• A Comparison of Learner Assessment Use Between Physical Education and Core Academic Subjects

      Kozub, Francis M.; Orlowski, Jessica L.; The College at Brockport (2013-05-08)
      As advocated by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, physical education demonstrates the same characteristics that define core academic subject areas (NASPE, 2010). This synthesis investigates a critical mass of research that aims to compare and contrast core academic subjects and non-core academic subjects, specifically physical education and their use of learner assessments. Results from the critical mass identified three main themes: (1) skill acquisition through the use of learner assessments, (2) student perceptions of learner assessments and (3) teacher perceptions of learner assessments and their effects on the stakeholders involved in the teaching-learning process. Skill acquisition through the use of learner assessments refers to a student’s ability to gain knowledge and develop abilities in a multitude of domains. Perceptions of learner assessments for both students and teachers refer to the way in which researchers recognize and interpret the use of learner assessment data as valuable in the teaching-learning process. This synthesis concludes that if students and teachers perceive learner assessment as important and valuable in the teaching-learning process, then assessment in general becomes more in line with the intent of designating which areas become core academic subjects. This includes content areas that generate important educational outcomes that are vital and meaningful for a child’s overall learning experience during school age years.
    • A Review of Literature on the Benefits of Sport Education on Secondary Physical Education

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Herrera, Hugo; The College at Brockport (2017-05-12)
      This synthesis will review the benefits of Sport Education on secondary physical education. More specifically, the literature review will review benefits in the topics of enjoyment, activity time and participation, skill increase, content knowledge and motivation. The literature review uses peer-reviewed and scholarly articles in order to examine the benefits in these areas. The literature review points to benefits in all these areas of physical education for secondary students and also provides results to be considered by current and future teachers. Results show that Sport Education can be especially beneficial for low-skilled and amotivated students. Sport Education can increase enjoyment, activity time and participation, skills, content knowledge and motivation. Sport Education provides teachers with a different way of delivering content to students which has the potential to benefit students in multiple areas of learning.
    • A Review of Literature on the College Experience of Students Employed in Campus Recreation Programs

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Sak, Domonique; The College at Brockport (2017-12-18)
      Student employment has become an educational fact with more students seeking work after every year. The purpose of this synthesis is to demonstrate the impact of college students who work in Campus Recreation in relation to their collegiate experience and level of job satisfaction. There has been plenty of research conducted on students in regards to the collegiate experience or job satisfaction, but not together. Selected by strict criteria, eleven accredited scholarly journal articles were examined that specifically investigated collegiate experience and job satisfaction. Other sources were used to incorporate background information. Furthermore, factors such as academic performance, leadership and professional development, beneficial socialization practices and sense of belonging, all have partial variables that can influence a student’s life on campus, as well as their experiences in the workplace. It is an obligation for student affairs-based departments such as Campus Recreation to foster camaraderie, develop a professional dynamic and include the work setting as a learning venue in order to nourish student maturation. Ultimately, it is up to the student to determine their own fate at their post-secondary academic institution and workplace.
    • A Review of the Campus Recreation Programming Factors Impacting the Recruitment and Retention of College Students

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Cvijetinovic, Nedeljko; The College at Brockport (2017-05-12)
      This synthesis will highlight the impact of campus recreation programming on the recruitment and retention of college students. In order to study this matter to the fullest extent there were ten peer-reviewed articles examined that studied the campus recreation programming factors impacting the recruitment and retention of college students. Several factors that affected the recruitment and retention of college students included: Fitness and Wellness Needs, Campus Recreation Programming, Place Bonding, and Student Involvement and Integration. The review of literature provides information, data, results, and conclusions that support the notion that the best way to recruit and retain a college student is through campus recreation programming because of benefits that are attained through participation. Higher education administrators need to understand the value of campus recreation programming and the influence that it has on a student’s experience while bringing value to an institutions bottom line.
    • A Review the Literature on Problems and Challenges Encountered by Educators During the IEP Process

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Santiago- Lugo, Schecyl M.; The College at Brockport (2018-05-15)
      The Individualized with Disabilities Educational Act (IDEA) ensures that every child diagnosed with an eligible disability ages 3-21 is provided a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment. One of the provisions of IDEA is that students who qualify for special education services receive an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). IDEA requires specific guidelines to be met by schools, however, research indicates IEP’s established by educators have missing components and quality IEP’s are lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on problems and challenges encountered by educators during the IEP process.
    • Abusive Behavior in Sport: When Does a Coach Cross the Line?

