• Perceived Barriers of Urban African American Students: A Group Study

      Heilmann, Meade W.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      Urban African American students are forced to deal with obstacles to success. Researchers have concluded that there are many barriers that urban students must overcome in order to achieve their educational and career goals. The following study provides a look at the effects of group therapy on the perceived barriers experienced by urban African American adolescents. An eight week group therapy intervention was implemented with a sample of 11 African American eighth grade students in an urban school district. The results reveal that group therapy has a positive effect on barriers to postsecondary education, anticipated barriers, and the belief that the individual will be able to overcome barriers that inhibit him or her to achieve career goals. Limitations and Implications for future research are discussed.
    • Understanding Self-Injurious Behaviors: Treatment and Implications for School Counselors

      Harnden, Christen C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      This review examined the implications of dealing with students who self-harm and how school counselors can effectively cope with this ever prominent issue among adolescents. The current study examined the trend of school counselors who have adopted a school or district-wide policy which dictates whether parent contact was made when a student presents with self-injury. Eighty-five different schools throughout Western New York were surveyed as to the existence of a policy or procedure. The respondents were asked specifically whether parents or guardians were contacted whenever a student presents with self-injurious behavior or if each situation was examined individually. This information was then used to promote discussions regarding the implementation of a policy or procedure at the internship site. A resource manual was also constructed for the education and use of the counseling staff. Implications for further research and limitations of this study were also discussed.
    • New Student Adjustment: A Group Experience for High School Students

      Hoy, Colleen; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      A study was completed in a high school using all of the new students in grades 9- 12 to evaluate whether a group for new students would have an effect on connectedness and GPA. A pre-group survey was administered to all new students, and they were asked to rate on a scale from 1-5 how strongly they agreed or disagreed with four statements. They were also asked if they would like to participate in a group for new students. Students were separated into two groups, those who chose to participate in the group and those who chose not to participate in the group. Eight group sessions were held, and a post-group survey was administered to all of the new students after the group sessions had ended. Pre and post survey results, along with pre and post GPA were compared for each group separately to evaluate for change and then the groups’ results were compared with each other. Pre and post survey results revealed an increase in scores for three out of the four statements for the group that participated in the new student group. The results for students who did not participate in the group revealed a decrease in scores for all four statements. Both groups had an increase from pre to post GPA.
    • Using Group Counseling to Implement a Career Development Program with High School Students

      Giallombardo, Lisa; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      Discusses the importance of implementing career development groups at the high school level. A study was conducted to determine if group career counseling is beneficial to students’ growth in their career development. The methods used in this study were described, including the setting, participants, procedure, and evaluations. The findings were detailed along with a discussion about the implications of the results. Included in the literature review was the rational for having career development in high school, as well as the educational system and counselor’s role pertaining to career development. Using group work as a counseling technique was described, along with its effectiveness when working with adolescents. Finally, the advantages of combining group counseling with career development were introduced and explored.
    • Relational Aggression: A Classroom Guidance Activity with Middle School Students

      Branca, Tayla; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      A graduate student created and implemented a classroom guidance activity with middle school students on the topic of relational aggression. The purpose of this activity was to promote awareness on the prevalence of relational aggression and measure the sample student’s participation in relationally aggressive behaviors. A twenty item pre and postsurvey on aggression was given to a sample of 75 students at a Western New York middle school. The sample included 41 females and 34 males, ranging in age from 12-14. The sample included students from Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian racial backgrounds. Also included is a review of the current literature on relationally aggressive behaviors, differences in boys and girls in respect to relational aggression, the importance of relationships, cliques and popularity, the impact of aggression, and rationale for school based awareness and intervention. The project demonstrated that most students reported relationally aggressive behaviors before the classroom guidance activity was presented. There was an approximate 7% decrease in relationally aggressive behaviors on 17 of the survey items. Three of the survey items showed a 6% increase in reported behavior after the guidance activity. The project demonstrated that relational aggression occurs among boys and girls, and that it occurs across different racial groups. It also demonstrated that relational aggression is an important issue among middle school students. Implications for school based awareness, prevention, and intervention are necessary to combat relational aggression are also presented.
    • Peer Sexual Harassment in Schools: A Sexual Harassment Program for 8th Grade Students

