• Genesee River Watershed Project. Volume 2. Water Quality Analysis of the Upper Genesee River Watershed: Nutrient Concentration and Loading, Identification of Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution, Total Maximum Daily Load, and an Assessment of Management Practices using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model. A report to the USDA.

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; Snyder, Blake; Smith, William B.; The College at Brockport (2013-01-01)
      An assessment of the Upper Genesee River (UGR) watershed was undertaken to determine sources of nutrient and sediment loss geospatially within the Upper Genesee River watershed and to determine the nutrient and sediment contribution (load) of this segment to the Lower Middle Main Stem of the Genesee River. To accomplish this task, a multifaceted, integrated approach was taken by a combination of monitoring, segment analysis, and modeling (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). To achieve this goal, the river was routinely monitored for discharge, water chemistry, and loss of nutrients and soil for an entire year (3 August 2010 to 23 August 2011) at the USGS gauging station at Wellsville and at Portageville, NY. The Upper Genesee River Soil and Water Assessment Tool (UGR-SWAT) model was created, calibrated, and verified for discharge, sediment, and phosphorus loss using these data. Based on the measured loading data to a subbasin outlet and the SWAT model, segment analysis was performed on selected subwatersheds to determine sources of material loss. The information derived from segment analysis, the SWAT model, and the total amount of nutrients, sediments, and bacteria lost from the watershed served to direct watershed management. Lastly, the UGR-SWAT model was employed to test the effectiveness of BMPs on land use and to determine the minimum potential phosphorus concentration expected in a forested Upper Genesee River watershed as a nutrient target for TMDL development.
    • Genesee River Watershed Project. Volume 3. Water Quality Analysis of the Honeoye Creek Watershed: Nutrient Concentration and Loading, Identification of Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution, Total Maximum Daily Load, and an Assessment of Management Practices using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model. A report to the USDA.

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; Snyder, Blake; The College at Brockport (2013-01-01)
      An assessment of the Honeoye Creek watershed was undertaken to determine the nutrient and sediment contribution to the Lower Middle Main Stem of the Genesee River and to determine sources of nutrient and sediment loss geospatially within the Honeoye Creek watershed. To accomplish this task, a multifaceted, integrated approach was taken by a combination of monitoring, segment analysis, and modeling (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). Thus, the river was monitored for discharge, water chemistry, and loss of nutrients and soil for an entire year (3 August 2010 to 23 August 2011) at the USGS gauging station at Honeoye Falls and Golah, NY. The Honeoye Creek Soil and Water Assessment Tool (HCSWAT) model was created, calibrated, and verified for discharge, sediment, and P loss using these data. Based on the measured loading data to a subbasin outlet and the SWAT model, segment analysis was performed on selected subwatersheds to determine sources of material loss. Together these two bodies of information, the total amount of nutrients, sediments, and bacteria lost from the watershed and the sources of these losses, served to direct watershed management. Lastly, the HCSWAT model was employed to test the effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMPs) on land use and to determine the minimum potential P concentration expected in a forested Honeoye Creek watershed. Although Honeoye Creek is not one of the most impacted tributaries within the Genesee River basin, it does contribute a significant amount of P to the Genesee River. This study quantified the total loss of nutrients and sediments from the Honeoye Creek watershed, identified the location of point and nonpoint sources of nutrients and sediment, and determined the most effective practices to manage these sources using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A water quality target of 65 ?g P/L for P in streams is obtainable by upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in the Honeoye Creek watershed. To achieve the 45-?g P/L standard, management practices targeting nonpoint sources caused by agriculture would be needed in addition to the upgrade of the WWTPs to tertiary cleanup.
    • Genesee River Watershed Project. Volume 5. Water Quality Analysis of the Canaseraga Creek Watershed Nutrient Concentration and Loading, Identification of Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution, Total Maximum Daily Load, and an Assessment of Management Practices using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model. A report to the USDA.

