• The Liminology of Oneida Lake - An Interim Report

      Greenson, Phillip E.; Meyers, George S. (1/1/1969)
      This interim report discusses the general concepts of lake eutrophication and presents the findings of the first year of field investigations on the eutophication of Oneida Lake, New York. Routine biological and chemical data revealed that the lake has become eutrophic both through the natural processes of lake aging and from the inflow of nutrient-rich water from the fertile drainage basin. The four most important factors affecting the biological activities within the lake are: (1) the high fertility of the drainage basin, (2) the physical position and shallowness of the lake, (3) mixing of the water by wind action, and (4) the inclusion of bottom sediments in the recycling of nutrient materials.
    • Lake Ontario Atlas: Chemistry

      Allen, Eric R. (1/1/1977)
      The chemical and water quality characteristics of Lake Ontario reported prior to the International Field Year for the Great Lakes (IFTGL, 1972-1973) study have been reviewed and summarized. The low surface-to-volume ratio of this lake has allowed it to retain oligotrophic characteristics based upon biological parameters. However, some of the chemical paramerters, including the nutrient inputs and concentrations, suggest that eutrophication is imminent. In general, the water quality of Lake Ontario is good and projected increased in the loadings of major ions do not pose a threat to the use of this natural water resource during the rest of this century. The input of trace materials, such as the heavy metals and refractory organic compounds, is cause for concern since a significant contribution is made by an uncontrollable source, namely atmospheric precipitation. More stringent controls on the discharge of phosphorus, trace elements and synthetic organic compounds is recommended to preserve the integrity of Lake Ontario for the continued benefit of all users of its waters.
    • Survey of Selected Organic Compounds in Aquifers of New York State Excluding Long Island

      Schroeder, Roy A.; Snavely, Deborah S.; USGS (1/1/1981)
      Samples from 56 wells at 49 sites in New York State, excluding Long Island, were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the presence of organic compounds designated ' priority pollutants ' by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Most samples were taken from public-supply wells tapping shallow, permeable aquifers, the most susceptible to contamination. Analytical sensitivity reported by the laboratory for most compounds was less than 1 microgram per liter, but contamination during collection, shipping, or laboratory processing required that concentrations be about 10 micrograms per liter before the presence of a compound could be confirmed. Only a small percentage of wells sampled in this study was found to be contaminated. Where contamination is present, it probably results from point sources such as landfills or dumps rather than from general sources such as atmospheric deposition or proximity to urban centers. Two sites, Brewster in Putnam County and Olean in Cattaraugus County, showed clear evidence of contamination. Two other sites, Corning in Steuben County and Fulton in Oswego County, showed evidence of possible contamination. (USGS)
    • Computation of Inflows and Outflows of Eight Regulated Lakes in the Oswego River Basin, New York, 1930-79

      Lumia, Richard; Moore, Richard B.; USGS (1/1/1983)
      Estimates of daily inflows and outflows of eight regulated lakes in the Oswego River basin and discharges of three rivers draining these lakes were computed and compiled for use in evaluated lake-regulation procedures in the basin 's stream and reservoir system and are stored on computer. This report includes a table of monthly flows at these sites from 1930-79. Computations were based on records from the 1930-79 water years. Daily net inflow estimates (lake inflow minus evaporation and possible groundwater seepage) were computed from the outflows and changes in lake storage. Lake storage was estimated from lake level data and elevation-capacity curves for each lake. A smoothing technique was applied to plots of daily lake levels before net inflows were computed. Where lake level or outflow data were missing, net flows were estimated from linear regression equations. Analysis of results indicates that: (1) smoothing the plots of daily lake levels significantly reduces random fluctuations resulting from seiche or wind action; (2) continuous lake storage recorders provide a more reliable record than staff gages (once-daily, lake level readings) for computing daily changes in lake storage; and (3) the effect of smoothing decreases as the computational period is increased. (USGS)
    • Hydrogeologic Appraisal of a Stratified-drift Aquifer Near Smyrna, Chenango County, New York

      Reynolds, Richard J.; Brown, G. A.; USGS (1/1/1984)
      A broad, Y-shaped valley near Smyrna, New York, contains extensive water-table and confined aquifers that are largely hydraulically separated from the nearby Chenango River to the east. Accordingly, ground-water withdrawals from this valley would not appreciably decrease streamflow in the Chenango River by induced infiltration and could be used for specialized needs. The aquifers in the valley are capable of sustaining a long-term total withdrawal of about 12.7 million gallons per day during prolonged drought conditions. Larger withdrawals could be made on a short-term basis or during periods of normal or above-normal precipitation. Saturated thickness of undifferentiated stratified-drift deposits in the valley ranges from 20 feet in the northwestern part of the valley to more than 300 feet at its southern end. Direct areal recharge accounts for about 56 percent of the total recharge to the valley aquifer infiltration from streams accounts for 24 percent, and runoff from the adjacent till-mantled hillsides accounts for 20 percent. The water-table and confined aquifers within the valley hold at least 19.6 billion gallons of usable ground water in storage. (USGS)
    • Fisheries Survey of the New York State Barge Canal, Knowlesville to Oneida Lake

