• Analysis of the Existing Water Quality Database for the Sandy Creek and South Sandy Creek Watersheds – 1997 to 2005

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2006-10-01)
      Runoff from agricultural lands containing soil and nutrients poses a known threat to the water quality of embayments and coastal regions of Lake Ontario (Makarewicz 2000). The Lakeview Marsh State Wildlife Management Area in Jefferson County, NY is a prime example of these types of ecologically valuable coastal wetland and embayment habitats. This embayment / wetland complex is fed by the watersheds of Sandy Creek and South Sandy Creek. The mouths of these creeks contain globally rare freshwater dunes, diverse wetlands and several types of globally rare vegetation. Sandy Creek also provides an emergency unfiltered drinking water supply for the Village of Adams and the Hamlet of Adams Center. In general, the environmental effects of agricultural runoff, including eutrophication and sedimentation, on surface water bodies are serious local, regional and national issues. These issues create a dilemma for governmental leaders in agricultural areas; their most important economic industry, agriculture, may also be the cause of environmental degradation. For farmers, this is further exacerbated by the high profile increase of governmental regulation on agricultural operations. The agricultural industry needs scientific evidence that they are capable of being part of the solution not just part of the problem.
    • Braddock Bay Monroe County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Braddock Bay, located just west of Rochester, NY, is one of Lake Ontario’s larger embayments. The bay is open to wave action from Lake Ontario, differentiating it from several other embayments such as Port and Sodus Bays. Braddock Bay is located in the 2,500-acre Braddock Bay Fish and Wildlife Management Area; is a major waterfowl and migratory bird nesting, resting, and feeding habitat; has 541 boat slips; and is a major access point to the lake from the southern shore. The Braddock Bay watershed contains a mix of residential development, state park, and protected wildlife areas. Nuisance algae, bacterial abundance, and algal mat development along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario are major causes of beach closings, fouling the nearshore waters and limiting water recreation. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Braddock Bay and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario east of the entrance to Braddock Bay.
    • Chemical Analysis of Water from Buttonwood, Larkin, Round Pond and Northrup Creeks, Lake Ontario Basin West: May 1987 - May 1988

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1989-02-01)
      As the local contribution to the Rochester Embayment Remedial Action Plan, the Monroe County Health Department contracted with SUNY Brockport to extend the ongoing sampling program in order to obtain one full year of data. The general objectives of this study of Buttonwood, Larkin, Northrup and Round Pond Creeks were: 1. To compare the water quality of stream water from watersheds having different land-use patterns; 2. To compare the water quality of stream water above and below the Spencerport Sewage Treatment Plant; 3. To obtain time trend data on chemical and physical characteristics of runoff water of these creeks; 4. To estimate nutrient mass loadings of these streams; and 5. To establish and maintain a statistically defensible data set that would permit determination of baseline conditions for evaluations of trends.
    • Eighteenmile Creek Niagara County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Eighteenmile Creek drains 93 mi2 of land as it travels 26 miles before emptying into Lake Ontario. Topography is generally flat and comprised primarily of agricultural and rural residential development, with most of the industrial influences concentrated in the City of Lockport. The creek is a Great Lakes Area of Concern and has a Remedial Action Plan currently headed by the Niagara County Soil and Water Conservation District. PCBs, specifically, represent the area of stress that receives the most attention. In addition to a history of industrial waste exposure, the Lockport Sewage Treatment Plant diverts treated sewage to the stream. Despite these water quality issues, Eighteenmile Creek is a popular fishing stream due to major salmon runs, while Olcott Harbor at the mouth of the river is the home of much of the Niagara County sport fishing industry. Nuisance algae, turbid waters, and algal mat development impact the drowned river mouth and the nearshore waters along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Eighteenmile Creek and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the creek.
    • Genesee River Monroe County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Originating in Potter County, Pennsylvania, the Genesee River travels 157 miles northward before emptying into the Rochester Embayment at the Port of Rochester on Lake Ontario. The 2,500-mi watershed of the Genesee River is predominately in agriculture and forest until it reaches the suburban urban environment of the City of Rochester, New York. Several wastewater plants, including Eastman Kodak’s industrial waste plant (King’s Landing) and Scottsville, and Honeoye Falls sewage treatment plants, discharge into the river. Just west and east of the outfall of the Genesee River into Lake Ontario are Charlotte and Durand Eastman Beaches that are periodically closed due to nuisance algae, bacterial abundance, and algal mat development along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario. The Genesee River is also a major point of access to Lake Ontario and has over 1000 boat slips. The Genesee River’s high flow makes it a key contributor to the water quality of the Rochester Embayment in the nearshore zone. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of the Genesee River and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the river.
