• A Five Year Summary of Kendig Creek Watershed Monitoring

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; Lampman, Gregory G.; The College at Brockport (1996-05-01)
      Land use in the Kendig Creek watershed is mostly for agriculture purposes. Kendig Creek has relatively high concentrations of nitrate, total kjeldahl nitrogen and total suspended solids when compared to other watersheds in central New York State. Kendig Creek is also an event responsive watershed, i.e. a majority of the discharge, nutrient and solids lost from the watershed to the stream ecosystem occurs during precipitation or melting events. Stressed stream analysis has identified several agricultural sites that are contributing nutrients and soil to the stream ecosystem. Linking these three facts together suggest that agricultural practices allowing nutrients and soil to runoff into the creek are having a major impact on the loadings from Kendig Creek. The high loss of phosphorus from the watershed into Kendig Creek also indicate that the Creek is fairly polluted, when compared to other streams in western and central New York State. A remedial action plan and best management plan are suggested as the next logical step in developing a water quality program for this watershed.
    • A Synthesis of Ecological and Fish-Community Changes in Lake Ontario, 1970-2000

      2005-07-01
      We assessed stressors associated with ecological and fishcommunity changes in Lake Ontario since 1970, when the first symposium on Salmonid Communities in Oligotrophic Lakes (SCOL I) was held (J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 613-616). Phosphorus controls implemented in the early 1970s were undeniably successful; lower food-web studies showed declines in algal abundance and epilimnetic zooplankton production and a shift in pelagic primary productivity toward smaller organisms. Stressors on the fish community prior to 1970 such as exploitation, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, and effects of nuisance populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) were largely ameliorated by the 1990s. The alewife became a pivotal species supporting a multi-million-dollar salmonid sport fishery, but alewife-induced thiamine deficiency continued to hamper restoration and sustainability of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Expanding salmonine populations dependent on alewife raised concerns about predator demand and prey supply, leading to reductions in salmonine stocking in the early 1990s. Relaxation of the predation impact by alewives and their shift to deeper water allowed recovery of native fishes such as threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides). The return of the Lake Ontario ecosystem to historical conditions has been impeded by unplanned introductions. Establishment of Dreissena spp. led to increased water clarity and increased vectoring of lower trophic-level production to benthic habitats and contributed to the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations, behavioral modifications of key fish species, and the decline of native lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Despite reduced productivity, exotic-species introductions, and changes in the fish community, offshore Mysis relicta populations remained relatively stable. The effects of climate and climate change on the population abundance and dynamics of Lake Ontario fish were unknown at the time of SCOL I, but a temperature-time series begun in the late 1950s in the Kingston Basin has since provided evidence of climate warming and associated fishcommunity changes. We should expect ecological surprises in the coming decades that will challenge scientists and fishery managers especially as they face new exotic species, climate warming, and escalating stakeholder demands on the resource. Continuous long-term ecological studies were critical for interpreting changes in Lake Ontario’s fish community over the past three decades and will be essential in the future for both scientific understanding and management of the fishery.
    • An Addendum to Segment Analysis of Sucker Brook: The Location of Sources of Pollution

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2001-02-01)
      This supplemental report is an addendum to the original study 'Segment Analysis of Sucker Brook: The location of sources of pollution' (Makarewicz et a/. 1999). In the original study, recommendations for further investigation of two segments of Sucker Brook were suggested as follows. 1. The segment above Site 7 (Figure 1) in the City of Canandaigua had high concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) during an event January 1999. The source(s) was not identified. 2. The segment between Sites3 and 4 (Figure 1) had high concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). The source( s) was not identified. Three separate supplemental events, two for Site 7 and one for the segment between Sites 3 and 4 were sampled in 2000 to conclude the Sucker Brook Stressed Stream Analysis.
    • Analysis of the Existing Water Quality Database for the Sandy Creek and South Sandy Creek Watersheds – 1997 to 2005