      Mauragis, Elise M.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      Peer sexual harassment in schools was discussed. Statistics about sexual harassment, the meaning of sexual harassment, laws about sexual harassment, and impacts that sexual harassment has on students was discussed. A program developed for eighth grade students was discussed, and evaluated. The students that participated in the program showed a knowledge increase of 38% on what sexual harassment means as well as a 53% increase on being able to name four different forms of sexual harassment. The author also found that education on sexual harassment was well taken with students rising awareness of knowing what to do if sexual harassment happened to them by 23%.
    • Child-Centered Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

      Lamanna, Jaime E.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      This thesis presents a rationale for providing counseling, and more specifically childcentered play therapy, to elementary school children. The purpose of this study was to measure the outcomes and evaluate the results of a community-based early intervention program that provided child-centered play therapy to students in three schools in a rural county in Western New York State. Teacher assessments, therapist reports, and parent reports were used to measure change in the students involved in the study. The importance of early intervention and preventive services is discussed, as well as the tenets and benefits of child-centered play therapy. The results of the 14 students studied demonstrated that child-centered play therapy is an effective modality for working with children. The author advocates for the implementation of the Early Intervention Program in more schools.
    • A Case Study Integrating the Relationship Enhancement Model in Conflict Resolution

      Mullen, Jill A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      A literature review of empathic communication in conflict resolution was presented including the problem definition, the nature of conflict, current conflict resolution models, and an alternative solution using empathic communication in conflict resolution were discussed. Results of the literature concluded that resolving conflict was more successful when integrating empathic communication, implying that empathic communication is an effective component to conflict resolution.
    • The Need for Schools to Act as Communities

      O'Connor, Courtney Breanna; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      As cities, towns, and neighborhoods continue to break down and loose their original purpose of connecting individuals to one another, the school systems have been forced to take on the additional role as the community. American schools try to incorporate a sense of connection and belonging in a safe environment to combat the growing concern of a violent episode occurring within their walls, as has begun to occur in schools all around the country. The purpose of this thesis is to identify the need of the schools to act as a positive, healthy community for our youth and our larger communities based on current research, and examine if these efforts do work by incorporating a school community building event within a public school and comparing the pre and post event results. The school community event, titled Celebration Day, focused on a full day highlighting student talents and working as a community to learn these new talents. The goal of this event was to establish a connection between the students, through all grade levels, and staff and promote a positive school climate by giving the community members of the school a day to learn and teach each other skills and talents that are not typically showcased during an average school year. The results of this program were measured by pre and post surveys given to random samples of students. The results indicate that there was a dramatic increase in the positive perception of the school community and the student bodies’ sense of belonging.
    • Enhancing Self-Esteem of Sixth Grade Girls: A Group Counseling Approach

      Natasi, Nicole A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      In a time where adolescent females are under internal and external scrutiny, this writer created and implemented a school-based program for middle school age girls. The program was designed to address and enhance the self-esteem among adolescent females. The curriculum focused on building self-esteem through establishing an acceptable body image, developing a positive self-concept, and forming healthy peer relationships. A review of the literature regarding the definition and societal impact on self-esteem among adolescent females was studied and incorporated into the characteristics of this program. An evaluation of this 10-week, 12 member psycho educational group was performed using the testing instrument known as the Piers-Harris Children?s Self-Concept Scale. The assessment tool was given as a pretest and posttest to evaluate the overall level of self-concept, as well as specific domains such as physical appearance, intellectual status, happiness and satisfaction, behavioral adjustment, anxiety, and popularity. The results of this assessment indicated that the ten week psycho educational group had a positive influence on student?s self-esteem.
    • Stand Up Against Bullies: Strategies for Elementary School Children

