• The Ecology of the Zooplankton Community of a Small Quarry Pond with Special Reference to the Rotifers

      Costa, Robert R.; Curro, Leo J.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1972)
      This study examines the effect of ecological factors within a small limestone quarry pond environment on the relevant biota. The author collected plankton samples over a period of six months in order to track the vertical distribution patterns within various species of zooplankton, while gathering quantitative data on seasonal physical/chemical changes of the pond. Specimens were collected using a net towed for a distance of 18-27m at depths of 0m, 0.5m, and 1.5 m. On completion, the net was removed from the water and organisms were concentrated into a 30ml vial. The sample was then poured into a different bottle and combined with 20ml of filtered pond water. Samples were transported immediately to the laboratory where all rotifers were live-counted using an A O Spencer binocular microscope. After completing the live count, the researcher preserved the sample and performed a second count using Congo Red stain at a later date. Crustaceans were immediately preserved and counted at a later date. The researcher observed a positive relationship between water temperature and the abundance of zooplankton, and a negative relationship between dissolved oxygen concentrations and planktonic organisms. Crustaceans did not seem to be affected by low concentrations of dissolved O_2. The researcher observed that pond depth affected the composition of the zooplankton populations. The researcher concludes that a combination of abiotic and biotic factors appear to play an important role in influencing and regulating zooplankton populations, lessening competition in the relatively shallow quarry pond.
    • Zooplankton Community Response to Salinity Addition

      Costa, Robert R.; Lukos, Glenn C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1974)
      The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of salinity stress on a mixed Cladocera and Copepoda community, including shifts in zooplankton densities, percent composition of populations, and changes in percent composition of females carrying eggs or young. The researcher collected zooplankton samples at depths of 0.5m to 3.0m from a lake in Western New York as the water approached the temperature selected for each phase of the project. Samples were taken with a hand pump or a #20 mesh plankton tow net. Organisms were then concentrated into 4L of lake water and transported to the laboratory, where they were immediately placed in a Percival incubator set at the temperature at which they were collected (+- 2C) and aerated for 24 hours. The culture was then randomly sub-sampled to provide 15 sub-cultures (250-300ml each). The researcher replaced the water of each subculture with one of five salt solutions (0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm NaCl in native lake water), resulting in three replicates for each salinity value. Subcultures were maintained in the incubator under a 12-hour photoperiod at the selected temperature. The subcultures were then immediately partitioned and examined with a dissecting microscope for changes in the composition of the zooplankton community and reexamined at 1-2 day intervals thereafter. Only obviously living organisms were counted and classified as to generic makeup and reproductive condition. The salinity-temperature combinations appeared to be within the zooplanktons’ zone of tolerance. However, the researcher observed that long-term exposure to elevated salinity had negative effects on large segments of the zooplankton community. Cladocera were particularly affected and were eliminated at salinity values of 1000 ppm NaCl or greater. The researcher observed that the decline in numbers did not appear to be the result of salinity-induced death, but rather of a lower rate of reproduction/replacement among affected populations. The researcher concludes that higher chloride concentration selectively and significantly reduces biotic potential in specific genera or groups, resulting in lowered diversity.
    • Amino Acid Accepting Activity for Lysine and Arginine Transfer Ribonucleic Acids in Moloney and WM1-B Strains of Murine Leukemia Viruses

      Kline, Larry K.; Evans, Jack Randall; The College at Brockport (1/1/1974)
      The object of this research was to isolate and purify Moloney and WMl-B strains of Murine Leukemia virus from (NIH) Swiss mouse embryo tissue culture and to determine transfer ribonucleic acid presence for Lysine and Arginine. Viruses were purified by ultracentrifugation and activity determined by Plaque Assay. Protein concentration and RNA content by Lowry and Orcinol assays respectfully, concludes a 2-3% total RNA content of this RNA tumor virus, similar to that reported for Avian tumor viruses and other strains of Murine Leukemia viruses. Enzymatic aminoacylation proved that Murine Leukemia viruses contain transfer RNA populations. This is the first time transfer RNA amino acid accepting activity in Murine Leukemia virus has been observed and may be a general property of RNA Tumor Viruses.
    • The Effect of Thermal Injury on Carnitine Concentrations in Plasma and Selected Tissues of the Rat

