• A Normative Plan for Administering an Audio-Visual Program in the Campus School of the State University of New York at Brockport

      Swartout, Sherwin G.; Herman F. Lybarger; Del Rosso, Joseph J.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1957)
      The ability to communicate clearly is essential for teachers to successfully teach students. Audio-visual (AV) materials and services can not only increase learning but also make it more permanent in the mind of the learner. The author seeks to examine Brockport’s Campus School to understand the school’s curriculum, objectives, teaching materials, and audio-visual equipment. Interviews and surveys of administrators, classroom teachers, and audio-visual coordinators were conducted and a catalog was made of the Audio-Visual Program’s organization and present equipment. The author explores the functions of the AV Program, the capabilities of the personnel, its budget, practices, and addresses a number of areas in need of improvement. Practical solutions are recommended with an emphasis on increasing knowledge of the AV department among the school’s teachers and increasing the department’s resources. A mixture of better planning and increased availability will allow AV materials to make a greater contribution to the students of Brockport.
    • The Formation of a Developmental Literature Program for the Intermediate Grade Level at Wheeler Avenue School, Valley Stream, New York

      Dorfman, Harvey A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1961)
      Strong literacy skills lead to lifelong advantages. This study reviews the ideas and attitudes within the field of children’s literature, and proposes a new developmental literature program for intermediate grades at Wheeler Avenue School. The proposed program differs from the existing programs in its focus on developing students’ literary backgrounds, vs. simply improving students’ reading skills. The author emphasizes cultivating students’ interest in reading through read-alouds and providing them with enjoyable texts, and pays special attention to the importance of literature-based activities, such as puppet shows, choral speaking, and dramatic play.
    • Evolution, The Story of Life

      Incardona, Frank Stephen; The College at Brockport (1/1/1962)
      The prime objective of this paper is to present some of the theories concerning human development beginning with some of the earliest theories and progressing to some of a more recent nature. A general definition of the word evolution means change. There is no doubt that there are many changes occurring about us every day. The evolution with which this paper is concerned is a special kind of change called organic evolution. This subdivision of evolution deals with changes undergone by living things.
    • A Study of the Audio-Visual Program in the Greece Central School District Number 1

      Liberto, S. William F.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1962)
      School programs must be evaluated to gauge their effectiveness and provide insight for future direction. This study seeks to evaluate the Audio-Visual program in a public school in Western New York and includes a brief history of the community. The researcher uses a modified Schwartz questionnaire to survey teachers, grade K-11, where employed by the school district during the 1960-61 school year. Results showed that the schools either met or exceeded standards for sufficient equipment, and that over 70% of teachers believed that schools’ audio-visual program was adequate. The researcher suggests further analysis of the schools’ audio-visual philosophy and the development of in-service training programs to improve teacher participation in/perception of the program.
    • Handbook for student-teachers : Abraham Lincoln School : East Irondequoit Central School District #1

      Gefell, Robert H.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1962)
      This booklet is directed to you who are about to embark on a career of teaching children. It is intended to help you in your work as a student teacher at Abraham Lincoln School, East Irondequoit Central School District #1. The task of any teacher is to provide situations in which pupils can acquire maximum growth. It is the author's hope that this guide will help you to arrange such conditions early in your student teaching assignment.
    • An Annotated Bibliography on Music and Painting

      McCormick, Addie S.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1962)
      The purpose of the study is to determine how many publications, in the Rochester area libraries, consider the common characteristics of art and music, and to analyze their content for relationships of music to visual art.
    • A Study to Determine the Value and Need of a Vocational Group Guidance Unit at the Eighth Grade Level of Brighton Junior High School Brighton School District One Rochester 18, New York