      Perry, Aisha; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      The problem under investigation is bullying in schools and how it negatively affects everyone involved in the bullying situation. The Stand Up Against Bullies program was evaluated and implemented. The total number of the sample was 86 students. The total number of males was 46 and the total number of females was 40. The total number of 4th grade students was 42 and the total number of 5th grade students was 44. A pre-test was administered to measure the student’s previous and present experience with being bullied and what information they knew on how to effectively handle a bullying situation. The Stand Up Against Bullies program was implemented thereafter. A post-test was administered to measure again what information they knew on how to effectively handle a bullying situation. The present study showed that boys are bullied more then girls and that 4th grade reported being bullied more then 5th grade students. The percentages of correct responses in the pre and post-test show the effectiveness of the program. Implications for future research and school counselors were addressed.
    • Teen Pregnancy, Self-Esteem, and their Relationship in an Urban High School

      Curran, Robert P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      A prospective study examining the relationship between teen pregnancy and selfesteem was taken with 113 urban upstate New York students aged 12 through 19 years. Utilizing the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and a questionnaire of demographic and attitudinal information yielded a limited, to no significant relationship between pregnancy and self-esteem. The study however did show a pregnancy rate of 8% current to administration and 22% of teen females who reported “ever” being pregnant. The sexual activity experience rate was nearly 70% for these teens, with limited access to that resolve (pregnancy to term or abortion). Further research implications and areas of study are discussed as well as salience of self-esteem as it relates to pregnancy, sexual activity, and socio-economic status. Implications for counseling interventions are also discussed.
    • Child-Centered Play Therapy with Deaf Children: Exploring Linguistic and Cultural Implications

      Chapel, Susan L.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      This paper describes an exploratory study of a fifteen-week program of child-centered play therapy provided to four deaf children by a hearing therapist fluent in sign language. Historical and contemporary perspectives on Deaf culture and American Sign Language (ASL) are described, along with implications for appropriate mental health services. Discussions of the behavioral and emotional health of deaf children and child-centered play therapy provide context for the study. Methods and procedures are detailed, followed by results obtained from the Behavior Assessment System for Children, the Roberts Apperception Test for Children, and therapist observation. Overall, the results were not statistically significant, however two of the children improved on some measures, and therapist’s observations indicated that those children were progressing through the stages of play therapy at the time the study was concluded. Upon analysis of therapist-child interactions, it was concluded that the divided attention phenomenon of visual languages may impact the delivery of child-centered play therapy. Further study of the cross-cultural implications of child-centered play therapy are recommended.
    • School Climate and Rituals

      DiGuardi, Paula; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      A study was conducted to asses the quality of a high school's climate. School violence, bullying, absenteeism/dropout rates and suspension rates are some of the problems that exist in schools and are affected by and affect school climate. Other factors related to school climate that were discussed included student development, student learning, and relationships within schools. This study also discussed characteristics of positive school climates and how schools can improve their climates, with a focus on the use of rituals. It assessed student perceptions of their school's climate through the use of a questionnaire. It was discovered that some aspects of this school's climate were positive, while others were areas of concern.
    • Improving Academic Intrinsic Motivation through Counseling

      Altman, Tracy W.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      Academic intrinsic motivation is a key factor in academic performance and achievement. Many students, for various reasons, have minimal motivation for school evidenced by little persistence and little effort expended at school. This investigation examined the effect of counseling on academic motivation and achievement. Participants were seven 7th and 8th grade middle school students who were identified as students who lacked motivation. The Children’s Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) (Gottfried, 1986) was used to confirm that motivation was an issue for student participants. Each student completed a minimum of 11 counseling sessions over a 13-week research period. Results for each student are reported. Support was found for the hypothesis that motivation and self-efficacy would increase through the counseling process and as a result, grades, and in some instances attendance, would improve. Limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for the direction of school counseling programs are presented.
    • School Counseling Program

      Carter, Todd J.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      A graduate student discussed the need for revision of a comprehensive school counseling program. With use of literature pertaining information on guidance and school counseling programs, this student reviewed a number of various models. Student developed and conducted a survey to ascertain the current status and perceptions of the student body and staff regarding the Student Services Center and its counselors. The student then presented a summary of findings and implications for future programs, curriculum, and services.
    • The Use of Child Centered Play Therapy in a Primary School Setting