    • Henderson Harbor Jefferson County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Henderson Harbor is located on the eastern end of Lake Ontario and is home to most of Jefferson County’s charter boat fishing industry. The bay is 4 miles long, bordered by waterfront housing and a watershed dominated by rural agriculture. Much of the area’s economy is driven by seasonal tourism, making water quality in the harbor a major concern. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation has acknowledged that inadequately treated sewage has been discharged into the bay from the Hamlet of Henderson Harbor. Additionally, failure of sewer systems around the bay has also contributed to excessive aquatic growth. The New York State Department of Health has designated the bay as stressed for drinking water and swimming use in large part due to this contamination (Makarewicz 2000). This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2005 to 2009) on the water quality of Henderson Harbor and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the harbor.
    • Hydrologic Evidence of Climate Change in Monroe County, New York

      Coon, William F.; U.S. Geological Survey (2008-08-01)
      The long-term annual mean air-temperature record from the National Weather Service station at the Rochester, N.Y., airport indicates an apparent increase over the past 4 decades; however, this increase does not differ substantially from the historical range of temperatures during the last century. Annual precipitation totals are increasing, and this increase is reflected in the peak flows of streams in urbanized basins and in the base flows and 7-day low flows of two rural, unregulated streams— Oatka and Black Creeks—in Monroe County, N.Y. The magnitudes of recent peak flows, since about 1997, appear to be comparable to those of earlier peaks, but the frequency of peak flows appears to be increasing, at least in the urbanized basins. Base flows and 7-day low flows are increasing as expected from the increasing amounts of precipitation, yet 7-day high flows show no discernible trends. In contrast, streamflow in the urbanized Allen Creek Basin, the hydrology of which is affected by its large amount of impervious area, shows downward trends in base flow and in 7-day low flows, and an upward trend in 7-day high flows. These differences between the urban and rural streams persist even when coincident periods of record are used in the analysis. Flow conditions in the Genesee River are unique because the regulation of outflow from Mount Morris Lake has decreased the number and magnitude of damaging floods downstream in the Rochester area and also has diminished the 7-day low and high flows in that reach.
    • Irondequoit Bay Monroe County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Irondequoit Bay is approximately 4.2 miles long and 0.6 miles wide and is separated from Lake Ontario by a small barrier beach. Irondequoit Bay had been historically considered hypereutrophic when several sewage plants discharged directly into the bay; however, aggressive restoration by Monroe County has improved the eutrophic state of the bay. Restoration efforts included sealing the bottom sediments with alum, reducing both point and non-point sources of phosphorus, and the pumping of air into the hypolimnion to reduce phosphorus movement from the sediments into the water. Currently no direct sewage plant discharge is received, and phosphorus levels are approaching goals set by the county. Irondequoit Bay is located within the Rochester embayment, an indentation of the shoreline stretching from Bogus Point to Nine Mile Point. Much of the southern shore of Lake Ontario, the Bay, and the shoreline of Lake Ontario experience nuisance algae, bacteria, and algal mat development which foul the nearshore waters and limit water recreation. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Irondequoit Bay and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the bay.
    • Lake Ontario Coastal Initiative Action Agenda

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Landre, Betsy; Lewandowski, Stephen; Terninko, John; Thorndike, Elizabeth; Center for Environmental Information; Finger Lakes–Lake Ontario Watershed Protection Alliance; The College at Brockport (2006-01-01)
      The mission of the Lake Ontario Coastal Initiative (LOCI), encompassing all New York State North Coast stakeholders from the Niagara River to the St. Lawrence River, is to enlist and retain broad public commitment for remediation, restoration, protection, conservation and sustainable use of the coastal region. This mission will be accomplished by securing funds and resources to achieve scientific understanding, educate citizens, and implement locally supported priorities, programs and projects as identified through this Initiative.
    • Lake Ontario Coastal Initiative Action Agenda 2004

      Landre, Betsy; Lewandowski, Stephen; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Terninko, John; Thorndike, Elizabeth; Center for Environmental Information; Finger Lakes–Lake Ontario Watershed Protection Alliance; Ontario County Soil and Water Conservation District; The College at Brockport (2004-01-01)
      The mission of the Lake Ontario Coastal Initiative (LOCI), encompassing all New York State North Coast stakeholders from the Niagara River to the St. Lawrence River, is to enlist and retain broad public commitment for remediation, restoration, protection, conservation and sustainable use of the coastal region. This mission will be accomplished by securing funds and resources to achieve scientific understanding, educate citizens, and implement locally supported priorities, programs and projects as identified through this Initiative.