      Smith, Delmont C.; Van Alstyne, Eldwin L.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1975)
      The effect of thermal injury on plasma and tissue carnitine was studied by comparing the concentration of carnitine in scalded and uninjured rats over a time interval of 74 or 78 hours post burn. The experiment which was initiated at 9:00 PM produced results which indicated that the plasma carnitine of the burned animals was significantly increased at 24 hours following burning. In the study begun at 3:00 PM, an increase in carnitine was found in the burned group at 6 hours post burn. The reason for these findings is not known. It is postulated that decreased body temperature immediately following a burn (0 to 24 hours post burn) may be related to the increased plasma carnitine concentration seen in the burned animals during the same time period. This may be involved with changes in free fatty acid metabolism during the recovery period. It is also suggested that the overall variations in plasma carnitine from one assay to the next may be a manifestation of any, or all, of a number of factors including: an effect of the anesthesia, stress produced by handling and/or loss of blood during sampling, the presence of a circadian carnitine cycle, or a change in eating habits.
    • Cell Surface Localization of the Sialyltransferase Ectoenzyme System During the Chlamydomonas Mating Reaction

      McLean, Robert J.; Colombino, Luciano Francis; The College at Brockport (1/1/1976)
      Glycosyltransferase-acceptor activity was demonstrated previously with gametes of Chlamydomonas moewusii and was shown to be enhanced during the mating reaction (McLean and Bosmann, 1975). This investigation is intended to provide some supportive data for the surface localization of sialyltransferase activity and to determine the possibility of hydrolysis of the CMP-sialic acid substrate by surface hydrolases resulting in uptake of the labelled sialic acid. The data indicate that Chlamydomonas cannot utilize sialic acid £or growth in the dark although it is taken up by the cell. Free sialic acid uptake is not enhanced during mating. An excess of free sialic acid did not suppress sialyltransferase activity thus weakening the possibility that CMP-sialic acid, the donor in the reaction, was hydrolyzed resulting in uptake of the free monosaccharide. Trypsinization of gametes before mating significantly reduced the level of activity in the transferase assay. Trypsinization after mating removed nearly all of the label incorporated during the assay. These data support the observation that sialyltransferase-acceptor activity detected on Chlamydomonas gametes is surface-localized and associated with the mating reaction.
    • The Role of Autochothnous Production in the Formation of Dissolved and Particulate Organics in Laboratory Streams

      Ellis, Robert H.; Roarabaugh, Doyle Bryan; The College at Brockport (1/1/1977)
      The role of autochthonous production in the formation of dissolved and fine particulate organic carbon (DOC and FPOC) was studied in simplified communities in six laboratory streams. Production of DOC and FPOC by laboratory stream communities exposed to low (170 ft-c), intermediate (260 ft-c), and high (450 ft-c) light intensities was determined periodically under conditions where allochthonous inputs could be carefully monitored. Possible relationships between DOC and FPOC production and community structure, primary production, and community respiration were examined. The production of DOC by laboratory stream communities was approximately 4 to 53 percent of the total carbon fixed in photosynthesis. As light intensity, gross primary production, and periphyton standing crop decreased, the percentage of DOC produced increased. FPOC concentrations were approximately 1/3 to 1/9th DOC concentrations. The production of DOC and FPOC by the laboratory periphyton communities exposes the communities to concentrations similar to those found in natural streams .and suggests that the contribution of DOC and FPOC by periphyton communities to lotic ecosystems could be significant. Light intensity is the major factor controlling production of DOC and FPOC in the laboratory streams. Periphyton productivity and standing crop play a secondary role in the regulation of DOC and FPOC production.
    • Chlamydomonas moewusii Pairing: Optimal Conditions and Drug Effects

