• A Case Study Integrating the Relationship Enhancement Model in Conflict Resolution

      Mullen, Jill A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      A literature review of empathic communication in conflict resolution was presented including the problem definition, the nature of conflict, current conflict resolution models, and an alternative solution using empathic communication in conflict resolution were discussed. Results of the literature concluded that resolving conflict was more successful when integrating empathic communication, implying that empathic communication is an effective component to conflict resolution.
    • A Historical Perspective: How a Positive Cultural Identity Can Increase Achievement Motivation and Self-Esteem in Young African American Students

      McDonald, Stefan; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      The dropout rates for African American students in the urban areas of western, New York are increasing at an alarming rate. Many young African Americans are becoming victims to gang related violence, drug trafficking and other rills that affect our community. Worst of all, society is producing young people who are uneducated and will be unable to make their communities better economically, politically, and educationally. Young African Americans aspire to the images they see throughout the media. Being a gangster or "thug life" is more important than getting good grades. Unfortunately many African Americans are unaware of their history. They have never heard the eloquence of Malcolm X or the exploits of Benjamin Banneker or Charles Drew. Once African Americans are aware of the greatness of their legacy, they will aspire to be like their ancestors who overcame amazing obstacles in order to achieve greatness.
    • A Quantitative Study Measuring Urban Youth’s Conception of Work

      Poon, Margery; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      In order to understand how urban youth define the concept of work, a quantitative study measuring conceptions of work will be given to 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th grade students at an inner-city school district. The study included sixty high school students enrolled in career and finance management courses or involved in vocational programs such as the Career Exploration Internship program, or the Diversified Cooperative Occupational program. Study results reveal that for categories of race and ethnicity, five of the seven races displayed a higher preference towards intrinsic work belief statements in comparison to extrinsic work belief statements. Narrative data along with questionnaire results suggest that involvement in vocational educational programs influences urban youth’s intrinsic work beliefs and impacts their perceptions towards future work.
    • Academic Coaching and Study Skills Instruction for 8th Graders

      Chamberlin, Melinda A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      Emotional effects of lacking and obtaining study skills were discussed, followed by social effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral effects. Academic coaching was described and discussed in regards to study skills instruction for students. Next, various factors and traits influencing positive study skills instructions were explained, followed by a discussion about counseling for students developing their study skills. The role of the school counselor in study skills instruction was detailed. A study that implemented an adapted study skills curriculum was discussed and evaluated.
    • Addressing Absenteeism through a Positive Reinforcement Intervention

      Outland, Rafael; Malley, Jillian M.; The College at Brockport (4/1/2016)
      Chronic absenteeism within a school setting is defined as missing 10 percent or more of a school year. Additionally, school attendance is often correlated with academic success. This research study aimed to address the effect of positive reinforcement on school absenteeism and raw GPA percentages in chronically absent middle school students. Chronically absent students met weekly with the researcher during a 5 week period to receive the agreed upon positive reinforcement strategy. Students received a motivator only if he or she did not miss any school during that week. Absenteeism rates and raw GPA percentages were recorded at the start and completion of the study, and were compared to determine the effectiveness of positive reinforcement on improving absenteeism and GPA rates. Final results suggested that the positive reinforcement intervention decreased absenteeism rates by 2.37% overall, and increased overall raw GPA percentages by 2.13%. Additionally, raw GPA percentages were suggested to have a direct, inverse correlation with absenteeism rates.
    • Adolescent Perceptions of "Healthy" Dating Relationships: Implications for Programming

      Fleck, Cassandra M.; The College at Brockport (10/1/2014)
      Adolescence is a time of important developmental changes and the formation of relationships outside of the family. While most experiences children have with dating relationships are positive toward their developmental growth, there is the potential for unhealthy or abusive relationships. Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant public health issue. Nearly 9% of teenagers experiencing physical violence by the time they turn 18 (CDC, 2014). It is possible that the high prevalence of ADV is a result of lack of definitions of healthy and unhealthy relationships and ambiguity that exists within teen relationships. This study examines qualitative interviews with adolescents regarding their perceptions of healthy relationships. These findings are applied to the school setting in order to inform dating violence prevention programming.
    • African American Women and Postpartum Depression

      Broomfield, Robyn; The College at Brockport (10/1/2014)
      Bringing a child into the world can be a joyous and exciting occasion for some new mothers, but for some mothers it can be a time of intense anxiety and fear. This literature review will look closely at the post-partum period; differentiating between “baby blues” and the symptoms of post-partum depression (PPD). Focusing on African American females who live in low socioeconomic urban environments, culture, biology, family history, and both emotional and instrumental support, will be explored. Despite the dearth in literature, the author will build upon the existing research by examining how these factors may influence the development of PPD in African American mothers. Additionally, counseling implications will be discussed in regards to treatment options and the importance of social support among women who suffer from PPD.
    • Alone Among Many:Faculty and Student Perceptions of Harassment and Violence Toward Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Students.

