• A Limnological Study of the Finger Lakes of New York

      Birge, Edward A.; Juday, Chancey (1914-10-27)
      In 1910 the authors of this paper were enabled to visit the Finger Lakes district of New York, through a grant from the United States Bureau of Fisheries, and the month of August was spent in work upon the lakes. In February, 1911, Mr. Juday visited four of the lakes to secure winter temperatures. A week in August and September, 1911, was used in obtaining a second set of summer temperatures. The temperatures of Skaneateles and Owasco Lakes were also taken in February, 1912, and in the early autumn of that year. The purpose of the investigation was to extend to these lakes the studies on dissolved gases, plankton, and temperatures, which the authors had already made on the lakes of Wisconsin. The lakes of New York are peculiarly well adapted for such study. Four of those visited—Canadice, Otisco, Conesus, and Hemlock—are directly comparable with several of the lakes of Wisconsin in size, depth, and biological conditions. The others, beginning with Owasco Lake, form a series whose smaller members are not greatly different from Green Lake, Wis. ; but whose largest members, Cayuga and Seneca, are the largest inland lakes 6 (except Lake Champlain) and the deepest in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Still further, these lakes lie in a region whose topography is hilly, but not mountainous. The highest elevations close to the lakes do not exceed 300 meters (1,000 feet) above the water, and the immediate slopes are, in general, much lower. The lakes, therefore, are not exposed to the peculiar climatic conditions of mountain lakes, but in general these conditions are comparable with those which exist in Wisconsin.
    • Food Habits of Irondequoit Bay Fish

      Ellis, Robert H. (1976-01-01)
      This report presents an evaluation of the potential impact of dredging a navigation channel connecting Irondequoit Bay and Lake Ontario on the fish populations of the area, based on a study of the food habits of the fish. Most fish are largely opportunistic feeders, subsisting largely on the most readily available and abundant food organisms. Yet there may be great differences in the food habits of species or fish inhabiting any given region. These differences result from differences in physical adaptations of a species, the size of the fish, and the particular habitat occupied, Species of fish of differing food habits may respond quite differently to the proposed dredging operations as the result of differing effects on the food organisms. The information in this report supplements that of our previous report concerning the potential environmental impact of the Irondequoit Bay dredging project (Ellis, Haines and Makarewicz, 1976).
    • Oak Orchard Harbor Autumn Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1978-11-01)
      Fish, benthos, and macrophytes samples were collected over four days (30 September through 3 October 1978) at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging the harbor area. Figure 1 is a map of the harbor area indicating the location of sample sites. Information on marina development, boat traffic and fishing pressure is included to document the heavy usage of this harbor during the fall salmon run. This is a data report. The final report will include both our analysis and interpretation of the data regarding potential impacts of dredging.
    • Oak Orchard Harbor Spring Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1979-06-01)
      Between 20 April 1979 and 20 May 1979, benthos, fish, and birds were collected or observed at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging the harbor area. This is a data report. In the final report, our analysis and interpretation of the data collected will be presented. Figures 1 and 2 are maps of the Oak Orchard Harbor area indicating the location of sampling sites. Table 1 provides information on bottom characteristics at the benthos sampling sites. Fishing pressure and boat traffic were light compared to the usage during the fall 1978 sampling trip.
    • Final Report: Aquatic Biological Survey, Cape Vincent Harbor