      McLean, Robert J.; Lembo, Thomas Michael; The College at Brockport (1/1/1978)
      The effect of various mating conditions on the pairing percentages in Chlamydomonas moewusii were determined. A pairing percentage of 43% was obtained when gametes induced at 21°c were shifted to a mating temperature of 19°c for 1 hour. The lowest pairing percentage was obtained when cells were induced at 30°c and shifted to 19°c for 1 hour. The anti-microtubule agent colchicine and the anti-microfilament agent cytochalasin B were employed to determine their effect on pairing in C. moewusii. Both drugs demonstrated an inhibitory effect on pairing in Chlamydomonas. The inhibition of gametic pairing in cells treated with colchicine was greater than those gametes treated with cytochalasin B. Low temperature is known to disrupt microtubules. Gametes exposed to 4°c exhibited a dramatic decrease in pairing percentages. These results seem to suggest an interacting relationship between microtubules and microfilaments that play a crucial role in the pairing of Chlamydomonas moewusii gametes.
    • Analysis of the Flagellar Membrane Proteins of Chlamydomonas moewusii

      McLean, Robert J.; Jamieson, Cheryl Lynn; The College at Brockport (1/1/1978)
      This investigation was concerned with the analysis of the proteins isolated from the gamone (flagellar membrane vesicles isolated from the medium) of Chlamydomonas moewusii. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of gamone isolated from (+) and (-) cell types indicated possible differences between vegetative and gametic gamone within mating types and a degree of similarity within vegetative and gametic gamone of both mating types. Electrophoretic analysis of several molecular weight standards indicated that the major proteins from all gamone types are glycoproteins of relatively high molecular weight (100-150, 000 D.) Con A affinity chromatography of membranes solubilized in 1% DOC in 10 mM Tris, pH 8.2, showed that 4.2% of the proteins isolated from the (-) gamone and 7.35%-16.4% of the proteins isolated from the (+) gamone bound to Con A. These proteins could subsequently be eluted with 2% ?-methylmannoside. Attempts to recover the proteins from the Con A affinity chromatography column were unsuccessful.
    • The Effect of Temperature and Density on the Amplitude of Vertical Migration of Daphnia Magna

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Calaban, Michael John; The College at Brockport (1/1/1981)
      The effects of thermal stratification (temperature and density changes) on the amplitude of vertical migration of Daphnia magna were studied under controlled conditions in acrylic tubes. Vertical migration was inhibited in thermally stratified columns. Changes in water density alone did not affect vertical movement. Abolition of the descending blue dance could not explain the results because of the use of a light source with a spectrum shifted to the red region. The magnitude of vertical migration may be reduced by an avoidance reaction to large but commonly observed differences in temperature encountered in temperate lakes during summer stratification
    • Effects of Wind Stress, Wind Speed and Direction on Phytoplankton Abundance in the Nearshore Zone of Lake Michigan

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; DeVault, David S.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1982)
      Phytoplankton data from a shore and offshore intake in the near-shore zone of Lake Michigan at Chicago were examined to determine the effects of wind speed and direction on phytoplankton density. Over the entire year, regression analysis indicated that a small (4.2 and 5.5 percent) but statistically significant portion of the daily variation in phytoplankton density at both sites occurred with densities increasing with increasing north winds. On days with only a north wind, wind speed accounted for 34.9 and 42.1 percent of the variation in phytoplankton abundance. During short periods ( < one month) of relatively constant water temperature (e.g., January), wind stress, independent of wind direction, explained nearly 50 percent of the daily variation at the shore intake with phytoplankton density increasing with increasing wind speed. In the Chicago area during periods of thermal stratification, southwesterly winds produced upwellings which were accompanied by higher densities of both diatoms and blue-green Oscillatoria. The higher densities of blue-green algae caused by upwellings have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported in Lake Michigan.
    • Energy Costs of Foraging by Honey Bees on Artificial Flower Patches of Variable and Constant Nectar Distributions

