin-D on the Ultrastructure of Molting in a Parasitic Nematode, Nippostrongylus Brasiliensis

      Minier, Lee N.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1974)
      The effect of actinomycin_D on the fine structure of the hypodermis of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was studied during the second molt. The drug inhibited cuticle formation to approximately 90% of control levels, and several ultrastructural alterations were observed in response to treatment with the antibiotic. The morphology of the hypodermis in treated larvae did not progress beyond that state seen in early second stage (L_2) worms. The appearance of large ribosome-bound vesicles derived from the RER in the hypodermis of L_2 treated with 50ug/ml actinomycin-D was diminished, and subsequent cuticle deposition was inhibited. Nucleolar alterations suggestive of segration, capping and fragmentation were observed in worms exposed to the drug for more than 12-18 hr. Configurational changes of RER such as concentric ring formation and aggregation of cisternae near the nuclear envelope were reported. Both actinomycin-D and ? –amanitin induced the formation of nuclear and cytoplasmic crystalline inclusions after 12-18 hr of treatment. The inclusions were not limited by a membrane, and consisted of an aggregation of electron dense particles having an approximate diameter of 100A. The results were correlated with known biochemical and ultrastructural effects of actinomycin-D.
    • Enzymatic N-Acetylation of Indolealkylamines by Brain Homogenates of the Honeybee, Apis Mellifera

      Evans, Philip Harold; The College at Brockport (1/1/1974)
      Brain homogenates of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been found to possess enzymes capable of catalyzing the N-acetylation of tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine with acetyl coenzyme A as the acetyl donor. The Km of the N-acetylation of tryptamine was 5. 0 x 10-7 M at iii pH 7. 0 and 33°C. Evidence was obtained that the indolealkylamines, tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, are not oxidized by monoamine oxidase (MAO) as is commonly considered to be a major catabolic route in vertebrate animals. Certain commonly used assays, reportedly specific for monoamine oxidase activity, will not distinguish between oxidation by MAO and N-acetylation of tryptamine and so should not be used to assay for MAO activity in insect tissues without careful identification of the products of the reaction. Implications of N-acetylation of indolealkylamines are discussed in relation to the neurotransmitter problem.