      The New York State Department of Transportation conducted a two-year fisheries survey in the New York State Barge Canal with the goal of obtaining a qualitative baseline inventory of fisheries resources. The first year examined, in addition to conducting the survey, possible dredging and spoil disposal effects on fish populations in four widewater areas between Knowlesville and Fairport (Canal Section 7) (Kucharski, 1982). The present study continued the survey to Oneida Lake (Canal Sections 5 and 6). Canal Sections 5 and 6 had never been thoroughly surveyed with the exception of a few stations in two previous studies (Sawyko, 1982; Haines and Ellis, 1977). More historical collection information was available from Canal Section 7 (see Kucharski, 1982, Appendix). A variety of habitats were sampled using electroshocking, gill and trap nets, and beach seines. The collected data were used to meet the following objectives: to identify the fish species present, to determine their range; to determine the species composition and relative abundance of species within stations, study sections, and habitat type; to determine the length frequencies of selected species; and to collect scale samples for later age and growth studies. Each station was characterized as to depth, vegetation, substrate, current, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity or total hardness, and secchi disc transparency.
    • Distribution and Source of Barium in Ground Water at Cattaraugus Indian Reservation, Southwestern New York

      Moore, Richard B.; Staubitz, Ward W.; USGS (1/1/1984)
      High concentrations of dissolved barium have been found in ground water from bedrock wells on the Seneca Nation of Indians Reservation on Cattaraugus Creek in southwestern New York. Concentrations in 1982 were as high as 23.0 milligrams per liter , the highest found reported from any natural ground-water system in the world. The highest concentrations are in a bedrock aquifer and in small lenses of saturated gravel between bedrock and the overlying till. The bedrock aquifer is partly confined by silt, clay, and till. The high barium concentrations are attributed to dissolution of the mineral barite (BaSO4), which is present in the bedrock and possibly in overlying silt, clay, or till. The dissolution of barite seems to be controlled by action of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which alter the BaSO4 equilibrium by removing sulfate ions and permitting additional barite to dissolve. Ground water from the surficial, unconsolidated deposits and surface water in streams contain little or no barium. Because barium is chemically similar to calcium, it probably could be removed by cation exchange or treatments similar to those used for water softening. (USGS)
    • Lake Ontario Water Chemistry Atlas

      This atlas contains a broad assessment of the results of phosphorus loading reduction in Lake Ontario in the 1970s, including the in-lake phosphorus concentration reduction. It also describes trends of other indicators of recovery from eutrophication. The summer Secchi depths and summer oxygen depletion rates were fairly stable in the 1970s, whereas they would have worsened without phosphorus control. Particulate organic carbon in offshore surface waters during August/September declined steadily by 20% from 1975 to 1981. Also illustrated are the chemical/biological aspects of the spring time thermal bar, and lakewide upwelling/downwelling in response to winds in summer. In July 1972, there was a prominent lakewide chlorophyll maximum at a depth of about 10m. The spring time diatom crop was located near the lake bottom in summer, as indicated by abundant particulate organic matter and near-bottom release of soluble reactive silica. March/April nitrate+ nitrite had steadily increasing values, from 215 p.g N /L in 1968 to 340 p.g N /L in 1981. There was a residual level of nitrate + nitrite in surface waters during late summer in the later years, amounting to about 100 p.g N /L, which, along with decreased phosphorus and increased N:P ratios, means that troublesome blue-green algal blooms and scums will not occur. In summary, the phosphorus control program and a fortuitous increase of soluble reactive nitrogen have resulted in very good metabolic conditions in Lake Ontario, with moderate phosphorus and plankton con tent, prevention of troublesome plankton blooms, and excellent oxygen conditions. It is strongly recommended that the phosphorus loading control program for Lake Ontario and upstream Lake Erie be continued, to maintain the presently ideal trophic conditions in Lake Ontario.
    • Urban Issues: Hydrologic Modification and Septic Tanks

      National Perspective on Environmental Constraints to Hydroelectric Development (p.301) Perspectives on Septic Tanks as Nonpoint Source Pollution (p. 304) Hydrologic Modification: Compounding the Impact of Nonpoint Source Pollution (p. 306)
    • Rural Issues: Coal Mining and Abandoned Land Reclamation