      Southwick, Edward E.; Schreffler, Andrew Kent; The College at Brockport (1/1/1983)
      Experimentation with the honey bee, Apis mellifera, was performed with two artificial flower patches, located at a certain distance from an apiary. Patches were tested adjacent to each other and with a separation distance between them. Responses of foraging bees on the patches were measured by censusing at one-minute intervals in order to determine preferences by the bees for three factors which differed between patches; Nectar Distribution ("constant" or "variable" amounts per flower), Flower Color (blue or yellow), and Distance from the apiary (near or far). The bees preferred the "constant" nectar distribution and the blue flower color. Although a distance preference was not found, the data suggest that a preference for the nearer patch may be exhibited at distances greater than those used in these experiments.
    • 3’ Terminal Processing of Precursor tRNA Transcribed From a Drosophila Melanogaster Histidine Gene in a Cell-Free System

      Kline, Larry K.; Fulginiti, James P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1987)
      Transfer RNA biosynthesis is a complex process which includes trimmings at the 5' and 3' termini and nucleotide modification of the initial tRNA precursor. This research involves the detention and isolation of a 3' endonucleolytic activity from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. tRNA precursors are obtained from a cell-free transcription system using (i) a Drosophila tRNA-histidine gene which contains a 35 base pair trailer sequence at its 3' terminus and (ii) a crude yeast enzyme extract which can faithfully transcribe the gene and process the precursor transcripts. Transcription products are separated by means of polyacryfamide gel electrophoresis visualized by autoradiography, and eluted from the gel. The tRNA precursors are then incubated with a Sc. pombe extract, electrophoresed and autoradiographed. The intact 35 base pair trailer sequence will serve as an indicator of the presence of the 3' endonuclease.
    • Leptodora Kindtii (Focke): Seasonal Population Abundance and Food Web Interactions in Lake Ontario; 1984, 1986, and 1987

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Koapaha, Joutje Ariel; The College at Brockport (1/1/1989)
      In 1984, 1986, and 1987 five stations in Lake Ontario off Sandy Creek were sampled biweekly to determine the abundance and biomass of the zooplankton Leptodora kindtii (Focke) and its links in the food web. The seasonal abundance and distribution of Leptodora kindtii in Lake Ontario were governed by temperature and productivity of habitat. The minimum temperature which Leptodora kindtii occurred in Lake Ontario was 6.0o C. The highest abundance occurred proportionally with the highest temperatures in the months of late July and August. The population is mostly comprised of the female Leptodora during this period. The first appearance of male Leptodora in Lake Ontario occurred in mid-August and their numbers gradually increased with time. Leptodora kindtii is a multivoltine organism which does not have a clearly separable cohort. Average abundance of Leptodora at the nearshore station ranged from 26.5 Leptodora/m3 in 1984, 2.8 and31.7 Leptodora/m3 (inside and outside the Brockport Water Intake Plant, respectively) in 1986, and zero in 1987. The average abundance for the offshore station ranged from 9.8 Leptodora/m3 in 1984 to 28.7 Leptodora/m3 in 1987. There was a positive correlation between alewife abundance and Leptodora abundance over several years of varying forage fish abundance. This suggests that alewife do not affect Leptodora abundance in Lake Ontario, which is contrary to the results of previous studies in other lakes.
    • Specific Activity of Phosphofructokinase in Flight Muscle of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Winter, Summer, and in a Flight Room

      Southwick, Edward E.; Smugor, Daniel L.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1991)
      1. The maximal activity of phosphofructokinase (PFK) has been measured in flight muscle of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in summer and winter. A flight room was also used to test PFK activity in flight muscle of winter bees kept on summer photoperiod and temperature. The activity of this enzyme was used to compare estimates of maximal rates of aerobic respiration in flight muscle under the conditions of the experiment. 2. PFK activity expressed per unit muscle tissue is not significantly different between summer, winter, and flight room bees. However, when reduced to per unit muscle protein, flight room bees have significantly less PFK activity than summer and winter bees. 3. There is no relationship between PFK and aging in bees since the specific activity of PFK remains the same in winter and summer seasons. The fact that the specific activity in flight room bees is lower than other bees tested indicates that these bees are different than summer or winter bees.
    • An Investigation of Melanin-concentrating Hormone Receptor Internalization – Or Lack Thereof