      Petersen, Susan C.; Gupilan, Margeaux; The College at Brockport (2017-12-18)
      Abstract The purpose of this synthesis is to review current research about how to identify, prevent and respond to an abusive coach. A total of 12 articles were used for this literature review. Literature suggests that coaches hold a significant position of power over their athletes (Misia, Rhind, & Luzar, 2016). There is reason to believe that coaches who have a certain type of coaching style have a higher chance of being emotionally, mentally, verbally, and physically abusive towards their athletes. This synthesis aims to identify what constitutes tough coaching vs. abusive coaching. From the literature review, a few major themes were noticed. These themes helped answer the research questions that were drawn up and provided the basis for the conclusions. Based on the literature the three conclusions were (1) the behaviors that reflect coaching abuse are accepted in sports when the intent of the coach is for the development and growth for the athlete; (2) teachers are trained and coaches are not always trained indicating a need for more formal training of coaches; and (3) high level athletes respond to different coaching styles that may include behaviors linked to coaching abuse and may, in fact prefer the behaviors. Techniques used within sports are purposefully used in order to teach and produce winning teams. Depending on the intent of coaches, these techniques are a part of the culture of sports. The intent to develop and push an athlete will come at a cost. Depending on the level of competition, some coaches and athletes will endure whatever it takes to win.
    • Administrative Evaluation Practices and the effects they have on College Head Coaches

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Pontari, Nicholas; The College at Brockport (2018-05-14)
      College Head Coaches are being replaced at an alarming rate over the past two decades. Turnover rates of 20% in certain sports are raising eyebrows on why college coaches are being fired or stepping down and changing positions. Studies show that there are many different components that go into selecting a head coach for a new hire. Also, studies talk about the different types of evaluations, depending on level of competition, and criteria used to evaluate those Head Coaches once they are in a program so it is clear to them how to keep from being fired or replaced.
    • Adventure Based Education as a Potential Intervention for Disruptive School Behavior

      Kozub, Francis M.; Jurek, Renae Y.; The College at Brockport (2013-05-08)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the existing body of knowledge on adventure education and its potential as an intervention for disruptive student behavior such as off task behavior, insubordination, and bullying. Previous research has identified low self-concept and low levels of social intelligence as predictors of disruptive behavior. Adventure education was examined for its ability to address these predictors. Common themes which emerged throughout the critical mass of adventure education research were positive effects on self-concept, social intelligence, relationships, resilience, and overall student behavior. The majority of the current body of knowledge examines adventure education programs in outdoor settings rather than the context of public school physical education classes. While previous research indicates that adventure education is an effective treatment for low levels of self-concept and social intelligence further research is needed to address the impact of this intervention on learners who display challenging behavior. Specifically, future research should examine the critical characteristics that must be included in an adventure education physical education curriculum to make it an effective intervention.
    • Alternative Teaching Approaches to Promote Student Motivation in Physical Education at the Secondary Level

      Brace, Brittany; The College at Brockport (2017-08-17)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the existing body of literature on alternative teaching approaches in physical education and their relationship to student motivation at the high school level. The self-determination theory was used throughout the critical mass of articles as a guide to measure student motivation levels. Themes were organized by varying teaching approaches used within each study. Prevalent research focused on the sport education model (SEM) as a major alternative teaching model that was useful when measuring student motivation. To provide concrete findings, more research needs to be conducted in regards to other alternative teaching styles in connection to student motivation in physical education. Specifically, future research should examine alternative teaching approaches that are “less-direct” to see if there is a correlation between student involvement and student motivation to participate. Keywords: [increased student motivation, autonomy, amotivation, student participation, teaching styles or methods, pedagogy or teaching or learning, self-determination theory, sport education model, teaching games for understanding, and constraints-led approach]
    • An Analysis of Factors Contributing to Anxiety in Athletic Performance