      Fortuna, David B.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      The purpose of this study was to assess faculty and student perceptions of GLBTQ harassment at an affluent suburban high school in the Northeast. It was hypothesized that faculty would perceive a friendlier environment towards Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (GLBTQ) individuals than students. The survey results found that students more often reported hearing derogatory comments towards GLBTQ students on a typical day versus faculty. However, there was no difference between faculty and student observations of physical violence towards GLBTQ students. Students were also more likely to report negative non-verbal actions towards GLBTQ students than faculty. Indirect derogatory language such as that’s gay appeared to be prominent. Efforts should be made in either developing new polices or ensuring faculty are aware of harassment and policies implemented, to ensure a safe environment for all students.
    • Anxiety Prevalence among High School Students

      Hess, Jessica; The College at Brockport (10/1/2014)
      A wide range of individuals experience some form of anxiety. Literature surrounding the topic of anxiety, specifically prevalence, the relation of anxiety and age, the implications of anxiety, and the importance of the school setting and interventions has been reviewed. Anxiety has implications for students in academic, personal, and social areas of life. The changes in anxiety have been studied among children and in various ways. Few studies have looked specifically at the changes in anxiety levels that happen within the high school years. This study aims to fill that gap by surveying high school students in grades 9-12, to determine prevalence of anxiety. Based on the results, suggestions for school interventions are made.
    • Assessing the Career Development and Needs of Lesbian College Students

      Schreier, Kathleen M.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      Lesbian college students have specific career counseling and intervention needs. This study looks at the effects of sexual identity development on the career development process. An analysis of the literature on gender, lesbian development, and career issues was conducted as well as a discussion on historical milestones and roles in higher education. The results of a survey administered to heterosexual female and lesbian college students were included. The limitations and implications for counseling were discussed.
    • Assessing the Counseling Needs of High School Students: The Role of Needs Assessments in Comprehensive School Counseling Programs (CSCPs) and the ASCA National Model

      Sculli, Nicholas; The College at Brockport (10/1/2011)
      The purpose of this study is to identify student counseling needs at the high school level. Furthermore, the role of these needs and the role of needs assessments were explored in the context of the current movement towards Comprehensive School Counseling Programs (CSCPs) and the ASCA National Model. In other words, this study aimed to examine how counselors should use data and student feedback in the implementation and maintenance of their counseling programs. Students were asked to identify their counseling needs in three categories of the career, academic, and personal/social domains. Students reported the most need in the career domain with secondary emphasis on the academic domain, while reporting little need in the personal/social domain. Differences were found among gender and grade level needs as well. Possible interpretations and the implication of these results are discussed.
    • Attendance Works: The Effects of Truancy on High School Students Success

      Outland, Rafael; Bruce, Mark; The College at Brockport (10/1/2015)
      Chronic absenteeism effects 5 to 7.5 million students in the United States. Students who are chronically absent are developmentally behind, suffer academically, and have increased negative behaviors in school. This results in students receiving lower academic marks affecting their GPA, receiving more referrals, and being retained. Chronic absenteeism is defined as students who are absent from school 20 or more days, 10 percent of the year, or 3 days in a month both excused and unexcused. The purpose of the study was to review chronic absenteeism at Brockport High School and determine the correlation between students GPA, the referrals they received, and retention rate. Brockport High School reported having 140 students (e.g. 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th graders) chronically absent from school during the 2014-2015 school year. The findings in the results displayed that there was a correlation between chronic absenteeism and the three variables (GPA, Referrals, and Retention). The results are further discussed as well as those limitations and implications of the research. Recommendations for further studies are explored as well.
    • Barriers to Treatment and the Connection to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

      Outland, Rafael; James, Kelsey; The College at Brockport (4/1/2016)
      Individuals who are engaging in mental health counseling services are demonstrating a lack of engagement in treatment. The purpose of this research study is to demonstrate a relationship between client’s perceived barriers to mental health treatment and to human needs as identified through Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943). This study was conducted through administration of a 27-item survey that consisted of a list of barriers to treatment and basic needs. The development and administration of this survey will be detailed through describing the location of the research site, recruitment process, and collection of data. A total of 22 participants completed the survey. Data analysis showed that 72.27% of participants reported at least one of their barriers to treatment being a basic need as identified by Maslow. The findings are discussed and implications for professional counseling and future research.
    • BeYOUtiful: Assessing the Impact of a High School Girls’ Group

      Hernandez, Thomas J.; Marianetti, Anna E.; The College at Brockport (4/1/2015)
      Adolescent girls are at risk for having low self-esteem and low body satisfaction as a result of having a negative body image. Past research indicates that psychoeducational groups positively impact self-esteem and overall body satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a psychoeducational girls’ group focused on building a positive body image. The group will be detailed through describing the location and community of the site, explaining the recruitment process, and outlining the group sessions. Four high-school aged girls participated in the study. The results were measured through pre- and post-test administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Body Shape Questionnaire 16B. The results did not indicate statistically significant changes in self-esteem and body shape satisfaction. However, the numbers in the raw data showed that the group positively impacted self-esteem and overall body satisfaction. The findings are discussed and recommendations for future research are explored.
    • Bridging The Transition From Middle School To High School