      Cook, Laurie B.; Moden, Jay I.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2012)
      Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a cyclic peptide hormone involved in energy homeostasis, is known to bind to two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in mammals. These receptors, melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) and melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 2 (MCHR2), have been a popular target for MCH antagonists in an effort to fight the ongoing epidemic of obesity. In the presence of prolonged stimulus it is common for GPCRs to undergo rapid desensitization. However, the desensitization mechanisms of MCHR1 and MCHR2 are as yet poorly understood. This study aims to create epitope-tagged expression vectors to allow for the expression of MCHR1 and MCHR2 in a tissue model. Utilizing a modified cell-based ELISA and fluorescence microscopy, the sequestration of MCHR1 and MCHR2 would be measured after agonist stimulus. Receptor interactions with GRK2 and ?-arrestins would also be measured. The over expression of both MCHR1 and MCHR2 proved to be cytotoxic to BHK570 cells. The overexpression of GRK2, ?-arrestin 1, and ?-arrestin 2 showed a relatively small but statistically significant increase in receptor internalization. Fluorescence microscopy suggests that the interaction between MCHR1 and ?-arrestins were transient in nature. These finding suggest that MCHR1 can be internalized via the clathrin-mediated pathway. It is likely MCH signaling is mediated a cell specific manner based on the cellular expression levels of GRKs and ?-arrestins.
    • Characterization of FMP35: A novel gene and its role in mitochondrial DNA stability

      Cornelius, Chad A.; The College at Brockport (1/21/2006)
      Mitochondria are essential organelles for all eukaryotic organisms with very few exceptions. The life-giving processes contributed by mitochondria are the end result of many proteins that are encoded within the mitochondria. Many nuclear encoded proteins give mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) the high stability needed so that life can thrive. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) has historically been a model organism for mitochondrial function studies. These yeast are categorized as facultative anarobes; meaning that they are able to respire or ferment depending on media available. Functional mitochondria allow baker's yeast to thrive on a 3-carbon medium (p+), while mitochondrial dysfunctions due to mtDNA defects do not allow growth on the same medium (p-). The ease of visualizing this phenotype and culturing these organisms has made S. cerevisiae an important tool for mitochondrial studies. Nuclear encoded proteins such as Abf2p and Ilv5p have been implicated in offering a degree of stability to mtDNA. Many nuclear proteins have been localized to mtDNA, creating an essential DNA-protein complex called a nucleoid. One protein that has been defined as a mitochondrial protein is Fmp35p. This is a novel protein that remains uncharacterized. A fmp35?::URA3 gene knockout yields a p- phenotype as illustrated by a respiration loss assay. Furthermore, a significant decrease in direct repeat recombination has been described by this study. A less significant increase in polymerase slippage within microsatellites has also been documented. It is the conclusion of this study that Fmp35p plays a role in a recombination pathway that gives rise to wild type yeast with a full complement of functional mtDNA. When this gene is defective and the protein is not produced yeast will not thrive.
    • Behavioral phenotype of Vang6 mutant Drosophila melanogaster pertaining to the Olfactory System

      Hing, Huey; Pelletier, Michel; Sia, Rey; Austin, Sarah Lynn; State University of New York College at Brockport (1/21/2016)
      There are many proteins that aid in the development of the olfactory system, specifically Wnt pathway and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway proteins. It has been shown that Vang6 mutant flies have distinct olfactory abnormalities, as do Wnt5 mutant flies. In addition, Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila) Wnt5 mutants have an improper olfactory response compared to wildtype Drosophila. After using a T-maze to explore the behavioral tendencies of Vang6 mutant Drosophila and wildtype WT1118 flies, it was shown that there is no significance between wildtype and Vang6 mutant Drosophila selecting air (control component) or Carbon Dioxide (CO_2) (test component).
    • Blue-Green Algal Mats from Acidified Adirondack Lakes: Mat Structure and pH Response of Algal Isolates

