• The Ecology of the Zooplankton Community of a Small Quarry Pond with Special Reference to the Rotifers

      Costa, Robert R.; Curro, Leo J.; The College at Brockport (1972-01-01)
      This study examines the effect of ecological factors within a small limestone quarry pond environment on the relevant biota. The author collected plankton samples over a period of six months in order to track the vertical distribution patterns within various species of zooplankton, while gathering quantitative data on seasonal physical/chemical changes of the pond. Specimens were collected using a net towed for a distance of 18-27m at depths of 0m, 0.5m, and 1.5 m. On completion, the net was removed from the water and organisms were concentrated into a 30ml vial. The sample was then poured into a different bottle and combined with 20ml of filtered pond water. Samples were transported immediately to the laboratory where all rotifers were live-counted using an A O Spencer binocular microscope. After completing the live count, the researcher preserved the sample and performed a second count using Congo Red stain at a later date. Crustaceans were immediately preserved and counted at a later date. The researcher observed a positive relationship between water temperature and the abundance of zooplankton, and a negative relationship between dissolved oxygen concentrations and planktonic organisms. Crustaceans did not seem to be affected by low concentrations of dissolved O_2. The researcher observed that pond depth affected the composition of the zooplankton populations. The researcher concludes that a combination of abiotic and biotic factors appear to play an important role in influencing and regulating zooplankton populations, lessening competition in the relatively shallow quarry pond.
    • Amino Acid Accepting Activity for Lysine and Arginine Transfer Ribonucleic Acids in Moloney and WM1-B Strains of Murine Leukemia Viruses

      Kline, Larry K.; Evans, Jack Randall; The College at Brockport (1974-01-01)
      The object of this research was to isolate and purify Moloney and WMl-B strains of Murine Leukemia virus from (NIH) Swiss mouse embryo tissue culture and to determine transfer ribonucleic acid presence for Lysine and Arginine. Viruses were purified by ultracentrifugation and activity determined by Plaque Assay. Protein concentration and RNA content by Lowry and Orcinol assays respectfully, concludes a 2-3% total RNA content of this RNA tumor virus, similar to that reported for Avian tumor viruses and other strains of Murine Leukemia viruses. Enzymatic aminoacylation proved that Murine Leukemia viruses contain transfer RNA populations. This is the first time transfer RNA amino acid accepting activity in Murine Leukemia virus has been observed and may be a general property of RNA Tumor Viruses.
    • Zooplankton Community Response to Salinity Addition

      Costa, Robert R.; Lukos, Glenn C.; The College at Brockport (1974-01-01)
      The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of salinity stress on a mixed Cladocera and Copepoda community, including shifts in zooplankton densities, percent composition of populations, and changes in percent composition of females carrying eggs or young. The researcher collected zooplankton samples at depths of 0.5m to 3.0m from a lake in Western New York as the water approached the temperature selected for each phase of the project. Samples were taken with a hand pump or a #20 mesh plankton tow net. Organisms were then concentrated into 4L of lake water and transported to the laboratory, where they were immediately placed in a Percival incubator set at the temperature at which they were collected (+- 2C) and aerated for 24 hours. The culture was then randomly sub-sampled to provide 15 sub-cultures (250-300ml each). The researcher replaced the water of each subculture with one of five salt solutions (0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm NaCl in native lake water), resulting in three replicates for each salinity value. Subcultures were maintained in the incubator under a 12-hour photoperiod at the selected temperature. The subcultures were then immediately partitioned and examined with a dissecting microscope for changes in the composition of the zooplankton community and reexamined at 1-2 day intervals thereafter. Only obviously living organisms were counted and classified as to generic makeup and reproductive condition. The salinity-temperature combinations appeared to be within the zooplanktons’ zone of tolerance. However, the researcher observed that long-term exposure to elevated salinity had negative effects on large segments of the zooplankton community. Cladocera were particularly affected and were eliminated at salinity values of 1000 ppm NaCl or greater. The researcher observed that the decline in numbers did not appear to be the result of salinity-induced death, but rather of a lower rate of reproduction/replacement among affected populations. The researcher concludes that higher chloride concentration selectively and significantly reduces biotic potential in specific genera or groups, resulting in lowered diversity.
    • The Effect of Thermal Injury on Carnitine Concentrations in Plasma and Selected Tissues of the Rat