      Renner, Robert B.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1964)
      Educational systems often struggle to meet the needs of students who fall outside of the average and/or college-bound academic path. This research study examines the effectiveness of the vocational group guidance unit taught to eighth graders in the Brighton No. 1 school system. The author used the results of a pre-test given to 25 eighth graders to create a questionnaire investigating students’ and teachers’ perceptions of the unit. Of 254 eighth grade students, 236 responded to the survey. Results were split by gender and tabulated twice. Then responses were combined and tabulated to provide a check-reference for total responses. Seven teachers were surveyed. The researcher found that while the existing Guidance Unit was meeting most needs, it was not sufficient for assisting academically challenged students or introducing students to trade fields, nor did it adequately engage students regarding the “changing world of work”. As a whole, however, the unit was successful. The author recommends addressing the above issues, as well as reevaluating the oral presentations, while continuing the overall guidance unit program.
    • Mechanized Mathematics

      Wood, Britton; The College at Brockport (1/1/1964)
      The widespread availability of information requires people to know a lot more than was necessary in the past to qualify as educated citizens. Population growth, however, has made it difficult for education systems to meet their students’ learning needs. This paper examines changes in education methods, focusing on technology-based learning, or “teaching machines”. The researcher evaluated "programed learning” by juxtaposing two 9th grade algebra classes—a 30 member experimental group and a 32 member control group. The experimental group received “programed learning” instruction while the control group was taught using traditional methods. A post-test was administered at the program’s conclusion to determine each group’s mastery of the material. The researcher created booklets with the question on one side of the page and the answer on the other, allowing students to check their own work and proceed at their own pace. The booklets were then distributed to the experimental group. The researcher noted a marked improvement in the experimental group’s morale and engagement level. The experimental group completed the unit in four days, with fast learners completing the unit more quickly than average or slow learners. The control group completed the same unit in eight days, with the researcher noting lower engagement among control group participants. The post-test revealed no significant difference in student comprehension between the two instructional methods. The researcher remarks that time saved in the classroom is lost in program preparation, and notes that commercially produced programming may be the answer. He suggests further research and experimentation to determine the efficacy of program-based learning.
    • An Analytical Study of the Needs of Gates Chili Central School District's Proposed 16mm Film Library

      Paulick, Du Wayne F.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1968)
      The purpose of this study was to analyze the needs of Gates Chili Central School District’s proposed sixteen millimeter film library by (1) determining the extent to which the existing facilities, personnel, hardware and software could be utilized to establish a functional sixteen millimeter film library by September of 1968, (2) ascertaining the amount of additional facilities, personnel, hardware and software required to establish a complete, efficient and effective sixteen millimeter film library within two years, and (3) investigating the varied systems of administrating a sixteen millimeter film library in order to establish an effective and efficient system of operation whereby most, if not all, classroom teachers could be relatively assured of receiving the requested film before the use date. The hypothesis was that there is a normative plan for the establishment of a sixteen millimeter educational film library.
    • School Health Scoliosis Referrals: A Descriptive Study of the Diagnosis, Treatment and Follow Up Rate of Scoliosis in Relation to Age, Sex and Ethnicity of Sixth Grade Students in the Rochester City School

      Kolacki, Eugene C.; Reddington, Ann K.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1980)
      This research was designed to assess the effectiveness of a school screening program for scoliosis among 294 sixth grade students in the Rochester City School District during the 1978-1979 school year. Data was collected regarding sex, ethnicity, age, follow up status, diagnosis, and treatment of the referred. More females (172) were referred than males (122). Whites comprised half of the study (135), with Blacks (128) next, followed by Spanish (25), and Orientals (6), respectively. Of the total number referred, only 143, or forty-eight and sixth tenths (48.6) percent, had follow up. This percentage of follow up is quite low, but other studies assessing the effectiveness of school health referrals report similar statistics. Only 52 of those seen by their health care provider actually were diagnosed as having scoliosis. The range of age was from nine to sixteen with forty-eight (48) percent, or 142 students, being 12-13 years old which is the average age of a sixth grader. The mean age was approximately the same in each follow up category and it was concluded that age was not an important variable in this study. A chi-square test was applied to the interrelationship between the sex of the referred and their follow up care to ascertain if one sex tended to seek evaluation more than the other. The hypothesis was rejected as there was a difference in the sexes, males having a greater follow up rate than females. The correlation between the follow up status of the referred and ethnicity was accepted after a chi-square analysis revealed that one ethnic group did not tend to seek follow up care more than any other group. However, percentage distributions indicated a greater no follow up rate in the Black and Puerto Rican ethnic groups. Over half of those seen by their health care provider had a normal diagnosis. The connection between the sex and diagnosis was questioned and statistically there was a relationship between sex of followed up students and diagnosis, females having scoliosis more often than males. Data collected regarding diagnosis of those followed up and their ethnicity demonstrated that ethnic groups did not tend to have one diagnosis more than the other. There was no difference in the treatment of scoliosis between males and females. A Fisher-exact test was used to test the interrelationship between these two variables and the hypothesis was accepted. The last hypothesis inquired as to the connection between ethnic groups and treatment, and when a Fisher-exact test was applied to the data, ethnicity had nothing to do with the prescribed treatment.
    • The Effects of Imagery-Instruction on the Writing of Fourth-Grade Students: A Preliminary Investigation