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Leupold, Maureen Ann; The College at Brockport (10/1/1983)
      Seven acidified lakes in the Adirondack mountains of New York, USA were sampled for benthic algae during the summer of 1982. Benthic cyanophyte mats, dominated by Schizothrix spp. were found in three of the seven lakes sampled (Big Moose, pH 4.00-4.40; Limekiln, pH 4.60-5.30; Wolf, pH 3.45-3.70). The blue-green algal mats found were structurally similar to living stromatolite analogs found in other extreme environments. Under controlled laboratory conditions, unialgal isolates of Schizothrix calcicola (Ag.) Gom., grew best at or near neutrality but could survive and grow slowly at low pH (4.0, 5.0). Increased nutrient levels appeared to have little effect on growth or survival in buffered low pH (4.0) media. Cultures of S.calcicola were able to raise the pH of unbuffered media three pH units in less than 72 hours. Clumping and aggregation of filaments was enhanced by lowering the pH (to pH 3.5 in 5.5 hours) of actively growing cultures.
    • Investigation of Generalized Watershed Loading Functions Predictions On Sodus East Creek Watershed

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Brown, Gary Benjamin; The College at Brockport (10/1/1993)
      The Generalized Watershed Loading Functions model was applied to the Sodus East Creek watershed to predict streamflow and sediment and nutrient loads. Actual discharge and sediment and nutrient loads were measured by conventional hydrologic and chemical techniques. During a two year period, the model explained 44 % of the total monthly variability in discharge. Total discharge was underestimated by an average of 74%. Potential factors contributing to the underestimation of discharge were investigated and assessed accordingly. Factors investigated were precipitation measurement, discharge measurement, aquifer locations, watershed characteristics and model performance. Analysis of these factors suggested that model inaccuracy was not the result of a single factor but rather multiple factors, both hydraulic and model related.
    • An Analysis of Factors Potentially Limiting the Abundance of the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Salmon Creek, Monroe County, New York

      Haynes, James M.; Miller, Steven J.; The College at Brockport (10/1/1994)
      First reported in the Great Lakes basin in 1988, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has spread throughout the Great Lakes and central U.S. With a direct connection to Lake Erie, the New York State Erie Barge Canal was colonized by zebra mussels as early as the spring of 1989. Salmon Creek flows northeast from southern Monroe County to Braddock Bay, and Erie Barge Canal water is used to supplement creek flows north of the canal. At the beginning of the canal outfall channel to the creek is a dense bed of zebra mussels which has existed since at least 1990. After the outfall channel merges with the creek, within 75 meters downstream adult densities drop to less than one mussel per square meter. In the summer of 1993 veliger counts in the canal were on average 52 times greater than they were in Salmon Creek. Water quality in the creek and the canal were similar. pH ranged from 7.5 to 8.2 in Salmon Creek and from 7.3 to 8.3 in the canal, both well within the established range of zebra mussels. Temperature in Salmon Creek did not exceed 30°C, the maximum tolerated by zebra mussels, and calcium concentrations did not fall below 40ppm, the minimum tolerated by zebra mussels. Particulate organic carbon in the creek (21. 6 ± 1.8 ppm) did not differ from that in the canal (21.5 ± 2.3 ppm). Current in the creek (0.03 - 0.16 m/sec) did not exceed ranges that impair zebra mussel settling and growth. Given these appropriate physical habitat and water quality conditions and an abundant source of veligers, the factors limiting zebra mussel colonization in Salmon Creek appear to be 1) detention of zebra mussels by the wetland through which the canal discharge flows, 2) filtering of phytoplankton and veligers by the dense bed of adult zebra mussel at the beginning of the canal outfall channel, or 3) inappropriate food quality in the creek.