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2006-10-01)
      Runoff from agricultural lands containing soil and nutrients poses a known threat to the water quality of embayments and coastal regions of Lake Ontario (Makarewicz 2000). The Lakeview Marsh State Wildlife Management Area in Jefferson County, NY is a prime example of these types of ecologically valuable coastal wetland and embayment habitats. This embayment / wetland complex is fed by the watersheds of Sandy Creek and South Sandy Creek. The mouths of these creeks contain globally rare freshwater dunes, diverse wetlands and several types of globally rare vegetation. Sandy Creek also provides an emergency unfiltered drinking water supply for the Village of Adams and the Hamlet of Adams Center. In general, the environmental effects of agricultural runoff, including eutrophication and sedimentation, on surface water bodies are serious local, regional and national issues. These issues create a dilemma for governmental leaders in agricultural areas; their most important economic industry, agriculture, may also be the cause of environmental degradation. For farmers, this is further exacerbated by the high profile increase of governmental regulation on agricultural operations. The agricultural industry needs scientific evidence that they are capable of being part of the solution not just part of the problem.
    • Aquatic Biological Survey, Oak Orchard Harbor: Final Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; Dilcher, Ronald C.; The College at Brockport (1979-10-01)
      This report evaluates the potential environmental impact of proposed maintenance dredging at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Field samples were obtained in autumn 1978 and spring and summer 1979. Data reports based on these sampling efforts were submitted earlier to the Buffalo District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The impact of dredging was considered in relation to physical and chemical conditions, terrestrial vegetation/wetlands, aquatic macrophytes, macrobenthos, phytoplankton and zooplankton, fish, birds, endangered species, toxic chemicals and seiches. For each factor considered, sections entitled Existing Conditions are followed by our Assessment of Impact. The last section presents our conclusions and recommendations concerning the general impact of dredging.
    • Biological Survey of Yanty Creek Marsh at Hamlin Beach State Park

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; Dilcher, Ronald C.; Hunter, John C.; Norment, Christopher J.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2000-08-01)
      Four primary objectives were addressed in this study: 1 . To undertake a survey of the biological resources of Yanty Creek. 2 . To compare relative abundance and species richness of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammtals and plants in Yanty Creek marsh and adjacent areas to literature on other embayments and wetlands in the Great Lakes region. 3. To predict the types of changes that may occur in the biological diversity of Yanty Creek marsh should the barrier beach be breached. 4. To write a final report that compiles new and existing information on the species and communities of Yanty Creek marsh and emphasizes elements of concern to the NYS Natural Heritage Program such as rare plants and c ommunities, significant plants and communities for animal species, plants and communities likely to be impacted by breaching of the barrier beach, and invasive exotic species. Comparisons to other sites on Lake Ontario and elsewhere were based only on existing literature or unpublished data collected by the principal investigators that was fragmentary and compromised by differences in sampling methodology and effort. Together, our survey of Yanty Creek marsh and the literature review were used to: 1 ) compare the marsh to other wetlands that have been studied, 2) assess its b iodiversity as high, moderate or low relative to other wetlands, 3) Evaluate threats posed by invasive exotic species and breaching of the barrier beach, and 4) make recommendations for managing the marsh.
    • Canandaigua Lake Subwatersheds: Time Trends in Event Loading and the Watershed Index