      Smith, Rozetta; The College at Brockport (4/1/2013)
      This study is a records review of students (N = 1122) enrolled in a suburban Northeastern United States high school, in which, the researcher documented student grades, number of behavioral incidents, and days absent during their eighth and ninth grade years at ten-week intervals. Four cohorts of freshmen were selected for this study in order to identify trends that occurred over the transition from middle school to high school. The school selected for this study implemented Peer Mentoring, 9th Grade Teams, and a Freshman Orientation to aid the transition into high school. The following research analyzes whether there are significant changes observed as students adjust to the often challenging transition into high school. Descriptive statistics test analyses were run to determine the average eighth and ninth grade GPA, attendance, rates, and behavioral incidents for each cohort. In addition, an independent samples t-test was run in order to compare any significant results between the 2012 cohort and the past three cohorts. Significant findings were observed in the 2012 cohort, who experienced the lowest absence rates of all cohorts studied.
    • Building Multicultural Awareness of Self and Others Through A Group Discussion Experience

      Randazzese, Paul; The College at Brockport (1/1/2006)
      The importance of teaching and learning about multicultural issues was explored. The author contends that along with the increasing need for multicultural awareness, there is an increasing need for experiential exercises to effectively gain this awareness. The literature was reviewed and shown to support the necessity for both of these important issues. The growing need for counselor training programs to incorporate experiential teaching methods as well as the traditional teaching methods was also explored. Potential risks to clients whose counselors are not multiculturally aware were elaborated upon. The limitations of traditional teaching methods for multicultural learning were discussed. The importance of combining traditional methods with experiential learning was explored. In particular, using a group format as a method for enhancing understanding and awareness was discussed. A study was run to measure the effectiveness of a group discussion experience on increasing the multicultural awareness of MBA students with a concentration in international business. Results were shown to support the effectiveness of the group format. Strengths, limitation, and recommendations for future research were also elaborated upon.
    • Building Self-Esteem in African American Males

      Ruekberg, Benjamin M.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2006)
      Adolescent African-American males constitute a population at risk. Most research to date has emphasized the identification and treatment of problem behaviors within this population, and little research on positive behaviors is available. For example, multiple studies reveal a widespread lack of self-esteem. Recent efforts to improve self-esteem of African-American males include specialized programs that have achieved some success. A Building Self-Esteem model based on group activities are proposed to strengthen selfesteem and provide encouragement in order to increase confidence in self and academic ability in African-American males.
    • Bullying in Schools: Improving Self-Concept Through Group Counseling For Adolescents Who Are Targets of Aggressors

      Salomone, Kelly O.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if bullied students who participate in a counseling group benefit from increased self-esteem due to the intervention. A recent review of literature regarding bullying in school aged students is presented. Suggestions and techniques for counseling children who are bullied at school were explored in an effort to increase the selfconcept and self-esteem of these children. Adolescents participated in group sessions over a 10 week period. The participants completed a pre and post questionnaire for this study to determine the degree to which, if at all, the participants' self-concept/self-esteem increased due to the intervention.
    • Bullying Prevention: Combining Whole-School Approaches and Positive School Climate

      Mink, Margaret C.; The College at Brockport (10/1/2014)
      Bullying is a common occurrence in schools and it can have many serious consequences. The literature review examined the following whole-school anti-bullying programs: The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, Steps to Respect, and Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support. The review also defined school climate and explored the connection between positive school climate and bullying prevention. The Authoritative School Climate Survey is a tool used to measure students’ perceptions of school climate and make improvements. The review of the literature supported the utilization of school climate data to inform anti-bullying programs with the overall goal of preventing bullying and increasing school safety. The research study included use of the Authoritative School Climate Study to gather students’ perceptions of school climate at a rural, intermediate/middle school. Although participation was limited, results indicated a need for a whole-school anti-bullying program to target the aggressive attitudes of students as a method for bullying reduction.
    • Burnout is to Counselors What Weeds Are to Your Flower Garden

      Pettit, Julie A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      The causes, implications, and interventions for counselor burnout are examined for mental health counselors. Burnout/Self-care Among Mental Health Counselors was an eight week group run for the mental health counselors at Orleans County Mental Health. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey Third Edition (MBI-HSS) was given to measure three specific areas of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The results indicate that there was improvement for the group as a whole after participating in Burnout/Self-care Among Mental Health Counselors, in the areas of emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization. However the results indicate that after participating in Burnout/Self-care Among Mental Health Counselors, the group experienced fewer feelings of personal accomplishment than they previously did. Procedural methods used during the group will be identified along the results and a discussion as to the possible reasons for the results.