• Nutrient Loading and Segment Analysis of Streams Entering Lake Neatahwanta: with an Evaluation of the Muckland Demonstration Project in Oswego County

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1999-02-01)
      Here we report on the status of Lake Neatahwanta and losses of materials and nutrients from the various watersheds draining into the lake based on work done over the past five years. The conclusion that Sheldon Creek and its watershed are the dominant source of sediments and nutrients to Lake Neatahwanta is inescapable. Based on this conclusion, an effort know as segment analysis has begun in the Sheldon Creek watershed to systematically analyze the watershed for sources of nutrient and soil loss. Preliminary results of the segment analysis currently underway are presented. Finally, we provide results from the muckland demonstration study. This study demonstrates the ability of a constructed wetland to remove nutrients from drainage water from a muckland in agriculture.
    • Nutrient Loading of Streams Entering Lake Neatahwanta Oswego County, NY: A Summary of the Lake Neatahwanta Tributary Monitoring

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1994-06-01)
      This study suggests that the highly eutrophic condition of Lake Neatahwanta is in large part due to the very high loadings of nutrients from the surrounding watershed. Specifically, Sheldon Creek was identified as a major contributor of phosphorus and total suspended solids to the lake. The amount of nutrients entering the lake from Sheldon Creek were in excess of those observed in creeks of New York receiving point source loadings from small sewage treatment plants. Improvement of the water quality of Lake Neatahwanta will depend upon the identification and remediation of the major sources of nutrients in the watershed and in the Sheldon Creek watershed in particular.
    • Nutrient Loading of Streams Entering Sodus Bay and Port Bay, NY 1 April, 1990 To 30 June, 1991

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; Williams, Robert K.; The College at Brockport; Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District (1991-09-01)
      Freshwater resources have historically played a key role in community development and sustainability. Maintaining a high quality freshwater resource is of equal importance. Within the Finger Lakes Region of New York State, degradation of water quality and aesthetics due to excessive plant growth is a growing concern. Involved agencies have recently focused their attention on non-point source pollution as a primary candidate linked to accelerated macrophyte growth and surface water degradation. Wayne County recognizes the importance of maintaining a quality water resource and has responded by developing a Water Quality Program. Established in 1 987 and administered jointly between the Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District and the Wayne County Planning Department, the program has received financial support made possible through the Finger Lakes Aquatic Vegetation Control Program (AVCP). The AVC program was created through a mutual effort between the New York State Legislature, the "Department of Environmental Conservation and the Finger Lakes Water Resources Board. The overall goal of Wayne County's water quality program is to develop a long-term water quality /lake management plan designed to control non-point source pollution on Sodus and Port Bays. Once implemented, this plan will serve to protect the integrity of these resources. A major improvement in our assessment capability occurred with the construction of a continuous stage height recorder on Sodus Creek. The addition of the continuous stream height recorder fine tunes our ability to evaluate nutrient and sediment loading into Sodus Bay during hydrologic events. In addition ,initiation of weekly sampling of Wolcott Creek on Port Bay has expanded this program to another body of water in Wayne County. The objectives of Wayne County's program include: 1 ) To determine the status of Wayne County's primary surface waters and observe changes over time; 2) To document what types and amounts of nutrients may be adversely impacting water quality and the conditions which generate them; 3) To develop a technical database for informed water quality management decisions; and 4) To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of potential control measures likely to be used to reduce non-point sources.
    • Oak Orchard Harbor Autumn Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1978-11-01)
      Fish, benthos, and macrophytes samples were collected over four days (30 September through 3 October 1978) at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging the harbor area. Figure 1 is a map of the harbor area indicating the location of sample sites. Information on marina development, boat traffic and fishing pressure is included to document the heavy usage of this harbor during the fall salmon run. This is a data report. The final report will include both our analysis and interpretation of the data regarding potential impacts of dredging.
    • Oak Orchard Harbor Spring Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1979-06-01)
      Between 20 April 1979 and 20 May 1979, benthos, fish, and birds were collected or observed at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging the harbor area. This is a data report. In the final report, our analysis and interpretation of the data collected will be presented. Figures 1 and 2 are maps of the Oak Orchard Harbor area indicating the location of sampling sites. Table 1 provides information on bottom characteristics at the benthos sampling sites. Fishing pressure and boat traffic were light compared to the usage during the fall 1978 sampling trip.
    • Oak Orchard Harbor Summer Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1979-08-01)
      On 8 and 9 July 1979 benthos, fish, macrophytes and birds were collected or observed at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging the harbor area. This is a data report. In the final report, our analysis and interpretation of the data collected will be presented. Figures 1 and 2 are maps of the Oak Orchard Harbor area indicating the location of sample sites. Table 1 provides information on bottom characteristics at the benthos sampling sites. Fishing pressure and boat traffic were heavy compared to the usage during the fall 1978 sampling trip. Water temperature was 19° c.
    • Phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and seasonal distribution in Eighteenmile Creek, NY