      Haynes, James M.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Dilcher, Ronald C.; The College at Brockport (1979-08-01)
      This report evaluates the potential environmental impact of proposed maintenance dredging at Cape Vincent Harbor, New York, by the u.s. Army Corps of Engineers. Field samples were obtained in autumn 1978 and spring and summer 1979. Data reports based on these sampling efforts were submitted earlier to the Buffalo District of the U,.!S. Army Corps of Engineers. In this report, the impact of dredging at Cape Vincent Harbor is considered in relation to physical and chemical conditions, terrestrial vegetation/wetlands, aquatic macrophytes, macrobenthos, phytoplankton and zooplankton, fish, birds, endangered species and toxic chemicals. For each factor considered, sections entitled Existing Conditions are followed by our Assessment of Impact. The last section presents our conclusions and recommendations concerning the general impact of dredging on the Cape Vincent – St. Lawrence ecosystem.
    • Cape Vincent Harbor: Summer Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Haynes, James M.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1979-08-01)
      Fish, benthos, macrophytes and birds were collected or observed over two days (16 July through 17 July 1979) at Cape Vincent Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging on the harbor. Figure 1 is a map of the harbor area indicating the location of sampling sites. Observed fishing pressure and boat traffic were minimal during the two-day sampling trip. This is a preliminary data report. The final report will include both our analysis and interpretation of the data regarding potential impacts of dredging.
    • Oak Orchard Harbor Summer Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1979-08-01)
      On 8 and 9 July 1979 benthos, fish, macrophytes and birds were collected or observed at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging the harbor area. This is a data report. In the final report, our analysis and interpretation of the data collected will be presented. Figures 1 and 2 are maps of the Oak Orchard Harbor area indicating the location of sample sites. Table 1 provides information on bottom characteristics at the benthos sampling sites. Fishing pressure and boat traffic were heavy compared to the usage during the fall 1978 sampling trip. Water temperature was 19° c.
    • Aquatic Biological Survey, Oak Orchard Harbor: Final Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; Dilcher, Ronald C.; The College at Brockport (1979-10-01)
      This report evaluates the potential environmental impact of proposed maintenance dredging at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Field samples were obtained in autumn 1978 and spring and summer 1979. Data reports based on these sampling efforts were submitted earlier to the Buffalo District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The impact of dredging was considered in relation to physical and chemical conditions, terrestrial vegetation/wetlands, aquatic macrophytes, macrobenthos, phytoplankton and zooplankton, fish, birds, endangered species, toxic chemicals and seiches. For each factor considered, sections entitled Existing Conditions are followed by our Assessment of Impact. The last section presents our conclusions and recommendations concerning the general impact of dredging.
    • Biological Survey Buffalo River and Outer Harbor of Buffalo, N.Y.

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Dilcher, Ronald C.; Haynes, James M.; Shump, Karl; The College at Brockport (1982-06-01)
      The shoreline of the Buffalo River is developed with heavy industry such as Republic Steel, Allied Chemical, Mobil Oil and numerous grain elevators. Similarly, on southeast shore o f the Outer Harbor, heavy industry such as Bethlehem Steel, Huron Cement and Lackawanna Steel is evident. On the eastern shore o f the Outer Harbor, freighters unload salt, taconite, coal, etc. into large storage piles for later use by the area industries. Large lake-going freighters and oilers routinely use the previously dredged channel existing along the entire length of the study area (Fig. 1) while servicing the industries located along the water front. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers is considering the feasibility of dredging the Outer Harbor and Buffalo River channels deeper to accommodate deeper draft vessels and/or to construct alternative means of transshipment of raw materials. An intensive study of the Buffalo River, Ship Canal and Outer Harbor of Buffalo, New was undertaken between April 1981 and May 1982 with the following general objectives: (1) To evaluate existing conditions in the river and harbor and to evaluate the biological impact of dredging the channel deeper in the Buffalo River and Outer Harbor; (2) To evaluate the biological impact of alternative proposals to dredging such as transshipment of raw materials by conveyor; (3) To evaluate the biological impact of removal of debris, old pilings, etc. along the Buffalo shoreline; (4) To evaluate existing conditions in potential disposal areas (Fig. 2) and to evaluate the biological impact of spoil disposal in these areas; and (5) To provide a functional assessment of the ecological components studied and evaluate their significance with and without project implementation to the area ecosystem. In Volume 1, the Final Report, our analysis and interpretation of existing conditions and our assessment of impacts are presented. In Volume 2, the Data Report, the raw field data is presented in tabular form.
    • Studies of Pollution Control in A Lakefront Community (1964 - 1981)

      1982-10-01
      The Rochester Academy of Science, which was organized in 1881 and celebrates its centennial this year, has had a long history of publication of scientific papers. Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of Science was published in 1891; it contained reports of all Academy meetings for 1889-1891 and a number of papers on a variety of scientific topics. The Academy has been publishing the Proceedings since that time. Many of the papers published have focused on the natural history of the Genesee region. The Proceedings are distributed through the University of Rochester Library on an exchange basis to more than 500 academic institutions and museums around the world. This issue represents the culmination of a cooperative publications venture between the Rochester Academy of Science, Rochester Committee for Scientific Information and the Rochester Chapter Society of Sigma Xi. It is a new departure for the Academy and one which recognizes the significant role that Rochester Committee for Scientific Information has played in defining and resolving environmental issues within Monroe County. The Academy is pleased to be a partner in publication of this history.
    • Water Quality Of Conesus Lake, 1985-1986