      Smith, Delmont C.; Van Alstyne, Eldwin L.; The College at Brockport (1975-01-01)
      The effect of thermal injury on plasma and tissue carnitine was studied by comparing the concentration of carnitine in scalded and uninjured rats over a time interval of 74 or 78 hours post burn. The experiment which was initiated at 9:00 PM produced results which indicated that the plasma carnitine of the burned animals was significantly increased at 24 hours following burning. In the study begun at 3:00 PM, an increase in carnitine was found in the burned group at 6 hours post burn. The reason for these findings is not known. It is postulated that decreased body temperature immediately following a burn (0 to 24 hours post burn) may be related to the increased plasma carnitine concentration seen in the burned animals during the same time period. This may be involved with changes in free fatty acid metabolism during the recovery period. It is also suggested that the overall variations in plasma carnitine from one assay to the next may be a manifestation of any, or all, of a number of factors including: an effect of the anesthesia, stress produced by handling and/or loss of blood during sampling, the presence of a circadian carnitine cycle, or a change in eating habits.
    • The Pollination Ecology of Four Species of Local Vernal Herbaceous Angiosperms

      Gehris, C.; Bernhardt, Peter; The College at Brockport (1975-07-01)
    • Cell Surface Localization of the Sialyltransferase Ectoenzyme System During the Chlamydomonas Mating Reaction

      McLean, Robert J.; Colombino, Luciano Francis; The College at Brockport (1976-01-01)
      Glycosyltransferase-acceptor activity was demonstrated previously with gametes of Chlamydomonas moewusii and was shown to be enhanced during the mating reaction (McLean and Bosmann, 1975). This investigation is intended to provide some supportive data for the surface localization of sialyltransferase activity and to determine the possibility of hydrolysis of the CMP-sialic acid substrate by surface hydrolases resulting in uptake of the labelled sialic acid. The data indicate that Chlamydomonas cannot utilize sialic acid £or growth in the dark although it is taken up by the cell. Free sialic acid uptake is not enhanced during mating. An excess of free sialic acid did not suppress sialyltransferase activity thus weakening the possibility that CMP-sialic acid, the donor in the reaction, was hydrolyzed resulting in uptake of the free monosaccharide. Trypsinization of gametes before mating significantly reduced the level of activity in the transferase assay. Trypsinization after mating removed nearly all of the label incorporated during the assay. These data support the observation that sialyltransferase-acceptor activity detected on Chlamydomonas gametes is surface-localized and associated with the mating reaction.
    • Characterization of Transfer RNA Associated with Plasma Membranes

      Kline, Larry K.; Mancusi, Vincent Joseph; The College at Brockport (1976-06-01)
      RNA extracted from purified rat liver plasma membranes was found to contain transfer RNA. Amino acid acceptor activity was detected for arginine and lysine, a confirmation of previous reports. In addition, acceptor activity was also detected for tryptophan and proline. Isoaccepting tRNA species for lysine and arginine were chromatographed using Benzoylated DEAE-Cellulose column chromatography. No major difference was found between cytoplasmic and membrane isoaccepting species for lysine and arginine transfer RNAs.
    • The Microbial Degradation of a Diesel Oil in Multistage Continuous Culture Systems

      Pritchard, Parmely H.; Suflita, Joseph Michael; The College at Brockport (1976-08-01)
      This project has dealt with the use of multistage continuous culture systems to model the fate of diesel oil in Lake Ontario. It has attempted to determine what happens to the oil after it is initially attacked by bacteria and subsequently dispersed into the water column. This study has successfully generated information which heretofore has not been obtainable in laboratory experiments. It has been shown that even under conditions which are more ideal than those in Lake Ontario (i.e. higher amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous) the oil is degraded very slowly. To date there has never been complete degradation in the systems, although it has been substantially modified by the bacterial activities. It was discovered that the degradation of oil by bacteria does not lead to its complete destruction but instead results in a transformation process in which the oil hydrocargons are converted into various end products. The chemical nature of these end products is as yet unknown but they appear to be more resistant to degradation and possibly more toxic than the original oil. Evidence is also presented indicating that oil droplets adhering to surfaces will undergo a more rapid and complete degradation than oil droplets which are freely suspended in the water column.
    • Detection of 5-Bromodeoxyuridine Incorporation in Metaphase Chromosomes of Dedifferentiated Melanoma Cells

      Appley, Marlene; Emerson, David; The College at Brockport (1976-12-01)
      Observed reversible effects, mediated by the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) into the DNA of mouse melanoma cells were; changes in culture growth pattern, altered cell morphology and suppression of melanogenecis. The incorporation of BrdUrd into the metaphase chromosomes, was traced with 1.) the Hoechst 33258 fluorescence stain and 2.) the unlabeled antibody peroxidase method. Different levels of BrdUrd incorporation, are shown to exhibit differential staining patterns on the metaphase chromosomes. The specific sites of preferential BrdUrd incorporation may provide a morphological clue to the structural and functional changes observed.
    • The Role of Autochothnous Production in the Formation of Dissolved and Particulate Organics in Laboratory Streams