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2001-12-01)
      The objective of this study workplan is to determine the health of the planktonic community in the Eighteenmile Area of Concern (AOC) and to establish the status of the Use Impairment Indicator in the Eighteenmile Creek Remedial Action Plan (RAP). Results from this study will be compared to results of previously studied community structure data from control / reference sites: an undisturbed creek on the south shore of Lake Ontario (Yanty Creek), the open waters of Lake Ontario, and from Braddock Bay on Lake Ontario.
    • Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, Macrobenthos and lchthyoplankton Abundance, Biomass and Species Composition in Onondaga Lake, 1994

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Cady, Bruce L.; Lewis, Theodore W.; Buttner, Joseph K.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1995-02-01)
      Once a pristine recreational center and a productive fishery that supplied New York City markets with fresh fish, Onondaga Lake is now considered one of the most badly degraded bodies of water in the entire world (Sage 1993). The Onondaga Lake Management Conference was established to develop a comprehensive restoration, conservation, and management plan for Onondaga Lake that recommends priority corrective actions and a compliance schedule for cleanup of the lake. Biological assessment of the lake has been infrequent and concentrated on a few biological groups. This study either updates or establishes baseline characteristics for the following biological components of the Onondaga Lake ecosystem: phytoplankton, zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and macrobenthos.
    • Segment Analysis of Marsh Creek: The Location of Sources of Pollution

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2001-08-01)
      Marsh Creek is located in the southern portion of the Lake Ontario watershed, Orleans County, New York. The watershed flows into Oak Orchard Creek near its mouth on Lake Ontario at Point Breeze, New York. A branch of Marsh Creek, is known as Beardsley Creek, and was sampled as part of the study, Also Otter Creek, which also drains into Oak Orchard Creek, was sampled two times to access whether further segment analysis is warranted at another time. The purpose of this study was: 1. To identify sources of nutrients, soils and salts within the Marsh Creek watershed; 2. To identify the relative contribution of Otter Creek to Oak Orchard Creek compared to Marsh Creek; and 3. To determine whether sources of pollution in Otter Creek should be investigated further? To answer these questions, the Soil and Water Conservation District of Orleans County along with the Center of Applied Aquatic Science and Aquaculture at SUNY Brockport undertook the process of identifying the point and non-point sources of nutrients and soils by stressed stream analysis or segment analysis. With this report, we provide evidence suggesting the location and the intensity of pollution sources in the Marsh Creek watershed including Beardsley Creek and give some indication of the magnitude of sources in Otter Creek. We have identified six areas/sources in the Marsh Creek watershed that have consistently had high levels of nutrients, soils or sodium. What follows is a synopsis of what pollutants are being lost and where the sources are located. Event specific saps are included in the narrative to locate these sites. In addition, Figure 2 is a map summarizing the source locations and parameters.
    • Segment Analysis of Oneida Creek: The Location of Sources of Pollution

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2004-09-01)
      The water quality of Oneida Lake is directly influenced by land use practices in the lake's watershed. As precipitation falls on the landscape, it washes or carries materials, such as soil, cow manure, nutrients, pesticides, etc., from the land surface into nearby streams and eventually into Oneida Lake influencing water quality (CNY RPDB 2000). Thus different land usage greatly influences water quality of streams and lakes. For example, land usage that includes agriculture and urban living has a greater potential to deliver nutrients and soil to a lake than a forested watershed. If efforts are made to protect a lake's watershed, water quality, as well as fish spawning and nursery areas of sport fishes, is also protected and even enhanced over the long term. To understand the relative impact of the many tributaries draining the sub-watersheds that constitute the Oneida Lake watershed, the Central New York Regional Planning and Development Board began a series of studies (Makarewicz and Lewis 2000a, 2003) to determine the relative loss of nutrients from major sub-watersheds of Oneida Lake and to determine the location of sources within the priority sub-watersheds. Based on the two previous studies that suggested that loss of soil from the Oneida Creek subwatershed was relatively high and the fact that fish propagation is considered "impaired" because of sediment loss frorn agriculture (NYSDEC Priority Waterbodies List), the CNYRPD Technical Cornmittee recommended that a segrnent analysis be performed to identify sources of soil and nutrient loss from the Oneida Creek sub-watershed .
    • Segment Analysis of Otter Creek: The Location of Sources of Pollution