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Forest, Herman; SUNY Geneseo; The College at Brockport (1986-04-01)
      An intensive study of Conesus Lake and its tributaries was undertaken between April 1985 and December 1986 with the following general objectives: (1) To evaluate the water quality of Conesus Lake, the source of drinking water for the Town of Livonia and the Villages of Geneseo and Avon; (2) To identify, if possible, water of lower turbidity within the lake; (3) To identify, if possible, causes of higher turbidity in raw water intakes of the Livonia and Geneseo water treatment plants; (4) To evaluate what effect, if any, the construction of a perimeter sewer has had on nutrient levels within the lake; i.e. eutrophication; (5) To identify any sources of pollution within the watershed; and (6) To provide a functional assessment of the ecological components studied and to evaluate their significance in relation to the drinking water supply. This is the final report. A Summary of Results and Recommendations and Alternatives follow directly. Detailed discussion of results may be found in the Results and Discussion section. Quarterly data reports were presented to the Health Departments (State and County) and to the municipalities (Livonia, Avon, Geneseo) on three previous occasions.
    • Phytoplankton and Zooplankton: In Lakes Erie, Lake Huron and Lake Michigan: 1984

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1987-03-01)
      With the acknowledgement that biological monitoring was fundamental to charting ecosystem health (Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement 1978), EPA's program was developed for Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan to: 1) monitor seasonal patterns, ranges of abundance and, in general, structure of the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities; 2) relate the biological components to variations in the physical, nutrient and biological environment; and 3) assess the annual variance to allow better long-term assessments of trophic structure and state. Several offshore stations (9-11) on several cruises (9-11) during the spring, summer and autumn of 1984 and winter of 1985 were sampled. By examining changes in the phytoplankton and zooplankton in relation to water chemistry, evidence was found suggesting little change in the trophic status of Lakes Huron and Michigan while an improvement in the trophic status of Lake Erie was evident. The offshore region of Lake Michigan is experiencing changes in phytoplankton and zooplankton composition consistent with nutrient control and top-down control by fish. Even so, the biomass of phytoplankton and zooplankton and the trophic status of the lake have not changed significantly. The appearance and establishment of Daphnia pulicaria in offshore waters of Lake Huron suggest a change in the forage fish base. With the exception of the resurgence of Asterionella formosa in Lake Erie, plankton composition has changed little since the 60's. However, dramatic reductions in biomass of nuisance and eutrophic indicator species have occurred. These changes are consistent with expectations of long-term nutrient control. However, a change in piscivory is evident that has apparently allowed the establishment of the large cladoceran Daphnia pulicaria.
    • Limnological Studies Of Sodus Bay And Its Tributaries

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1989-01-01)
      In response to public concern created by an abundance of nuisance weeds (i. e. macrophytes) wi thin the three embayments of Wayne County (Sodus, East and Port Bays), the Aquatic Vegetation Control Program was created in 1987 to develop long-term management strategies for the Bays. The program is administered jointly by the Wayne County Planning Board and the Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District. The Soil and Water Conservation District recognized early that management of the bay ecosystem would require the development of a data base presently not available. Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District Toward this end, the contracted with SUNY Brockport to collect and analyze limnological data from Sodus Bay and its tributaries. In a separate study, the Community College of the Finger Lakes investigated macrophyte distribution and composition within the Bay. The general objectives of this study were: 1 . To characterize the environmental status and water quality of Sodus Bay during summer conditions; 2. To determine the nutrient and pollutant content of macrophytes in Sodus Bay, Port Bay and East Bay; 3. To conduct selected sediment analyses on Sodus Bay at the mouth of each tributary; 4 . To monitor weekly the five streams entering Sodus Bay for selected chemical parameters from April to June; and 5. To develop nutrient loads for each stream for April to June.
    • Chemical Analysis of Water from Buttonwood, Larkin, Round Pond and Northrup Creeks, Lake Ontario Basin West: May 1987 - May 1988