      Ellis, Robert H.; Roarabaugh, Doyle Bryan; The College at Brockport (1977-01-01)
      The role of autochthonous production in the formation of dissolved and fine particulate organic carbon (DOC and FPOC) was studied in simplified communities in six laboratory streams. Production of DOC and FPOC by laboratory stream communities exposed to low (170 ft-c), intermediate (260 ft-c), and high (450 ft-c) light intensities was determined periodically under conditions where allochthonous inputs could be carefully monitored. Possible relationships between DOC and FPOC production and community structure, primary production, and community respiration were examined. The production of DOC by laboratory stream communities was approximately 4 to 53 percent of the total carbon fixed in photosynthesis. As light intensity, gross primary production, and periphyton standing crop decreased, the percentage of DOC produced increased. FPOC concentrations were approximately 1/3 to 1/9th DOC concentrations. The production of DOC and FPOC by the laboratory periphyton communities exposes the communities to concentrations similar to those found in natural streams .and suggests that the contribution of DOC and FPOC by periphyton communities to lotic ecosystems could be significant. Light intensity is the major factor controlling production of DOC and FPOC in the laboratory streams. Periphyton productivity and standing crop play a secondary role in the regulation of DOC and FPOC production.
    • Characterization of RNA Associated with Rat Liver Plasma Membranes

      Kline, Larry K.; DeBellis, John J.; The College at Brockport (1977-06-01)
      RNA was extracted from purified rat liver plasma membranes. The RNA was characterized in terms of molecular weight distribution (electrophoresis) and base composition. Plasma membrane RNA was shown to have a major 28S species, several minor 15-22S species and another minor 4S species. There was no difference between plasma membrane RNA and ribosomal RNA in terms of base composition. The intact plasma membrane was incubated in the presence of RNAse as well as varying concentrations of NaCl. These results demonstrate that the RNA associated with the plasma membrane is partially digested with RNAse, while 0.15 M NaCl seems to have little effect on the plasma membrane RNA content. This may indicate that the plasma membrane RNA is protruding from the plasma membrane but is attached to the plasma membrane in some manner. Incubation of intact plasma membranes with 0.30 M NaCl (final concentration) removes 63.2% of the RNA associated with the plasma membrane. The species of RNA released is unknown.
    • Premature Chromosome Condensation of Synchronized Chinese Hamster Lung Cells

      Appley, Marlene; Tucci, Steven Michael; The College at Brockport (1977-06-01)
      The orderly, nonrandom pattern of nuclear chromatin is observable when it is condensed as visually distinct and structurally reproducible metaphase chromosomes. Interphase nuclei are susceptible to being induced to condense prematurely when by somatic cell fusion they become exposed to the influence of mitotic nuclei. The mitotic inducer has a differential effect on G_1, S, and G­_2 chromatin and produces varied premature condensation products. In the following experiments metaphase-G_1 fusions yielded single, elongated chromatids. The metaphase-S fusions resulted in pulverized condensation products. Metaphase-G_2 fusions produced sister, elongated chromatids. Sendai virus was used as the fusing agent in these experiments. The seed virus was injected into the allantoic cavity of 11-day chick embryos. Four days post injection the allantoic fluid was collected and titrated to give the desired virus concentration. The virus was subsequently inactivated by ultraviolet exposure. This inactive Sendai virus when suspended in medium with the Chinese hamster cells, produced cell fusion and the various premature condensation products. The percentages of these various fusion products were able to be influenced by using synchronized cell populations. Thymidine, hydroxyurea and colcemid were the drugs of choice to bring about synchrony. Both thymidine and hydroxyurea have the capability to produce a transient inhibition of DNA synthesis. Colcemid interferes with the polymerization of microtubules and therefore arrests cells in metaphase. When synchronized populations were fused and compared to asynchronous population fusions.
    • The Development and Assay of an S-Phase Synchronized Cell System Using Skin Fibroblast Cultures of the Indian Muntjac