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2003-10-01)
      The Orleans County Soil and Water Conservation District has monitored the waterways of Orleans County since 1997 in collaboration with the State University of New York at Brockport's Center for Applied Aquatic Science and Aquaculture (CAASA). SUNY Brockport has provided analytical services for water chemistry, consulting services on the direction of the monitoring program and interpretation of data. The Orleans County Soil and Water Conservation District along with the Orleans County Water Quality Coordinating Committee decided to continue the water pollution source identification in Otter Creek beginning in the spring of 2002. Otter Creek is located in the south portion of the Lake Ontario watershed, Orleans County, New York and flows into Oak Orchard Creek / Lake Alice in Waterport, New York. The goal of this project was to identify the sources of nutrients, soils and salts within the Otter Creek watershed. To accomplish this, point and nonpoint sources were identified through a process called stressed stream analysis or segment analysis. With this report, we provide evidence suggesting the location and the intensity of pollution sources in the Otter Creek watershed. We have identified two areas in the Otter Creek watershed that have consistently had high levels of nutrients, soils or sodium and one area that had high levels on one sampling date (Summary map contained in Figure 14). What follows is a synopsis of what pollutants are being lost and where the sources are located. Maps are included in the text to locate these sites.
    • Segment Analysis of the Bergholz Creek Watershed of Niagara County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2012-04-01)
      Water resources play a vital role in the economic viability of the Niagara County region, especially in terms of recreation, tourism, and industry. A large percentage of land use is in agriculture, including fruit trees, row crops, and vineyards. The close proximity to Lakes Erie and Ontario has an impact on climate patterns (including rainfall and lake effect snow), moderating the temperature extremes of the region which allows for the production of a diverse variety of crops. Freshwater resources have historically played an instrumental role in community development and economic sustainability. The Bergholz Creek watershed in Niagara County plays an important role in the economy, has aesthetic value, and provides diverse opportunities for those who enjoy the resource directly. A major thrust of the county's tourism industry is predicated on the availability of high quality water resources and angling opportunities in the Niagara River, nearshore Lake Ontario and its other tributaries. Needless to say, agriculture also has a major economic impact in Niagara County; loss of important resources, such as soil and nutrients, from a watershed is of concern to the landowner and the Soil and Water Conservation District. Remediation and protection of these resources depend largely on the identification of both the cause and effect of elements likely to reduce their economic and social value (Makarewicz and Lewis 2000). This led to the creation of monitoring program to collect data needed to accurately characterize the water quality in the creek and to quantify the concentration and loading of nutrients and suspended sediments transported from Eighteenmile Creek to Lake Ontario. A conclusion was that Eighteenmile Creek value was delivering high amounts of phosphorus to Lake Ontario. Eighteenmile Creek lost an annual average of 33 metric tons of TP during the two-year monitoring period. In a similar fashion, Twelvemile Creek was evaluated in 2000 (Makarewicz and Lewis 2000a). One of the priority recommendations from the Makarewicz et al. (2008) report was that the following group of watersheds be targeted for the identification of point and/or nonpoint sources of pollution using a process such as Stressed Stream Analysis/Segment Analysis: Eighteenmile, Jeddo, Bergholz, Tonawanda, and Keg Creeks. A stressed stream or segment analysis of the Eighteenmile Creek watershed was completed by The College at Brockport and the NCSWCD in 2010 (Makarewicz and Lewis 2010). This study follows the 2008 list of recommendations by targeting the Bergholz Creek watershed to identify point and nonpoint sources of pollution using segment analysis.
    • Studies of Adult and Larval Zebra Mussel Populations in Conesus Lake, NY

      Bosch, Isidro; Shuskey, Todd; Collins, Thomas; Smith, Alyssa; SUNY Geneseo (2013-07-01)
      The goal of this study was to assess the status of the zebra mussel population (Family Dreissinidae, species Dreissena polymorpha) in Conesus Lake by sampling benthic adults and planktonic larvae during the summer reproductive season. Another invasive dreissinid bivalve, the quagga mussel, D. bugensis, has firmly established itself in some of the larger Finger Lakes, including Seneca and Canandaigua Lake. Therefore a second goal of this study was to determine if quagga mussels had invaded Conesus Lake. In this report we provide data on population numbers and size distribution of adult zebra mussels and describe temporal patterns of larval density and cohort development. Water quality data for are also provided for a deep-water station where larvae were sampled. Our observations indicate that, while populations of adult mussels have declined by about 20% since the year 2000, adult densities and the supply of larvae are still moderately high and the species seems to be well established in Conesus Lake.
    • The Loss of Nutrients and Materials from Watersheds Draining Into Lake Neatahwanta Oswego County, NY

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1998-01-01)
      Here we report on the status of Lake Neatahwanta and losses of materials and nutrients from the various watersheds draining into the lake. Since 1994, Oswego Soil and Water Conservation District has begun several projects, Best Management Practices, to remediate and reduce loss of nutrients in the watershed. These include installation of rock rip-rap below the gaging station and the confluence of the Summerville and Sheldon Creeks, the installation of rock rip-rap in the drainage path near the gaging station on Sheldon Creek and the installation of fencing preventing cows from entering Sheldon Creek upstream from the gaging station at the Jeff Richards Farm. All of these management practices serve to reduce nutrient and material loss from the watershed to Lake Neatahwanta. This report updates the current status of the Lake Neatahwanta watershed, especially the Sheldon Creek watershed.
    • Water Quality/Use Findings Document

      1995-12-01
      The purpose of this document is to present as much useful information as is available on the water quality and usage of the four ponds to assist in· community decision-making and action. The document also summarizes the concerns and suggestions made at the July 1993 and January 1994 public forums and suggests ways in which people can achieve results. Appendix F offers a list of resource persons and how to contact them. It is hoped that this document will be used by YOU and shared with others so that the communities who use these precious resources will be able to work together for solutions and improvements.