    • Little Sodus Bay Cayuga County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Little Sodus Bay is a 728-acre embayment on the southern Lake Ontario shoreline, located in the Town of Fair Haven, New York. The bay has a mean depth of 22 feet, a maximum depth of 37 feet, and is not fed by any major tributaries. Little Sodus Bay connects to Lake Ontario through a narrow channel located in the northwest corner of the bay. The watershed surrounding the bay is composed of land roughly 20% agricultural, 18% developed land (mostly limited development), 61% forest, 1% wetlands, and 0.1% quarry (The Camdus Group 2007). Little Sodus Bay has nuisance algae and weed problems that impact water recreation. Northern and Eurasian Milfoil are a particular problem and are so dense in some shallow areas of the bay that boat navigation is hindered. Diquat dibromide was applied to control aquatic growth in the 1980s, and in the 1990s the Cayuga Soil and Water District started a weed harvesting program. Fish spawning in the bay has been identified as stressed, the result of benthic anoxia caused by cultural addition of nutrients (Makarewicz 2000). This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Little Sodus Bay and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the bay.
    • Long Pond Monroe County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Long Pond, located on Lake Ontario near Rochester, New York, is surrounded by a mix of residential development, state park, and protected wildlife areas. Land use within the watershed is a mix of suburbia, including the Village of Spencerport, and agriculture. The waters of Long Pond are considered hypereutrophic, meaning it is very productive due to high nutrient loading. This productivity is likely due to nonpoint sources and the point source represented by the Spencerport Sewage Treatment Plant which releases advanced secondary sewage effluent into a tributary of Long Pond (Makarewicz 2000). Nuisance algae, bacterial abundance, and algal mat development near Long Pond along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario were evident. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Long Pond and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the pond.
    • Niagara River Niagara County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      The Niagara River carries water from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario and is the major source of Lake Ontario’s water volume. Famous for the immense Niagara Falls, the 36-mile river is used by over 1 million people in the United States and Canada for functions including drinking water, recreation, and hydropower (Niagara Parks 2009). The Niagara River drains the entire upper Great Lake system into the final lake, Lake Ontario, and due to this huge volume of water has a large potential to change Lake Ontario’s water quality. Nuisance algae, bacterial abundance, and algal mat development along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario are major causes of beach closings, fouling the nearshore waters and limiting water recreation. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of the Niagara River and the lakeside (swimmable depth, surface sample at a 1-m depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the river.
    • Oak Orchard Creek Orleans County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Oak Orchard Creek is a major tributary of Lake Ontario, with a watershed straddling Orleans and Genesee counties. Surrounding land use is a mix of residential, small commercial businesses, and agriculture. The Elba and Oakfield sewage treatment plants are located along Oak Orchard Creek, as are three hydroelectric dams located in Oak Orchard, Glenwood, and Waterport (Zollweg et al. 2005). The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation lists fishing in Oak Orchard as threatened. There have been high measures of DDT, DDE, DDD, PAHs, and arsenic identified near Lyndonville, NY, at one of these sites (Makarewicz 2000). Nuisance algae, bacterial abundance, and algal mat development along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario are major causes of beach closings, fouling the nearshore waters and limiting water recreation. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Oak Orchard Creek and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the creek.
    • Oswego River Oswego County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      The Oswego River is the second largest river flowing into Lake Ontario, draining 5,100 square miles of land. The watershed includes all of Seneca County, most of Onondaga, Cayuga, Tompkins, Schuyler, Yates and Ontario Counties, and large portions of Oswego, Oneida, Madison and Wayne Counties in New York State. Most of the New York Finger Lakes are in the drainage basin of the Oswego River, and land use ranges from heavy agriculture in the Finger Lakes region to urban development in Oswego. The Oswego River Harbor is the largest Oswego County embayment and is vital to the shipping industry due to its connection to the Erie Canal through the Oswego River Canal. New York State’s Coastal Zone Management Program has also designated Oswego Harbor and the segment of the river behind the Varick Dam as significant Coastal Fish and Wildlife Habitat. Major water quality concerns include legacy industrial discharges in the Syracuse and Onondaga Lake area, sewer overflows in Syracuse, and nonpoint source pollution sources primarily from agricultural runoff (NYSDEC 2009). This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of the Oswego River and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the river.