      Rea, Evan; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2013-01-01)
      An assessment of the Canaseraga Creek watershed was undertaken to determine the nutrient and sediment contribution to the Lower Middle Main Stem of the Genesee River and to determine sources of nutrient and sediment loss geospatially within the Canaseraga Creek watershed. To accomplish this task, a multifaceted, integrated approach was taken by a combination of monitoring, segment analysis, and modeling (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). Thus, the river was monitored for discharge, water chemistry, and loss of nutrients and soil for an entire year (3 August 2010 to 14 February 2012) at the USGS stations at Shaker’s Crossing and Dansville, NY. The Canaseraga Creek Soil and Water Assessment Tool (CCSWAT) model was created, calibrated, and verified for discharge, sediment, and P loss using these data. Based on the measured loading data to a subbasin outlet and the SWAT model, segment analysis was performed on selected subwatersheds to determine sources of material loss. Together these two bodies of information, the total amount of nutrients, sediments, and bacteria lost from the watershed and the sources of these losses, served to direct watershed management. Lastly, the CCSWAT model was employed to test the effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMPs) on land use and to determine the minimum potential P concentration expected in a forested Canaseraga Creek watershed. With approximately 76.7% of its phosphorus load from anthropogenic sources, the largest subbasin (88,578 ha) of the Genesee River, Canaseraga Creek, should be a high priority for water quality remediation. Reducing phosphorus loads from Canaseraga Creek into the Genesee River is an important step to reduce the impact that the Genesee River has on water quality in the nearshore zone of Lake Ontario. In general, nonpoint sources of agriculture were identified as the leading cause of phosphorus loss in Canaseraga Creek through segment analysis, determination of weekly and event water chemistry, and integration into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Of the various BMPs simulated throughout the whole watershed, grassed waterways were the most effective in reducing TP loading (44.8% reduction) and reducing TP concentration (69.9 ?g P/L) at Shaker’s Crossing. But grassed waterways by themselves did not reach either of the target (45 and 65 ?g P/L) TP concentrations. Simulations combining grassed waterways with upgraded (tertiary) WWTPs foe the entire watershed resulted in a decreased P concentration of 49.7 ?g P/L at Shaker’s Crossing. This simulation suggested a 65 ?g P/L is a realistic target concentration and that the 45-?g P/L target may be met with more stringent BMPs. A less costly approach is to focus remediation to a smaller area known to deliver P to the streams. For example, by implementing grassed waterways in the impacted tributaries of Twomile and Buck Run Creeks and the Groveland Flats area, by implementing streambank stabilization in highly erodible main stem areas, and by upgrading WWTPs to tertiary treatment (Tributary Remediation 3), the CCSWAT model predicted a reduction in TP concentration from 104.3 to 71.6 ?g P/L.
    • Genesee River Watershed Project. Water Quality Analysis of the Oatka Creek Watershed. Volume 6. Nutrient Concentration and Loading, Identification of Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution, Total Maximum Daily Load, and an Assessment of Management Practices using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model. A report to the USDA.

      Pettenski, Dale; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2013-01-01)
      Oatka Creek is the second largest tributary of the Genesee River and is a highly prized trout fishery. The Oatka Creek portion of the Genesee River Project Study focused on identifying nonpoint and point sources, locating and quantifying the nutrient and sediment losses from Oatka Creek watershed, and through simulation identifying possible remediation or management practices. To accomplish this task, a multifaceted, integrated approach was taken by combining stream monitoring, segment analysis, and hydrologic modeling [Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)]. Runoff from nonpoint sources (Confined Animal Feeding Operation sites, agricultural practices, and urban areas) and point sources (wastewater treatment plants and State Pollution Discharge Elimination Sites), all anthropogenic sources, accounts for ~70% of the phosphorus load of Oatka Creek, suggesting improvements in stream water quality are possible. The most effective management recommendation to reduce the overall total phosphorus loading in Oatka Creek is to upgrade all four wastewater treatment plants (Warsaw, Pavilion, Leroy, and Scottsville) to tertiary treatment systems. Other effective management recommendations focused on nonpoint sources such as grassed waterways, buffer strips, and cover crops within the two most impaired tributaries (Wyoming Road and Roanoke Road) in the Oatka Creek watershed. Either or both practices together would significantly improve the water quality in the Oatka Creek watershed by reducing the average annual P concentration to below the 45-?g P/L target. Portions of the creek are experiencing stream bank soil erosion. Stream bank stabilization techniques, some already implemented, would have a beneficial impact on reducing the total phosphorus and total suspended solids loading in this segment of Oatka Creek.
    • Genesee River Watershed Project. Volume 1.Water Quality Analysis of the Genesee River Watershed: Nutrient Concentration and Loading, Identification of Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution, Total Maximum Daily Load, and an Assessment of Management Practices using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model. A report to the USDA.