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2001-02-01)
      From an applied science perspective, a goal of the Canandaigua Lake water quality monitoring program was the development of a statistically defensible database of ecologically important parameters that would allow stewards of the watershed to prioritize and determine which subwatershed had the largest potential impact on Canandaigua Lake. Before the 2000 sampling season, we had collected and analyzed a total of 5 1 samples (36 event and 15 event samples) taken from 20 tributaries of Canandaigua Lake. After three years of sampling, the database was large enough to provide a reasonable estimate of annual nutrient and sediment loss from the tributaries into Canandaigua Lake allowing the subwatersheds to be prioritized. In addition, it was generally clear that most of the nutrient and soil loss from subwatersheds occurred during hydrometeorological events. In this report, the results of the 2000 events are compared to the previous three years of events. We also introduce the concept of the Watershed Index as a method to assess future trends in event and non-event loading in each subwatershed.
    • Cape Vincent Harbor: Summer Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Haynes, James M.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1979-08-01)
      Fish, benthos, macrophytes and birds were collected or observed over two days (16 July through 17 July 1979) at Cape Vincent Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging on the harbor. Figure 1 is a map of the harbor area indicating the location of sampling sites. Observed fishing pressure and boat traffic were minimal during the two-day sampling trip. This is a preliminary data report. The final report will include both our analysis and interpretation of the data regarding potential impacts of dredging.
    • Causes of Foaming and Surfactant Source Identification in Sandy Creek Orleans and Monroe County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Cady, Bruce L.; The College at Brockport (1994-03-01)
      This study concludes that the Albion Wastewater Treatment Plant increases the anionic surfactant (MBAS) concentrations in Sandy Creek as it passes the plant discharge pipe. This increase ranges from less than 10% to more than 100% of background levels. However, for all samples collected in our investigation, the total concentration (background plus plant effluent) never reached 100 µg/L, the upper level for natural waters.
    • Chaumont Bay Jefferson County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Chaumont Bay is a 9,000-acre embayment located on the east end of Lake Ontario. The bay receives tributary waters from Guffon Creek, Three Mile Creek, and the Chaumont River, creating three smaller embayments within Chaumont Bay on the northeastern side. The bay is lined by shoreline development, but the watershed is primarily agriculture. Algae blooms plague Chaumont Bay and hamper boating, swimming, and fish consumption. Direct sewage discharges into Chaumont Bay have been documented, but inadequate septic systems are considered the primary source of nutrient loading to the bay. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2005 to 2009) on the water quality of Chaumont Bay and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the bay.
    • Chemical Analysis and Nutrient Loading of Streams Entering Conesus Lake, N.Y with sections on I. Status of Conesus Lake I I. Crayfish as Control Agents of Macrophytes

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; Dilcher, Ronald C.; Letson, Michael; Puckett, Norma L.; The College at Brockport (1991-04-01)
      A program of research was developed at the State University of New York at Brockport's Department of Biological Sciences to investigate the causes of decreasing water transparency and increased salt levels in some streams draining into Conesus Lake and to identify watersheds and sources of. fertilizers that may be polluting the lake and causing increased abundance of "weeds". It has been supported by New York State, Livingston County, the Villages of Avon and Geneseo and the Town of Livonia and many private citizens. The thrust of the research has been to gather and synthesize information necessary to determine the physical capabilities of Conesus Lake to maintain its aesthetic character, its use as a water supply, and its ability to continue to serve as the symbol of the region. Phase 1 started in 1985 with the goal to identify the causes of the decrease in water "clearness" or the increase in turbidity of the Lake water. The higher turbidity was of concern to the New York State Department of Health because turbidity for the first time was exceeding the New York State's Guidelines on Drinking Water. The high turbidity may eventually require the construction of new water treatment plants. Results from this work suggest that the high turbidity was correlated with the accidental introduction of a new fish, the alewife or sawbelly, into the Lake. Detailed information was also gathered concerning the water quality of Conesus Lake to ascertain its status and fragility.
    • Chemical Analysis and Nutrient Loading of Streams Entering Sodus Bay, N.Y

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1990-05-01)
      In response to public concern created by an abundance of nuisance weeds (i.e. macrophytes) within the three embayments of Wayne County (Sodus, East and Port Bays) , the Aquatic Vegetation Control Program was created in 1987 to develop long-term management strategies for the Bays. The program is administered jointly by the Wayne County Planning Board and the Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District. The Soil and Water Conservation District recognized early that management of the Bay ecosystem would require the development of a data base presently not available. Toward this end, the Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District contracted with SUNY Brockport to collect and analyze limnological data from Sodus Bay and its tributaries. A preliminary study was completed in 1989 titled "Umnological Studies of Sodus Bay and its Tributaries". The second year of the study was expanded to include the following objectives: 1. To characterize the environmental status and water quality of Sodus Bay during summer conditions; 2. To monitor seasonally the six streams entering Sodus Bay for selected chemical parameters for an annual cycle; 3. To document the occurrence of low dissolved oxygen concentration in First Creek; and 4. To develop seasonal and annual n utrient loads for phosphorus , total organic nitrogen, total suspended solids and sodium for each stream.
    • Chemical Analysis and Nutrient Loading Of: Salmon Creek, Otis Creek, Black Creek, Spencerport Sewage Treatment Plant, Precipitation Falling in Western Monroe County: with a discussion on The Trophic Status of Long Pond and Stress Stream Analysis of Northrup and Buttonwood Creeks

