Now showing items 1-20 of 1573

• #### Implementing the Situation-Task-Action-Result (STAR) Model in Higher Level Mathematics

This curriculum project was designed to incorporate an algebra problem-solving instructional strategy, called situation-task-action-result (STAR) in the unit of Rational Expressions in Algebra 2. STAR is an instructional strategy used to connect previously learned mathematical concepts with new concepts that are being learned. STAR consists of three applications to help students understand the connection between past mathematical concepts and the new concept being learned. These applications are Concrete, Semi-Concrete, and Abstract. These applications are defined and applied in each of the four sequential lessons in this curriculum project. The main focus of these lessons is to relate the new concept of rational expressions to the past concept of fractions. This curriculum project was designed using New York State (NYS) Next Generation Mathematics standards. The keys for all materials are provided in the appendix.
• #### Incorporating Discourse into the Mathematics Classroom through an Investigation of Slope

This curriculum project was designed to increase mathematical discourse within the classroom. To support educators in this task, the lessons in this curriculum project, based on 8th grade New York State (NYS) Next Generation Standards, incorporate vocabulary rich mathematical tasks around slope. The first lesson introduces slope on a graph, along with the types of slope possible. Next, the slope formula is introduced within the second lesson, where students are given ample opportunity to become familiar with using this new formula. After this comes the slope-intercept form of a line which gives students the chance to use slope in a different way. Lastly, lesson four ties all concepts learned in the previous three days into a stations activity. Keys for all four lessons can be found in the appendix.
• #### The Effects That Sport Specialization has on Youth Athletes

Youth sport specialization is becoming more popular than ever. Many athletes, parents and coaches think that sport specialization is the best way to reach elite level status in a sport. However, athletes, parents and coaches don’t know all of the positive and negative effects of specialization in a sport. Whereas, sport specialization may help you gain skill development, it is also correlated with higher chances of overuse injuries, psychological stress, and burnout. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and investigate the effects of sport specialization on youth athletes. It was determined that specializing in a sport can allow an athlete to attain a higher level of performance. It was also determined that overuse injuries are the biggest disadvantage when specializing in a sport. Finally, it was determined that younger athletes are at more psychological and physical risk than older athletes.
• #### The Global Experiences of Physical Education Teachers with Remote Instruction During the Covid-19 Pandemic

In the spring of 2020, countries around the world were forced to go into lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Schools were forced to close their doors and quickly shift from face to face to online instruction at all levels of education. Physical education teachers had to immediately transition from in-person classroom instruction to remote teaching without time for adequate planning and with little or no training. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on the global experiences of physical education teachers with remote instruction during the Covid-19 pandemic.
• #### The Role of Movement in the Classroom

The modern education system has formatted learning in a way that removes movement from a children’s day. Students go to school for 7 hours a day where they sit in desks and receive instruction. There are limited opportunities to move and use their bodies. This limited movement puts both children’s physical health and cognitive development at risk. Research has shown links between chronic exercise, cognition, and mental and physical health in children and adolescents (Graham et al, 2021). Studies have shown that the ages of 0 years old to 5 years old are a critical time for cognitive and behavioral development in humans (Mavilidi et al, 2021). During this time there is a large amount of brain growth and development. The basis for a healthy life style is, in part, built during this influential period in a child’s life. Additionally, physical activity can increase cognition and psychosocial health in children. The recommended duration of physical activity for children ages 3 – 5 is 180 minutes per day. This lack of exercise is not limited to the under 5 age bracket. Research shows that adolescents are also, on average, not getting enough daily exercise (James et al, 2017). The recommended exercise requirement for this age group is at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day (Damian et al, 2018). However, many children and adolescents also do not meet the daily suggested amount of physical activity. Therefore, integrating physical activity into the school day could have significant benefits to children’s and adolescent’s cognitive, mental, and physical health. It has been found that exercise, in short bouts, can help to improve overall health. Physical movement is integral to the development of all children. As children interact with their environment they gain motor, social, emotional, and cognitive skills (Lee et al, 2021). Often times, students need movement-based experiences in order to learn new information. Movement experiences give context and meaning to new information.
• #### The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in High School Science Classrooms

This capstone project explores various strategies that can be used in the science classroom to improve student’s vocabulary acquisition. As teachers will encounter students of varying reading levels, it’s important to find ways to best support these students in acquiring science content. Science teachers may not always think about the importance of teaching vocabulary and providing plentiful opportunities for students to practice with the vocabulary. One of the greatest difficulties that students encounter in science classes is the amount of Tier 3 vocabulary words they must learn, understand, and apply. It is recommended that science teachers explore various methods of explicit vocabulary instruction and the creation of activities that further support their students in gaining vocabulary knowledge.
• #### POGIL Implementation in Middle School Chemistry