      Dupee, Tracy E.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      This paper is divided into four Sections: 1) Introduction, 2) Methods, 3) Results, and 4) Discussion. The Introduction begins by explaining the purpose and significance of the current study as well as the research hypothesis and objective. Next, the recent growing concern about school violence and its link to childhood social skills is discussed. The social characteristics of students involved in school violence are then outlined followed by a description of various school violence prevention programs and the role of school counselors in preventing school violence. Next is a description of several specific types of social skills training groups and typical problems found with such groups. The function of play with regard to childhood development is then discussed followed by an introduction to Child Centered Play Therapy. The benefits of Child Centered Play Therapy in the school system, particularly with high-risk students who show signs of aggressive or shy and withdrawn behaviors are then summarized. Next is a discussion of the nature and benefits of group Child Centered Play Therapy as well as the potential effectiveness of combining Child Centered Play Therapy with a social skills training group for the treatment of high-risk students. The Introduction Section ends with a brief conclusion based on the literature reviewed. The Methods Section is divided into three subsections. The first identifies the characteristics and demographics of the study participants. The next subsection outlines the psychometric properties of the instrument used to measure the study outcomes. The third and final methods subsection describes the procedures utilized in the study. The Results Section includes the raw data obtained for both the experimental and control groups. The data is presented in Tables 1 and 2, which are included in the Results Section. The Discussion Section follows with four subsections. The first includes information about the results in relation to the research question and hypothesis of the current study. The second subsection links the results of the current study to previous theory and research. The third subsection discusses the limitations of the current study while the fourth includes suggestions and recommendations for practice and future research
    • Learning: The Power of Group Work in Facilitating Student Achievement

      Scott, Chad E.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      This paper focused on the American School Counseling Association National Standards requiring school counselors to serve all students. Focusing their activities, around three major areas, to help schools achieve their educational mission of student success. These three areas are academic achievement, personal/ social, and career development. In addition, it recommended implementing school counselors to student ratios at the ASCA recommended level or less. It presented a graduate student thesis study on the efficacy of non-directive group counseling with middle and high school students. It illustrated the changes in academic grades, the pre and post results from the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report assessment, which measured therapeutic change. Also including, a qualitative reporting of a personal experience questionnaire of the sixty students, grades sixth through tenth. It attributed the outcomes to the social and interpersonal skills gained through group therapy, which brought improvements in student academics, behavior, and social skills and relationships (Romasz, Kantor, and Elias, 2004). It proposed that these benefits positively affect all students’ growth and development, and these effects are not limited to students who exhibit “at risk” behavior. This review attempted to provide justification for the implementation of a developmentally comprehensive group-counseling program, consisting of three group models, psycho-educational, counseling, and psychotherapy, as the most efficient and effective way to reach the goal of student success (Delucia-Waack, 2000; Shechtman, 2002; Shechtman, Freidman, Kashti, & Sharabany, 2002).
    • Whose Responsibility Is It? Assessing the needs of Pregnant and Parenting Teens

      Johnson, Tanishia A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2006)
      This study encompasses research that suggests the need for more supportive services within the national school system for pregnant and parenting teens. This report further details the effectiveness of supportive services within an urban high school, located in western New York which provides on site supportive services for pregnant and parenting teens. The author has included a literature review which details current information on this topic. This report further includes the author’s assessment of the teen parent program coordinated within the school by the YWCA and the results of a survey completed by program participants.
    • Domestic Violence Court Intervention Project

      Jones, Wendy R.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2006)
      This research study examines the effectiveness of two domestic violence interventions to increase shelter use among women in a court advocacy program in upstate New York. The study found a significant advantage to offering a brief counseling component during an intervention, as opposed to only handing out an agency brochure and verbalizing shelter services to participants. Through qualitative inquiry rooted in Grounded Theory, the study accesses the impact of the criminal justice setting, direct observation, and the unstructured interview in acquiring pertinent screening information from victims. The study also uses Prochaska and DiClemente=s (1982) AStages of Change@ to better gage the readiness of each victim to make substantial and lasting changes in their relationship with the abuser. The study uncovered three potential areas for future research such as expanding service options for those victims who are not ready or willing to extricate themselves from the abuser. Second, preventing domestic violence earlier by directing preventative programs at children. Third, expanding what domestic violence workers look for during the screening process to measure the feasibility of including both family systems in the treatment plan especially if children are involved.