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1989-02-01)
      As the local contribution to the Rochester Embayment Remedial Action Plan, the Monroe County Health Department contracted with SUNY Brockport to extend the ongoing sampling program in order to obtain one full year of data. The general objectives of this study of Buttonwood, Larkin, Northrup and Round Pond Creeks were: 1. To compare the water quality of stream water from watersheds having different land-use patterns; 2. To compare the water quality of stream water above and below the Spencerport Sewage Treatment Plant; 3. To obtain time trend data on chemical and physical characteristics of runoff water of these creeks; 4. To estimate nutrient mass loadings of these streams; and 5. To establish and maintain a statistically defensible data set that would permit determination of baseline conditions for evaluations of trends.
    • Chemical Analysis and Nutrient Loading of Streams Entering Sodus Bay, N.Y

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1990-05-01)
      In response to public concern created by an abundance of nuisance weeds (i.e. macrophytes) within the three embayments of Wayne County (Sodus, East and Port Bays) , the Aquatic Vegetation Control Program was created in 1987 to develop long-term management strategies for the Bays. The program is administered jointly by the Wayne County Planning Board and the Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District. The Soil and Water Conservation District recognized early that management of the Bay ecosystem would require the development of a data base presently not available. Toward this end, the Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District contracted with SUNY Brockport to collect and analyze limnological data from Sodus Bay and its tributaries. A preliminary study was completed in 1989 titled "Umnological Studies of Sodus Bay and its Tributaries". The second year of the study was expanded to include the following objectives: 1. To characterize the environmental status and water quality of Sodus Bay during summer conditions; 2. To monitor seasonally the six streams entering Sodus Bay for selected chemical parameters for an annual cycle; 3. To document the occurrence of low dissolved oxygen concentration in First Creek; and 4. To develop seasonal and annual n utrient loads for phosphorus , total organic nitrogen, total suspended solids and sodium for each stream.
    • Chemical Analysis and Nutrient Loading Of: Salmon Creek, Otis Creek, Black Creek, Spencerport Sewage Treatment Plant, Precipitation Falling in Western Monroe County: with a discussion on The Trophic Status of Long Pond and Stress Stream Analysis of Northrup and Buttonwood Creeks

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1990-08-01)
      The purpose of the RAP project is to prepare water quality management action plans for watersheds in the three basins (Genesee, Lake Ontario West, and Lake Ontario Central) within Monroe County that empty into the Rochester Embayment. These basinwide plans would be prepared using existing data and literature on each of the three basins. In some instances where baseline and storm event data were not available, such as the Lake Ontario West Basin, it would be necessary to collect the required data. As part of the local contribution to Rochester Embayment Remedial Action Plan, the Monroe County Health contracted with SUNY Brockport in 1988 to collect such data. The general objectives of the 1988 study of Buttonwood, Larkin, Northrup and Round Pond Creeks were: To compare the water quality of stream water from various watersheds; obtain time trend data on chemical and physical characteristics of runoff water of these creeks; To obtain time trend data on chemical and physical characteristics of runoff water of these creeks; To estimate nutrient mass loadings of streams; and To establish and maintain a statistically defensible data set that would permit determination of baseline conditions for evaluations of trends. This work has been completed and is reported in “Chemical Analysis of Water from Buttonwood, Larkin, Northrup, and Round Pond Creeks, Lake Ontario Basin West, May 1987-May 1988” (Makarewicz 1989). The 1989-90 study reported here has a similar set of objectives as the 1988 study but with a focus on Salmon Creek and Otis Creek. In addition, the 1989-90 study was broadened to include the following: Determination of nutrient loads of the Barge Canal to Salmon Creek; A stress stream analysis of Northrup and Buttonwood Creek; Our 1988 study had suggested that there were anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and nitrogen within the watersheds of Northrup and Buttonwood Creeks. Determination of nutrient loads of the Spencerport Sewage Treatment Plant to Northrup Creek; Determination of the nutrient loads to Long Pond from Black Creek as compared to Northrup Creek; Determination of the trophic status of Long Pond; and Determination of nutrient and heavy metal loads from precipitation occurring in western Monroe County.
    • Chemical Analysis and Nutrient Loading of Streams Entering Conesus Lake, N.Y with sections on I. Status of Conesus Lake I I. Crayfish as Control Agents of Macrophytes