      Begy, Gerald; Baker, Patricia E.; Robson, Mary L. (1/1/1993)
      With a growing emphasis on writing in education today, strategies are required that may be adapted for the various needs of students. Instruction focused on imagery can help since images are the source of much of the material a child writes. This technique encourages students to think about how writers use imagery in their works and to connect imagery in the mind to actual words. This study investigates the possible effects of imagery instruction on fourth-grade children’s writing by comparing the samples of a class taught with imagery instruction and a class taught in a traditional manner. Difference was measured by comparing the use of similes and metaphors, the use of adjectives and adverbs, and the average length of the sentences. Writing samples were taken at the beginning of the school year and at the end. The author found that although there were gains in the use of similes and metaphors, there was no statistically significant difference between the two classes. There was a strong relationship between use of adverbs and adjectives and instruction type, with imagery-instruction students using significantly more than the traditional group. The relationship between sentence length and type of instruction was weak, and not as significant as the use of adverbs.
    • Parental Involvement and Children's Attitudes Toward Reading

      Durham, Jodi L.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1994)
      The following thesis studied Parental Involvement and Children's Attitudes Toward Reading. The researcher found numerous studies dealing with parental involvement and children's attitudes toward reading although very few dealt with the use of a reading program designed to go home. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parents' involvement in a home/school reading program and the attitude their child has toward reading. The question was: How is parents' involvement in a home/school reading program related to children's attitude toward reading? The subjects of this study were twenty five-year-old kindergartners attending a suburban elementary school. On a daily basis these twenty children chose a book to go home. Along with this book the child brought a bookmark for their parents to fill out. For two months the researcher kept separate piles of bookmarks for every child. At the end of the two month period the bookmarks were evaluated by the researcher and two other district personnel. The researcher found a strong correlation between parental involvement and children's attitudes toward reading.
    • Perceptions Students Have About Math in a Third Grade Inclusion Classroom When Using Inquiry

      Balzano, Betsy Ann; Schlosser, Linda; Baker, Patricia E.; Johnson, Adam; Harkenrider, Theresa I.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1997)
      The Rochester City School District participates in the Technical Education Research Center (TERC) Math Program which uses a hands-on, inquiry-based teaching model in improving math, science, and technology in an urban setting. Students are encouraged to use words, pictures, and numbers to explain their problems, with a focus less on obtaining the correct answer than on explaining how that answer was found. The TERC program is used in a third grade inclusion class which contains students with and without special needs. This study asks whether special education students in an inclusion classroom have a different perception about math than regular education students who are in an inclusion classroom. A selection of special needs and non-special needs students were taught a two week unit on addition and subtraction. The students completed independent work, homework assignments, and cooperative work. Following the unit, all students were interviewed and their parents were surveyed for any noticeable changes in their children’s attitudes towards math. The findings show that both groups of students share similar positive feelings about math when using inquiry learning. Students were able to complete their assignments, parents were pleased with their children’s progress, and the students themselves enjoyed the unit. The author recommends longer studies at different grade levels to see if the similarities in attitudes persist.
    • A Parent Involvement Program Focusing on Fine Motor and Language Development and its Effect on Parent Participation at Home