      Appley, Marlene; Cascino, Robert A.; The College at Brockport (1977-12-01)
      An in vitro mammalian cell system which enables direct observation of DNA replication forks is essential to the study and understanding of the mammalian cell cycle S-phase. The prerequisite work of establishing S-phase synchronized cell cultures and an assessment of synchrony levels attained is the object of this study. Skin fibroblasts of the male Indian muntjac line which possesses large chromosomes and a low diploid number were selected for this work. Initial block-release experiments using mitosis as an assay point indicated that 1.5 mM hydroxyurea provided marked levels of synchrony in the absence of detectable cytotoxicity. Premature chromosome condensation patterns of interphase cells fused with mitotic cells indicated a substantially higher S-phase portion of cell populations subjected to hydroxyurea block-release. This was observed in contrast to lower S-phase portions in non-treated controls. These results were supported autoradiographic assays which showed a higher percentage of 3H-thymidine-labeled nuclei in hydroxyurea-treated populations than in controls. It is expected that large quantities of prematurely condensed replicating chromosomes as obtained by this synchronized fusion method would effectively expose sites of DNA replication forks under the electron microscope. This would allow DNA synthesis to be more completely quantified and characterized under normal conditions as well as under conditions which alter this critical phase.
    • Chlamydomonas moewusii Pairing: Optimal Conditions and Drug Effects

      McLean, Robert J.; Lembo, Thomas Michael; The College at Brockport (1978-01-01)
      The effect of various mating conditions on the pairing percentages in Chlamydomonas moewusii were determined. A pairing percentage of 43% was obtained when gametes induced at 21°c were shifted to a mating temperature of 19°c for 1 hour. The lowest pairing percentage was obtained when cells were induced at 30°c and shifted to 19°c for 1 hour. The anti-microtubule agent colchicine and the anti-microfilament agent cytochalasin B were employed to determine their effect on pairing in C. moewusii. Both drugs demonstrated an inhibitory effect on pairing in Chlamydomonas. The inhibition of gametic pairing in cells treated with colchicine was greater than those gametes treated with cytochalasin B. Low temperature is known to disrupt microtubules. Gametes exposed to 4°c exhibited a dramatic decrease in pairing percentages. These results seem to suggest an interacting relationship between microtubules and microfilaments that play a crucial role in the pairing of Chlamydomonas moewusii gametes.
    • Analysis of the Flagellar Membrane Proteins of Chlamydomonas moewusii

      McLean, Robert J.; Jamieson, Cheryl Lynn; The College at Brockport (1978-01-01)
      This investigation was concerned with the analysis of the proteins isolated from the gamone (flagellar membrane vesicles isolated from the medium) of Chlamydomonas moewusii. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of gamone isolated from (+) and (-) cell types indicated possible differences between vegetative and gametic gamone within mating types and a degree of similarity within vegetative and gametic gamone of both mating types. Electrophoretic analysis of several molecular weight standards indicated that the major proteins from all gamone types are glycoproteins of relatively high molecular weight (100-150, 000 D.) Con A affinity chromatography of membranes solubilized in 1% DOC in 10 mM Tris, pH 8.2, showed that 4.2% of the proteins isolated from the (-) gamone and 7.35%-16.4% of the proteins isolated from the (+) gamone bound to Con A. These proteins could subsequently be eluted with 2% ?-methylmannoside. Attempts to recover the proteins from the Con A affinity chromatography column were unsuccessful.
    • Anionic Transport in Nitella clavata

      Barr, Charles E.; Bower, Bonnie L.; The College at Brockport (1978-07-01)
      This study examines aspects of anion transport, focusing on Cl-, No_3- and So_4-2 in Nitella clavata. The researcher measures the uptake of radioactive Cl- in the presence/absence of a hexose in order to determine if glucose inhibits Cl- influx. The author grew Nitella clavata in open tanks of culture solution, with a light intensity of 100 foot-candles at the cultures’ surface. Only the first, second, or third intermodal cells proximal to the apical tip were used. Harvested cells were then conditioned from one to seven days under controlled conditions. First, the researcher used titration to measure net hydrogen ion influxes and hydroxide effluxes. Then the researcher treated cells in with K/experimental solutions and rinsed them in non-tracer/appropriate experimental solution in order to measure cell radioactivity. The researcher also measured unidirectional chloride efflux using a radioassay with a Nuclear-Chicago low background gas flow counter. Intracellular chloride activity was determined by measuring vacuolar sap chloride concentration potentiometrically. Ultimately, the researcher could find no evidence to support the hypothesis that Nitella clavata possesses a hexose/H+ cotransport system, nor could she provide evidence for a Cl-/H+ cotransport system through competitive inhibition with a hexose/H+ mechanism. Possibilities for further research include radioisotope tracing of NO_3-, Cl- and SO_4-2 in the presence of other anions.
    • An Organic Energy Budget for the New York State Barge Canal