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; Dilcher, Ronald C.; Letson, Michael; Puckett, Norma L.; The College at Brockport (1991-04-01)
      A program of research was developed at the State University of New York at Brockport's Department of Biological Sciences to investigate the causes of decreasing water transparency and increased salt levels in some streams draining into Conesus Lake and to identify watersheds and sources of. fertilizers that may be polluting the lake and causing increased abundance of "weeds". It has been supported by New York State, Livingston County, the Villages of Avon and Geneseo and the Town of Livonia and many private citizens. The thrust of the research has been to gather and synthesize information necessary to determine the physical capabilities of Conesus Lake to maintain its aesthetic character, its use as a water supply, and its ability to continue to serve as the symbol of the region. Phase 1 started in 1985 with the goal to identify the causes of the decrease in water "clearness" or the increase in turbidity of the Lake water. The higher turbidity was of concern to the New York State Department of Health because turbidity for the first time was exceeding the New York State's Guidelines on Drinking Water. The high turbidity may eventually require the construction of new water treatment plants. Results from this work suggest that the high turbidity was correlated with the accidental introduction of a new fish, the alewife or sawbelly, into the Lake. Detailed information was also gathered concerning the water quality of Conesus Lake to ascertain its status and fragility.
    • Nutrient Loading of Streams Entering Sodus Bay and Port Bay, NY 1 April, 1990 To 30 June, 1991

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; Williams, Robert K.; The College at Brockport; Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District (1991-09-01)
      Freshwater resources have historically played a key role in community development and sustainability. Maintaining a high quality freshwater resource is of equal importance. Within the Finger Lakes Region of New York State, degradation of water quality and aesthetics due to excessive plant growth is a growing concern. Involved agencies have recently focused their attention on non-point source pollution as a primary candidate linked to accelerated macrophyte growth and surface water degradation. Wayne County recognizes the importance of maintaining a quality water resource and has responded by developing a Water Quality Program. Established in 1 987 and administered jointly between the Wayne County Soil and Water Conservation District and the Wayne County Planning Department, the program has received financial support made possible through the Finger Lakes Aquatic Vegetation Control Program (AVCP). The AVC program was created through a mutual effort between the New York State Legislature, the "Department of Environmental Conservation and the Finger Lakes Water Resources Board. The overall goal of Wayne County's water quality program is to develop a long-term water quality /lake management plan designed to control non-point source pollution on Sodus and Port Bays. Once implemented, this plan will serve to protect the integrity of these resources. A major improvement in our assessment capability occurred with the construction of a continuous stage height recorder on Sodus Creek. The addition of the continuous stream height recorder fine tunes our ability to evaluate nutrient and sediment loading into Sodus Bay during hydrologic events. In addition ,initiation of weekly sampling of Wolcott Creek on Port Bay has expanded this program to another body of water in Wayne County. The objectives of Wayne County's program include: 1 ) To determine the status of Wayne County's primary surface waters and observe changes over time; 2) To document what types and amounts of nutrients may be adversely impacting water quality and the conditions which generate them; 3) To develop a technical database for informed water quality management decisions; and 4) To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of potential control measures likely to be used to reduce non-point sources.
    • Causes of Foaming and Surfactant Source Identification in Sandy Creek Orleans and Monroe County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Cady, Bruce L.; The College at Brockport (1994-03-01)
      This study concludes that the Albion Wastewater Treatment Plant increases the anionic surfactant (MBAS) concentrations in Sandy Creek as it passes the plant discharge pipe. This increase ranges from less than 10% to more than 100% of background levels. However, for all samples collected in our investigation, the total concentration (background plus plant effluent) never reached 100 µg/L, the upper level for natural waters.
    • Nutrient Loading of Streams Entering Lake Neatahwanta Oswego County, NY: A Summary of the Lake Neatahwanta Tributary Monitoring

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1994-06-01)
      This study suggests that the highly eutrophic condition of Lake Neatahwanta is in large part due to the very high loadings of nutrients from the surrounding watershed. Specifically, Sheldon Creek was identified as a major contributor of phosphorus and total suspended solids to the lake. The amount of nutrients entering the lake from Sheldon Creek were in excess of those observed in creeks of New York receiving point source loadings from small sewage treatment plants. Improvement of the water quality of Lake Neatahwanta will depend upon the identification and remediation of the major sources of nutrients in the watershed and in the Sheldon Creek watershed in particular.