      Beers, Morris J.; Schlosser, Linda; Baker, Patricia E.; Merkel, Tina (1/1/1997)
      Kindergarten curriculum today has become more academically oriented, particularly emphasizing the development of literacy. However, when children come to school lacking fine motor, language development skills, and exposure to literature, they are at a disadvantage. Fine motor skills are necessary for writing and drawing, while exposure to language and literature is essential for reading skills and social interaction. Parent involvement at home can help with children’s academic performance by meeting these pre-existing needs. The purpose of this study is to develop emerging literacy in kindergarten children through fine motor, language development and children’s literature activities at home. The authors designed a variety of home activities meant to complement work done at school. Parents filled out feedback questionnaires before the program began and after its completion. The program was evaluated based on student answers to questions and brief conferences, observations, oral language arts assessment, and fine motor skill screening of students. The authors found a 95% increase in fine motor skills and an increase in the language arts skills of students with attendant increases of verbal communication and reading activity at home. The findings suggest parent involvement at home increase a child’s emerging literacy skills.
    • A Study on Behavioral Objectives: Do They Affect Learning?

      Warren, Kenneth; The College at Brockport (1/1/1999)
      During the past thirty years a great deal of research has been performed focusing on improving the techniques of teaching. The research has concentrated on subjects like objectives, learning styles, cognitive development, cooperative learning, and discovery learning. Considering all the research, no matter what technique an instructor subscribes to, their lessons should always be built around a behavioral objective. Every instructor has a purpose to her lesson. One of the focal points of this research is the use and functions of behavioral objectives. Can behavioral objectives be used by students to enhance learning and prepare for assessment? Much of the literature on this topic has been definitive. With the changes in teaching over the past two decades the question is worthy of being asked again. The purpose of this paper is to re-address the significance of behavioral objectives. By overtly letting students know the objectives at the beginning of each class will student performance improve? This study will use two techniques to investigate the use of objectives by instructors and students at the collegiate level. One technique is a time lapse, quasi experiment. This type of experiment introduces a variable halfway through the project. The variable that will be introduced is intended to act as a catalyst or suggestion to the students to examine their studying practices for tests. The second technique, using different subjects, will expose the students to the objectives of the instructor at every possible opportunity. The students will be shown how the objectives relate to the assessment. Both studies last a total of thirty weeks (two college semesters) and help answer the following question: What effects do these techniques have on student performance? This research will also help to determine how effectively professors in the Department of Biological Sciences at the State University of New York College at Brockport are communicating their objectives to their students. The opportunity to study the correlation between class performance and objectives is included in the study. The null hypothesis of this study is that the presentation of lesson objectives will not influence student performance on assessments.
    • An Investigation into the Placement of Fifth Grade Students with Third Grade Students in a Peer-tutoring Environment

      Perry, Debra E.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2002)
      This study was designed to see if positive self-concept benefits could be gained in a peer tutoring setting by either or both the tutor and the tutee. The subjects consisted of 14, third and fifth grade students from a rural elementary school in Western New York. The students were given pre and post tests of the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale to assess their overall self-concept. Students meet for ten weeks in their tutor/tutee pairs. Data were also collected from journal entries and interviews. The experimental study was analyzed using quantitative methods. Results from the t test indicated that there were no statistically significant mean score differences between pre and posttests of the self-concept scale. However, observations made through journal entries and interviews showed some gains in self-concept.
    • Organizational Skills and Student Achievement

      Davis, Anthony P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      Organizational skills are important to the success of every student but they may also be the answer to helping students with mild disabilities keep up with their school work. Given the increasing number of children diagnosed with emotional or learning disabilities—many of whom will receive education in a general classroom—it is becoming more and more important for teachers to provide the support their students need. This thesis project explores the reasoning behind providing inclusive educational settings, discusses the challenges for teachers, parents, and students inherent in that inclusivity, and examines how different organizational strategies affect such challenging circumstances. The research focuses specifically on how note-taking strategies influence student achievement. The research was conducted with a control group of five students and an experimental group of five students, the latter of whom received class notebooks to record all notes, homework, and test and quiz answers. The research findings found that the students who used the note-taking strategy achieved higher overall test scores, were better prepared for class, and gained confidence in their own abilities.
    • Success in Science: The Power of Writing on Attitudes and Knowledge Acquisition in Middle School Science