This capstone project explores the implementation of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in middle school chemistry, specifically focusing on the NGSS (Next Generation Science Standards) framework for MS-PS1 Matter and its Interactions. The study aimed to investigate the impact of POGIL methodology on students' understanding, engagement, and overall enjoyment of science. A diverse range of POGIL activities, aligned with NGSS standards, were integrated into the middle school chemistry curriculum. The research employed a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative analysis of pre- and post-assessment scores with qualitative insights gathered through student surveys and classroom observations. The findings revealed a significant increase in students' understanding of key chemistry concepts, as evidenced by higher post-assessment scores. Additionally, the implementation of POGIL led to heightened levels of student engagement during classroom activities, with students actively participating in collaborative inquiry. The study also uncovered a notable rise in students' overall enjoyment of science, indicating that the POGIL approach positively impacted their attitudes toward learning and exploration. These results contribute valuable insights into the efficacy of POGIL in middle school chemistry education, emphasizing its potential to enhance both learning outcomes and students' general experiences in science classrooms. The success of this implementation underscores the importance of interactive and collaborative approaches in fostering a positive and enriching learning environment for middle school students.
• #### The Importance of Formative Assessments in AP Physics 1

This capstone project contains research on the importance of AP Physics 1, the courses importance in opening doors in stem to marginalized groups, and formative assessments in the course to help teachers create more opportunities for success in STEM courses for all students.
• #### Support for Learning Mathematics Using the 5E Instructional Model

This curriculum project is designed to assist mathematics teachers in implementing the 5E Instructional Model into their lessons. The four consecutive lessons were taught in a special education algebra 1 setting and each lesson integrates the 5E method (engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration, and evaluation) into graphing linear equations. Lesson 1 includes an introduction to finding points on a line. In lesson 2, students will take a deeper dive into the equation of a line and discover why a point is a solution to a linear equation. Lesson 3 moves onto slope and the many ways we can find slope when various information is given. Lesson 4 focuses on recalling information from the previous 3 lessons to incorporate what has been learned into the slope-intercept concept. In the end, this project engages students in learning linear equations using the 5E Instructional Model.
• #### The Use of Information and Communications Technologies in High School Physics Classrooms

There is a surprising lack of literature on how to implement information and communications technology in the classroom, despite the fact that it is almost universally believed to improve student learning. This paper explore fifteen ICT tools and how they impact student learning. It then provides recommendations for how to best implement them in the classroom.
• #### Using Inquiry-Based Learning to Improve Student’s Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills in Science

This capstone project will explore and examine the application of inquiry-based learning in a high school environmental science classroom. The goal of this project to examine if the use of inquiry-based learning in high school environmental science can allow students to grow in skills, especially problem solving and critical thinking, and not just knowledge. While these results have been observed and studied by other teachers and researchers, this study is being done to see if it is applicable in environmental science and across classrooms, not just the classrooms that have been included in the research studies. Through analysis of the final results, it was discovered that there was some level of growth among the students in critical thinking and problem-solving ability. This growth varied from student to student and was not as strong as originally expected or when compared to other research that has been completed by others. However, even with different degrees of skill growth, this work does show that inquiry positively benefits the students in their ability to grow in critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
• #### Preparing for the Next Generation Science Standards: Implementation of Science and Engineering Practices

The Next Generation Science Standards feature a three dimensional learning model, including Disciplinary Core Ideas, Crosscutting Concepts, and Science and Engineering Practices. With the coming requirement to utilize the NGSS standards, it is important that teachers begin preparing their curricula to fulfill the Standards’ requirements. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Science and Engineering Practices, or SEPs. This is done through the use of several teaching strategies: Model Based Learning, Inquiry Based Learning, Problem Based Learning, Project Based Learning, the use of virtual activities, and activities focused on student use of evidence. Eight lessons have been included to showcase the use of each of these strategies to implement one or more SEPs. An analysis of each teaching strategy’s efficacy for the implementation of SEPs based on the included lessons concludes the projec
• #### An Introduction to Quadratic Functions using the 5E Instructional Model

Student-centered learning has been shown to increase student’s engagement and overall achievement in the classroom. The 5E instructional model is one way for teachers to implement student-centered instruction into their classrooms. This model allows for students to engage, explore, explain, elaborate and evaluate throughout the learning process. This curriculum project presents four sequential Algebra I lessons that incorporate the 5E instructional model to teach an introduction to quadratic functions. The curriculum was designed to be aligned with the NYS Next Generation Mathematics Standards for Algebra I. The answer key for all lesson materials and activities is included in the appendix of this project. By using these lessons, mathematics teachers can be supported in incorporating a student-centered approach in their classroom in order to maximize student learning and engagement.
• #### Using Quizizz for data-driven instruction and increasing motivation in the middle school mathematics classroom