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Amering, Allan R.; The College at Brockport (1978-11-01)
      An annual energy budget is presented for the New York State Barge Canal, a first order man-made waterway in western New York. The ecosystem approach, in which all input and output of energy as organic matter are measured, is used to describe the energy flow in an 1130-meter segment of the canal. The annual input of energy to the system is 38.1 x 109 kcal/m2. Over 99% of this is allochthonous from upstream areas. Autochthonous input from primary producers accounts for less than 0.1% of the total energy available to the-system. Meteorologic inputs (litter and precipitation) from the adjacent terrestrial ecosystem account for less than 0.1% of annual energy input. Seventy-eight percent of the geologic input and 99% of the total energy input occur as dissolved organic matter. Approximately 7,790 kcal/m2 of organic detritus is stored within the system. The annual output of energy from the canal system is 38 x 109 kcal/m2. Ninety-nine percent of the annual energy input is exported to downstream areas in canal water. Less than 0.1% of the energy output is lost through community respiration. The New York State Barge Canal is a strongly heterotrophic system in which ecosystem efficiency and flow~through energy (0.1% and 99.9%, respectively} indicate the canal makes very little use of the energy supplied to it.
    • Effects of Training on Atrial Rate and Sensitivity of Isolated Rat Atria to Catecholamines and Acetylcholine

      Smith, Delmont C.; El-Hage, Antoine; The College at Brockport (1979-06-01)
      Thirty five male rats were subjected to a treadmill running program and body weight heart weight and effects of neurotransmitters were measured. Rats engaged in training programs show a lower body weight, a lower heart rate and lower intrinsic heart rate. The response of all isolated rat atria to different drugs were observed. Epinephrine in concentrations of 1 X10-5M, 1X10-6M and 1X10-7M increased the atrial rate in trained rats by averages of 41.3%, 20.04% and 15.3% respectively, and in control animals by averages of 18.6%, 11.1% and 8.6% respectively. Norepinephrine in concentrations of 1X10-6M and 1x10-7M increased the atrial rates of trained animals by averages of 13.3% and 8.3% respectively. Acetylcholine of 1x10-6M decreased the atrial rate in trained rats averages of 48.4% and 28.2% in control animals. Atrophine in concentrations of 1x10-5M, x 10x10-6M, and 1x10-7M increased the atrial rates in all preparations, but the percent change was higher in trained rats. 1x10-5M atropine added to isolated rat atria of trained rats increased the atrial rate to a rate almost identical to the basal atrial rate of control rats. A biphasic response of atrial rate was observed when equimolar concentrations of acetylcholine and norepinephrine were added to isolated rat atria. It is concluded that trained rats have a lower resting heart rate and a lower intrinsic heart rate than control rats. The isolated rat atria of trained animals were more sensitive to catecholamines, acetylcholine and atropine. Increased stores of acetylcholine in the region of the pacemaker may account for the lowered heart rate. The negative chronotropic action of acetylcholine was blocked and the heart rate was brought to the basal rate of control animals in the presence of 1x10-5M atropine.
    • Routine Determination of Mirex and Photomirex in Fish Tissue in the Presence of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Insalaco, Samuel E.; The College at Brockport (1979-12-01)
      A procedure for the routine determination of Mirex and Photomirex in fish tissue is described which provides rapid analysis and confirmation using conventional gas chromatographic/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) methods. Coeluting intereferences (i.e. PCB's) are nitrated al lowing for simple separation from Mirex analogs by column chromatography. In Chinook SaImon tissue (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), PCB removaI averaged 78% and Mirex and Photomirex recoveries were 91% and 86%, respectively. The method has been used successfully for trace analysis of Mirex levels as low as 100 pg.
    • The Effect of Colchicine on Sexual Reproduction of Chlamydomonas moewusii

      McLean, Robert J.; Menoff, Anne Leslie; The College at Brockport (1980-05-01)
      The effect of colchicine on the mating reaction in Chlamydomonas moewusii was investigated. Five mM colchicine was found to cause a 96% inhibition of gamete fusion, without disrupting the preceding agglutination reaction or cell motility. Electron microscope examination of colchicine-treated gametes revealed a 98% inhibition of mating structure activation, suggesting that the drug had rendered the gametes incapable of generating and/or responding to the signal for mating structure activation which normally accompanies sexual agglutination. Light microscope analysis revealed that flagella of adhering drug-treated cells entwined loosely so that treated gametes were unable to establish the flagella tip alignment, and contact between partners' anteriors which facilitates cell fusion in control gametes. The misalignment of colchicine-treated cells is thought to result from a drug induced disruption of the tipping reaction. A model for the colchicine-labile system responsible for tipping is proposed.