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; Snyder, Blake; Winslow, Mellissa Jayne; Pettenski, Dale; Rea, Evan; Dressel, Lindsay; Smith, William B.; The College at Brockport (2013-01-01)
      The Genesee River Project, conducted from August 2010 to August 2013, provides a detailed picture of sediment and phosphorus concentrations (e.g., weekly water chemistry sampling), nutrient loading, allocation and identification of phosphorus sources, and the effectiveness of management practices on the four major Genesee River tributaries (Canaseraga, Honeoye, Black, and Oatka Creeks), the Upper Genesee River, and the lower Genesee River. With 60% of the P load (412,505 kg P/yr) from the Genesee River to Lake Ontario being of anthropogenic origin, a managed reduction in P lost from the Genesee watershed is apparent. Models using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were developed and segment analysis performed on these subbasins to determine sources of material losses. Together these two bodies of information, the total amount of nutrients and sediments lost from the watershed and the sources of these losses, served as a tool for suggesting a watershed management strategy. SWAT models were employed to test the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) on land use and to determine the minimum potential phosphorus concentration expected in the subwatersheds. Simulations of BMPs of management practices on both point and nonpoint sources indicated that phosphorus, a valuable nutrient to crop production, can be effectively kept in the watershed and out of Lake Ontario, where elevated phosphorus stimulates algae production and is implicated in beach closings in the Rochester Embayment. Using our most effective simulated scenario, grassed waterways and upgrading of wastewater treatment plants to tertiary treatment, a 32.9% (135,714 kg P/yr) reduction in P loading from the Genesee River to the nearshore of Lake Ontario with Genesee River concentrations at 65 ?g P/L is predicted - within the debated target goal of 65 ?g TP/L for streams in New York State. Volume 1 covers the entire watershed while volumes 2 to 6 report on specific tributary watersheds. The P load allocation analysis indicates that 60% of the total phosphorus load to Lake Ontario is due to anthropogenic sources and only 40% is due to natural sources.
    • Genesee River Watershed Project. Water Quality Analysis of the Black Creek Watershed. Volume 4. Nutrient Concentration and Loading, Identification of Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution, Total Maximum Daily Load, and an Assessment of Management Practices using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model. A report to the USDA.

      Winslow, Mellissa Jayne; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2013-01-01)
      Nearshore Lake Ontario suffers from several beneficial use impairments due to water quality issues from the Genesee River and its contributing tributaries. Segments of Black Creek located in the Lower Genesee River basin are listed as impacted on the New York State 303(d) list because of excess sediment, nutrient, and bacteria losses. Sources of these pollutants from the Black Creek watershed include improperly managed cropland and pastures, dairy manure application, and effluent discharges from wastewater treatment plants. An assessment of the Black Creek watershed was undertaken to determine the nutrient and sediment contribution of Black Creek to the Genesee River and to determine sources of nutrients and sediment loss geospatially within the watershed. To accomplish this task, a multifaceted, integrated approach was taken by combining stream monitoring, segment analysis, and hydrologic modeling [Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)]. The annual losses (June 2010 through May 2011) of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and total coliform bacteria from the Black Creek watershed were 16.5 MT/yr, 349.4 MT/yr, and 7.0E15 CFU/yr, respectively, where most of the losses occurred in the upper portion of the watershed. Impacted tributaries (Bigelow Creek and Spring Creek) had the highest areal loads of nutrients and bacteria and were a focus for remediation. More than 70% of the TP load was found to be due to anthropogenic sources including but not limited to manure applications from Confined Animal Feeding operations, the Bergen wastewater treatment plant, and nonpoint agricultural practices throughout the watershed. Sediment loss, on the other hand, was the highest in the downstream reaches of Black Creek where 73% of the total sediment load (8,360.6 MT/yr) occurred due to excessive flooding and stream bank erosion during events. These findings were used to calibrate a SWAT model for Black Creek that simulated the impact of implementing several Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce phosphorus and sediment loads. Individual BMPs reduced TP loads from Black Creek at Lower BC anywhere from 0 to 28% and sediment 0 to 84%. A holistic approach to watershed remediation using a combination of several effective BMPs focusing on major contributors of phosphorus and sediment reduced TP 28% and total suspended solids (TSS) 73%. This remedial action plan, if implemented, can reach a water quality target of 65 ?g P/L proposed by the Department of Environmental Conservation, which would reduce the annual TP concentration from 79.6 ?g P/L to 38.3 ?g P/L. This scenario can be used to determine an appropriate Total Maximum Daily Load for Black Creek that will help attain the ultimate goal of reducing the impairments of nearshore Lake Ontario.