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1990-08-01)
      The purpose of the RAP project is to prepare water quality management action plans for watersheds in the three basins (Genesee, Lake Ontario West, and Lake Ontario Central) within Monroe County that empty into the Rochester Embayment. These basinwide plans would be prepared using existing data and literature on each of the three basins. In some instances where baseline and storm event data were not available, such as the Lake Ontario West Basin, it would be necessary to collect the required data. As part of the local contribution to Rochester Embayment Remedial Action Plan, the Monroe County Health contracted with SUNY Brockport in 1988 to collect such data. The general objectives of the 1988 study of Buttonwood, Larkin, Northrup and Round Pond Creeks were: To compare the water quality of stream water from various watersheds; obtain time trend data on chemical and physical characteristics of runoff water of these creeks; To obtain time trend data on chemical and physical characteristics of runoff water of these creeks; To estimate nutrient mass loadings of streams; and To establish and maintain a statistically defensible data set that would permit determination of baseline conditions for evaluations of trends. This work has been completed and is reported in “Chemical Analysis of Water from Buttonwood, Larkin, Northrup, and Round Pond Creeks, Lake Ontario Basin West, May 1987-May 1988” (Makarewicz 1989). The 1989-90 study reported here has a similar set of objectives as the 1988 study but with a focus on Salmon Creek and Otis Creek. In addition, the 1989-90 study was broadened to include the following: Determination of nutrient loads of the Barge Canal to Salmon Creek; A stress stream analysis of Northrup and Buttonwood Creek; Our 1988 study had suggested that there were anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and nitrogen within the watersheds of Northrup and Buttonwood Creeks. Determination of nutrient loads of the Spencerport Sewage Treatment Plant to Northrup Creek; Determination of the nutrient loads to Long Pond from Black Creek as compared to Northrup Creek; Determination of the trophic status of Long Pond; and Determination of nutrient and heavy metal loads from precipitation occurring in western Monroe County.
    • Chemical Analysis of Water from Buttonwood, Larkin, Round Pond and Northrup Creeks, Lake Ontario Basin West: May 1987 - May 1988

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1989-02-01)
      As the local contribution to the Rochester Embayment Remedial Action Plan, the Monroe County Health Department contracted with SUNY Brockport to extend the ongoing sampling program in order to obtain one full year of data. The general objectives of this study of Buttonwood, Larkin, Northrup and Round Pond Creeks were: 1. To compare the water quality of stream water from watersheds having different land-use patterns; 2. To compare the water quality of stream water above and below the Spencerport Sewage Treatment Plant; 3. To obtain time trend data on chemical and physical characteristics of runoff water of these creeks; 4. To estimate nutrient mass loadings of these streams; and 5. To establish and maintain a statistically defensible data set that would permit determination of baseline conditions for evaluations of trends.
    • Ecological Health of Sediments Located in the Rochester Embayment, Lake Ontario, NY

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Arnold, Mary; Lewis, Theodore W.; Beal, Carole; Monroe County Department of Health; The College at Brockport (2001-08-01)
      The objective of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate community health, and thus water quality, within the Rochester Embayment of Lake Ontario. The Rochester Embayment is one of 42 Great Lakes Areas of Concern . The various biological indices utilized suggest that a moderate to severely impacted benthic community exists in portions of the Rochester Embayment of Lake Ontario. Clearly, this study is not conclusive. Field sampling was limited geographically to four sites with three sites located either in or in close proximity to the Genesee River and to the dredge disposal site. Further field sampling is warranted with a sampling design that encompasses a larger, more representative area of the embayment.
    • Genesee River Monroe County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Originating in Potter County, Pennsylvania, the Genesee River travels 157 miles northward before emptying into the Rochester Embayment at the Port of Rochester on Lake Ontario. The 2,500-mi watershed of the Genesee River is predominately in agriculture and forest until it reaches the suburban urban environment of the City of Rochester, New York. Several wastewater plants, including Eastman Kodak’s industrial waste plant (King’s Landing) and Scottsville, and Honeoye Falls sewage treatment plants, discharge into the river. Just west and east of the outfall of the Genesee River into Lake Ontario are Charlotte and Durand Eastman Beaches that are periodically closed due to nuisance algae, bacterial abundance, and algal mat development along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario. The Genesee River is also a major point of access to Lake Ontario and has over 1000 boat slips. The Genesee River’s high flow makes it a key contributor to the water quality of the Rochester Embayment in the nearshore zone. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of the Genesee River and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the river.
    • Long-term Trends and the Trophic Status of Conesus Lake 2012: A report to the Livingston County Planning Department Geneseo, NY