This curriculum project investigates how to use the website Quizizz in a seventh-grade mathematics classroom. Quizizz offers teachers opportunities to increase engagement and provide data to inform instruction, as well as offer sources supporting the importance of both. Four lessons are included where Quizizz was used in four different ways, each for a unique purpose. Data has been collected to assess the success of the lessons and offer opinions and reflections on how the project worked in the classroom.
• #### Utilizing Cross Curricular Learning to Incorporate Computer Science Skills in the Circles Unit of Geometry Classrooms

This curriculum was designed to use cross curricular learning by introducing students to computer science skills while reinforcing geometry content. The geometry lessons cover topics including circumference, area, arc length, and sector area of a circle. The computer science cross curricular design guides students in creating an analog clock utilizing the BlocksCAD program. Keys for all instructional materials and computer science applications are included in the appendix. The lessons are aligned with the New York State Next Generation Mathematics Learning Standards.
• #### Incorporating Instructional Technology into High School Statistics

This curricular project was constructed to provide exemplary lessons that incorporate technology into high school statistics instruction for classes with diverse learners. More so, this project recognizes the instructional paradigm shift created by remote mathematics instruction due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The lessons focus on statistical central tendency and spread with scaffolded lessons about mean, median, standard deviation, and interquartile range. Each lesson provides notes, assessments, and incorporates various technologies.
• #### Vocabulary Instruction Within Science Classrooms

The vocabulary demands of secondary science classrooms has been well documented. As the language of science is complex and specific to the content area or the particular discipline, instruction on science vocabulary must take place. Vocabulary instruction can be categorized as explicit or embedded instruction based on the goal and methods being utilized. In order to determine which vocabulary instruction to apply, rich vocabulary assessments must be developed to understand student vocabulary needs. The following capstone project represents a revised curriculum for a NYS Regents Earth Science course taught to an integrated co-taught 9th and 10th grade class. The curriculum was revised with explicit vocabulary instruction activities, modified learning activities through a vocabulary lens, target vocabulary lists, and vocabulary assessments.
• #### Utilizing Backwards Design Instruction to Incorporate Real World Applications in Algebra 1 Linear Equations Unit

This curriculum project was designed using New York State (NYS) Next Generation Mathematics Standards for Algebra 1. The lessons are designed for the Linear Equations unit followed by a short summative assessment in the format of a quiz. All materials provide reference to real-world applications presented in the backwards design method and apply technology. The purpose of the curriculum is to answer the infamous question, When will I use Algebra in the real world? The lessons were constructed to assist teachers in increasing the engagement of students’ attention and retention. Having students create their own real-world applications in relation to mathematical reasoning will enhance their understanding of the Algebra skills necessary for NYS Next Generation Mathematics Standards
• #### Teaching Quadratic Functions Using Realistic Mathematics Education

This curriculum project offers a sequence of four lessons for teaching quadratic functions in an Algebra I classroom. The lessons make use of the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) teaching model. The RME model suggests that students should be introduced to mathematical concepts within realistic contexts and given time to explore, observe, discuss, and inquire about a concept to build understanding before gradually learning the abstract definitions and details. This represents a reversal of traditional teaching methods where students learn the abstract information first, then apply it to realistic concepts. RME has been shown to increase mathematical performance, elicit multiple pathways of student thinking, and improve engagement and overall enjoyment of mathematics. The lessons provided in this curriculum project progress through the key topics learned in a quadratic functions unit. Each new topic is anchored to a visualization presented in the first lesson of a ball being tossed into the air. All materials, activities, notes, and assignments are included, and answer keys can be found in the Appendix.
• #### Effective Incorporation of Augmented Reality Lessons into Adolescent Anatomy & Physiology Curriculum

As technology has continued to expand our society’s interconnectedness, it has also provided educators with a large opportunity to use this technology as a resource for engagement in the classroom. Three-dimensional modeling systems such as augmented reality (AR) have allowed for students to explore scientific phenomena that previously could not be observed and immerse themselves into environments that would otherwise be inaccessible or put them in simulations that allow for interactions that they would not get in their typical day-to-day life. Utilizing AR systems in the adolescent classroom provides a unique opportunity for educators to further engage students in the learning process. With a direct connection between student engagement/interest and cognitive development, using a new, interesting system of technology, which breaks away from the monotony of classroom instruction, can be a refreshing and enjoyable way to learn science. To apply this research, Anatomy & Physiology Curriculum was created in collaboration with the Aquinas Institute of Rochester for their use. These materials were developed with a direct incorporation of AR lessons into the learning process. These lessons allowed for an easy progression of the use of AR to ensure proper utilization of the tool and explores a large variety of body systems in a manner that cannot be done in a typical classroom setting.