      Acid Mine Drainage: Surface Mine Treatment and In Situ Abatement Technology (p. 307) Coal Industry Perspectives on Nonpoint Source Pollution (p. 311) Trends in Post Mining Land Uses - Are We Doing Our Children Justice? (p. 313) Factors and Treatment of Abandoned Acid Mine Lands for Controlling Nonpoint Source Pollution (p. 314)
    • Salinity: A Nonpoint Source Problem

      Managing Headwater Areas for Control of Sediment and Salt Production from Western Rangelands (p. 347) Salinity: Nonpoint Source Problem in the Colorado River Basin (p. 352) Continuous Salinity Monitoring in the Colorado River Basin by the Utah Bureau of Water Pollution Control (p. 356) Salinity Control in the Grand Valley of Colorado (p. 359)
    • Case Studies

      Highway Runoff Drainage Impacts (p. 387) Rock Creek Rural Clean Water Project: The Experiment Continues (p. 391) Regulating Nonpoint Sources of Pollution from Timber Harvesting - A Case History of the California Experience (p. 397) Agricultural Nonpoint Source Studies in Southeastern Watersheds: Field Monitoring and Farmer Surveys (p. 402) Vermont's LaPlatte River Watershed Project: Lessons Learned (p. 408)
    • Land Use Issues: Management and Assessment

      Practical Guidelines for Selecting Critical Areas for Controlling Nonpoint Source Pesticide Contamination of Aquatic Systems (p. 363) A Method for Prioritizing Water Quality Problem Areas (p. 368) The Impact of Nonpoint Source Fecal Loading on Backcountry Waters in Grand Canyon (p. 374) The Use of Wetlands in Treating Nonpoint Source Pollution (p. 380) Antidesertification of Riparian Zones and Control of Nonpoint Source Pollution (p. 382)
    • Rural Issues: Silvicultural Nonpoint Source Pollution

      U.S. Department of Agriculture's Perspective on Silvicultural Nonpoint Source Water Quality (p. 321) Implementing the Public/Private Nonpoint Source Management Partnership: A State Forestry Perspective (p. 325) The Forest Industry's Perspective of 208 (p. 330) Controlling Nonpoint Source Pollution from Silvicultural Operations: What We Know and Don't Know (p. 332)
    • Noncoal Mining and Abandoned Land Reclamation

      Crushed Stone Quarries and Land Reclamation (p. 335) Rural Issues: Noncoal Mining and Abandoned Land Reclamation (p. 337) Noncoal Mining and Reclamation (Current and Abandoned Operations) in the Tennessee River Basin (p. 340) Phosphate and Peat Mining in Florida (p. 342) Water Quality Problems Caused by Abandoned Metal Mines and Tailings (p. 344)
    • Sources And Fates of Material Influencing Water Quality in the Agricultural Midwest

      Management Practices to Reduce Farm Chemical Losses with Agricultural Drainage (p. 467) The Fate of Materials Exported by the Big Blue and the Black Vermillion Rivers into Tuttle Creek Reservoir, Kansas (p. 471) The Interaction of Biological and Hydrological Phenomena that Mediate the Qualities of Water Draining Native Tallgrass Prairie on the Konza Prairie Research Natural Area (p. 478) Implications of Airshed Processes and Atmospheric Deposition of Nonpoint Pollutants (p. 483)
    • Water Quality Criteria And Standards

      Bacterial Water Quality and Shellfish Harvesting (p. 447) Evaluation of Nonoint Source Impacts on Water Quality of Forest Practices in Idaho: Relation to Water Quality (p. 455) Illinois Agricultural Soil Erosion Control Standards: A Useful Tool for Nonpoint Source Pollution Control (p. 459) Ground Water Quality Standards (p. 464)
    • Rural Issues: Impact on Small Communities

      Monitoring the Managers: A Community Enterprise (p. 317) Southeast Minnesota's Karst Topography Leads to Ground Water Pollution from Nonpoint Sources (p. 319)
    • Making Decisions About Nonpoint Source Pollution

      Point/Nonpoint Source Trading Program for Dillon Reservoir and Planned Extensions for Other Areas (p. 413) Optimizing Point/Nonpoint Source Tradeoff in the Holston River Near Kingsport, Tennessee (p. 417) Protecting Tillamook Bay Shellfish with Point/Nonpoint Source Controls (p. 425) Point/Nonpoint Source Interface Issues in Wisconsin (p. 426)
    • Cross Boundary Nonpoint Source Pollution: The Implications

      Great Lakes Pollution from Land Use Activities (p. 487) Irrigation Return Flows and Salinity Problems in the Colorado River Basin (p. 495) Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Midwest (p. 497)