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; LaFountain, Joshua M.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2012-10-01)
      Conesus Lake monitoring conducted by personnel from The College at Brockport during the summer of 2012 determined the current trophic status of the lake and if any improvements or further degradation of water quality had occurred. To accomplish this goal, lake chemistry was monitored from 22 May to 14 August 2012 and the following were completed: a trophic state assessment of the lake and an evaluation of long-term trends in lake chemistry. Recommendations 1. The monitoring of Conesus Lake should continue. Current results suggest a slow improvement in it’s surface water. The status of the lake’s water quality has been an issue for many years. If it is indeed improving as suggested, this success story needs to be communicated to the general public. 2. The importance of managing nutrients and soil loss from the watershed is now even more important to prevent a relapse or return to less desirable conditions. Continuing efforts to reduce nutrient losses from sources in agriculture, from septic systems above the ring sewer, and from lawn fertilizers should be emphasized.
    • Management Approaches for the Control of Aquatic Plants

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Beckstrand, Daina; Bosch, Isidro; SUNY Geneseo; The College at Brockport (1999-09-01)
      This guide is designed to provide information on the ecological values and problems associated with aquatic macrophytes, to present methods used to control the troublesome species, and to provide suggestions on how to implement a lake management plan that would deal with macrophytes as legally and as safely as possible.
    • Nutrient and Sediment Loss from the Watersheds of Orleans County Year 2: Johnson, Oak Orchard and Sandy Creek Watersheds. June 1998 - May 1999

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1999-12-01)
      In recognition of the need to acquire a uniform, organized approach to addressing surface water degradation and given the diverse nature of non-point sources of pollution, the Soil and Water Conservation District has recently formed a committee whose specific task is to address water quality issues. Since the reduction of non-point source pollution is likely to occur through the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMP's) and changes in land use regulations, this committee provides the necessary foundation for these changes to occur. This committee has become known as the Orleans County Water Quality Coordinating Committee (WQCC). With the combined expertise of the Water Quality Coordinating Committee and the availability of actual field data, progress towards healthier freshwater resources is underway. A recommendation of the WQCC was to move forward in prioritizing the major tributaries in terms of high nutrient losses from the watershed. The objectives of Orleans County's program include: 1. Determination of the status of Orleans County's primary surface waters and observe changes over time; 2. Documentation of what types and amounts of nutrients may be adversely impacting water quality and the conditions which generate them; 3. Determination of what urban, rural, industrial and agricultural practices within a watershed may be impacting water quality; 4. Development of a technical database for informed water quality management decisions; and, 5. Assessment of the feasibility and effectiveness of potential control measures likely to be used to reduce non-point and point sources of pollution. Determination of sources and magnitude of soil and nutrient losses from a watershed is prerequisite to remedial action and essential to making cost-effective land management decisions as it reduces the likelihood of costly miscalculations based on the assumption of soil and nutrient sources and modeling rather than their actual identification. We have found that this process enhances the ability of concerned groups to obtain external funding for demonstration and remedial projects.
    • Nutrient and Sediment Loss from the Watersheds of Orleans County: Johnson, Oak Orchard and Sandy Creek Watersheds. June 1997- June 1998

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1998-10-01)
      Three Orleans County tributaries were intensely monitored for one year (5 June 1997 to 4 June 1998) with automated gaging and samnpling stations installed on Oak Orchard, Johnson and Sandy Creeks. This sampling regime allows an accurate measurement of discharge, nutrient and sediment loss from the watersheds during both event and nonevent conditions. Discharge and concentrations of nitrate, total phosphorus, sodium, total suspended solids, and total kjeldahl nitrogen were measured and converted into the amount of material lost from each watershed.