    • Phytoplankton and Zooplankton: In Lakes Erie, Lake Huron and Lake Michigan: 1984

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1987-03-01)
      With the acknowledgement that biological monitoring was fundamental to charting ecosystem health (Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement 1978), EPA's program was developed for Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan to: 1) monitor seasonal patterns, ranges of abundance and, in general, structure of the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities; 2) relate the biological components to variations in the physical, nutrient and biological environment; and 3) assess the annual variance to allow better long-term assessments of trophic structure and state. Several offshore stations (9-11) on several cruises (9-11) during the spring, summer and autumn of 1984 and winter of 1985 were sampled. By examining changes in the phytoplankton and zooplankton in relation to water chemistry, evidence was found suggesting little change in the trophic status of Lakes Huron and Michigan while an improvement in the trophic status of Lake Erie was evident. The offshore region of Lake Michigan is experiencing changes in phytoplankton and zooplankton composition consistent with nutrient control and top-down control by fish. Even so, the biomass of phytoplankton and zooplankton and the trophic status of the lake have not changed significantly. The appearance and establishment of Daphnia pulicaria in offshore waters of Lake Huron suggest a change in the forage fish base. With the exception of the resurgence of Asterionella formosa in Lake Erie, plankton composition has changed little since the 60's. However, dramatic reductions in biomass of nuisance and eutrophic indicator species have occurred. These changes are consistent with expectations of long-term nutrient control. However, a change in piscivory is evident that has apparently allowed the establishment of the large cladoceran Daphnia pulicaria.
    • Port Bay Wayne County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Located midway between Rochester and Oswego, New York, Port Bay is one of southern Lake Ontario’s larger but relatively shallow (<25 feet) embayments. The perimeter of the bay is primarily residential, but portions of the shoreline and watershed are part of the Lake Shores Marshes Wildlife Area. Wolcott Creek is the major tributary of Port Bay and drains ~27 mi2 of land that is mostly in agriculture. The bay receives treated effluent from the Village of Wolcott Sewage Treatment Plant. Port Bay suffers from cultural eutrophication and is on the New York State 303d list of Impaired Waters due to an overabundance of phosphorus. Benthic anoxia is a major effect of this eutrophication. Port Bay is impacted by nuisance algae, and harmful algal blooms have been observed (Makarewicz et al. 2009). This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Port Bay and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the bay.
    • Pultneyville, Salmon Creek Wayne County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Pultneyville is located between Irondequoit Bay and Sodus Bay, approximately 14 miles east of Irondequoit Bay and 12 miles west of Sodus Bay. Salmon Creek drains into Lake Ontario at Pultneyville where it forms Pultneyville Harbor that boasts a 100-boat marina as well as a yacht club. Agriculture, specifically fruit orchards, dominates the harbor watershed. Little background information is available for this location. Here we report on water quality data collected monthly (May through September) in 2007 and 2009 at Pultneyville Harbor and at lakeside location east of the harbor in Lake Ontario.
    • Sandy Creek Monroe/Orleans Counties, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Sandy Creek is located in Monroe and Orleans Counties in New York State and drains 89 mi2 of land. Surrounding land use is predominantly agriculture, though there are also residential influences. The Orleans County Soil and Water Conservation District through the Water Quality Coordinating Committee (WQCC) has monitored nutrient loss from the watershed through continuous automated monitoring and event sampling. Sandy Creek was identified as moderately polluted, not as pristine as forested watersheds but not as polluted as streams receiving partially treated sewage. Soil loss was highest (75% of total) during precipitation events suggesting that agricultural runoff may play a large role in cultural eutrophication of the creek (Makarewicz 2000). Nuisance algae and algal mat development foul the nearshore waters along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario and are major causes of beach closings and limited water recreation. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Sandy Creek and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the creek.
    • Sodus Bay Wayne County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Sodus Bay is one of Lake Ontario’s major embayments separated from the lake by a 7,500-foot long barrier beach. The bay is located in Wayne County, New York, and is 4.4 miles in length and 2.4 miles across. This major point of access to Lake Ontario contains 12 marinas, 13 waterfront restaurants, 2 public access sites, a public beach, and a sailing school. The 46-mi2 Sodus Bay watershed is composed of land that is 30% agriculture, 4% developed land, 61% forest, and 4% wetlands. First Creek, Second Creek, Third Creek, Sodus Creek West, Sodus Creek East (Glenmark Creek), and Clark Creek empty into this bay. Sodus Bay has nuisance algae and macrophytes which can cause beach closings. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Sodus Bay and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the bay.