      Roberts, Kelly A. (1/1/2007)
      This research study looks at the global deficits in science-related industries with regard to scientific literacy and writing to articulate knowledge. This project explores a science curriculum that uses diverse resources like children's literature, poetry, nature journals, and writing prompts to explore learning and attitudes in the middle school science classroom. Researchers anticipated students’ development in content and conceptual knowledge, improvement in critical thinking skills, and increased interest in scientific reading and writing. Active research was conducted at a small suburban/rural parochial school in Western New York where subjects included 65 students in three seventh-grade life-science classes. Literacy activities were incorporated into the standard curriculum of lecture, student packets, student activities and experiments. The research found that literacy-based science curriculum can foster greater conceptual knowledge and improve critical thinking.
    • The Effects of a Student-Centered Approach to Spelling Instruction that Incorporates the Multiple Intelligences

      Morris, Erin; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of a student-centered approach to spelling instruction that incorporated the multiple intelligences. A goal of this study was to identify spelling strategies that students could choose to use independently while participating in everyday writing activities. Five third grade students who were identified as struggling writers provided usable data for this study. The students recognized their individual need to develop and increase their spelling knowledge as they made personal goals to improve their spelling skills. Students were introduced to a number of spelling strategies that they could use independently through small group instruction. The spelling strategies used by the students were assessed by observing students during small group writing instruction. As students came to words that they did not know while they were writing they attempted to spell the word as best as they could, circled it, and kept on writing. Then, students would conference with a peer or the teacher and they would look at words that were spelled incorrectly. After identifying misspelled words, the student was provided with an opportunity to come up with a strategy to remember how to spell the word correctly. Strategies included coming up with a mnemonic device for the word, chunking the word into memorable pieces, or experiencing the word through various techniques that incorporated the multiple intelligences. Within the classroom there was also an interactive word wall where students could add words as they saw fit. Furthermore, students used and developed their own methods to study their words. The main component of this study was that students were provided with choice, which ultimately led to their motivation and fossilization of their spelling skills. The results of this study indicated that the students greatly benefited from experiencing words in this way. Samples of their writing were looked at sporadically throughout the study and each time their writing was evaluated the students increased the amount of words that they spelled correctly.
    • Teaching Middle School Science Lessons Using Inquiry-Based Methods

      Bentley, Jane M.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2008)
      Educators as a whole are challenged to reach ever changing learning standards for their students while struggling with a limited amount of time to do so. Many teachers know that using a traditional approach when teaching is not always the most engaging, but they use it because they can move through the curriculum at a faster pace. This thesis project examines the perceived differences between and benefits of inquiry-based lessons versus traditional lessons and teaching styles in a science classroom. Using Gardner’s stated learning styles, it also discusses if the inquiry-based method or traditional teaching method caters to more learning styles in the classroom. Acknowledging that inquiry-based lessons require more time to prepare and execute, the overarching question of this research project regards which teaching method, inquiry or traditional, provides better assessment results, creates more enthusiasm for science, and increases the confidence of students in order to allow them to verbalize and apply their newly acquired knowledge. This research was conducted in a rural school district in a middle school of approximately 600 students. The seventeen participants were in two different classes, labeled as Class A and Class B. Class A represented the class that was instructed with the inquiry-based method and Class B, the traditional method. Questions were formulated to identify which method of instruction produces better assessment results, and evokes a more enthusiastic attitude towards science for sixth grade special education students. Data gathered and compared for the study includes: results of pre and post assessments, student surveys, and student interviews. The conclusions drawn from this project solidify the desire to and importance of increasing inquiry-based science lessons in order to increase student mastery of content knowledge and motivation to learn.