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Vanderhoof, James; The College at Brockport (2017-12-18)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to first investigate factors associated with cognitive and somatic anxiety among athletes. Secondly, this synthesis aimed to investigate the relationship between cognitive and somatic anxiety and athletic performance. An exhaustive review of the literature yielded ten studies that were relevant to this review. Six studies examined self-confidence in relationship to anxiety; two studies examined anxiety in relationship to age and experience; two studies examined anxiety in relationship to incentives; one study examined the effects of coaching style on anxiety; and one study examined anxiety in the presence of an audience. The relationships between self-confidence and performance show a positive linear trend and the relationship between somatic anxiety and performance show a curvilinear trend. Further research is needed in order to determine if anxiety can be a positive thing for some athletes. Additional research is also needed to exam continuing changes in athlete anxiety and how they can control this anxiety to improve their performance.
    • An Analysis of Factors Related to Time-Dependent vs. Acquired Aging in Males

      Kozub, Francis M.; Potenza, Michael J.; The College at Brockport (2014-05-12)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to determine which factors impact, slow down, or even halt certain aspects of the natural aging process in males. Initial review of the topic included an examination of the aging theories found in the literature. The subsequent focus of this synthesis was on a critical mass of data based literature relating to the signs and symptoms of the aging processes. Next, the critical mass was synthesized to determine the most prominent findings in the published research regarding the slowing of the aging process in both the physical and cognitive domains. This included studies about the effects of physical activity, nutrition, supplementation, and cosmetic care to examine the potential impact these variables have on males as they grow older. Data for this synthesis came from studies examined in both published literature and thesis collections. The results from the critical mass of literature demonstrated that evidence exists supporting the notion that people can slow the aging process with proper physical activity, nutrition, supplementation, and cosmetic care. Disease and disability were once considered an inevitable part of growing older, but that is no longer true. While aging does put us at greater risk for health issues, many older adults can be healthy and active well into their advancing years. Currently, the average active life expectancy for the ADL is 68.4 years for males in the United States. It was determined that with an evolving regimen of proper exercise, nutrition, supplementation, and cosmetic care an individual can successfully delay the acquired effects of aging.
    • An Examination of Collegiate Student Athletes Maintaining Positive Mental Health

      Raimondo, Daniel; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Merrill, Emily (2020-12-01)
      Abstract Student athletes who perform at any collegiate level are required to balance the roles of being both a scholar and an athlete. The stress of a college student is magnified as student athletes must plan their schedule down to the minute of each day in order to keep up with the duties in each role. Many students at the college level, athletes or not, are hesitant to seek help because of the negative perception surrounding mental health. The stigma that receiving help makes a person look weak, or identifying that they might have an issue, scares many people. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on effective strategies for maintaining positive mental health for student athletes.
    • An Examination of the Role of Physical Education as a Determinant to Continued and Lifelong Physical Activity in Females

      Kozub, Francis M.; Asquith, Erin; The College at Brockport (2014-05-06)
      This synthesis examined a critical mass of research to identify significant determinants of continued physical activity in females across the lifespan. More specifically, a central aim of this project was to examine physical education programming as a one of these determinants and examine the potential avenues for educators to instill lifelong involvement for female participants. Literature was used to create themes such as youth participation, physical activity across the life span, gender differences, ethnic and economic determinants of lifetime participation, attitudes and perceptions of physical education and physical activity, physical activity preferences, and physical education as an indicator / promoter of lifelong physical activity. Based on a synthesis of the literature, the following list of recommendations as well as a “Yearly Student Influenced Curricular Plan of Action” was developed in order to increase the likelihood of continued involvement outside and after the influence of physical education programs: (1) programs should increase focus on achievement in the “affective domain” (50% or greater), (2) provide students with a student-selected, choice curriculum based on more non-traditional activities, (3) ensure that each activity has a focus that female students especially find meaningful and enjoyable and can access outside of the classroom, individually, and at least potentially across the lifespan, (4) ensure a safe and success oriented environment sensitive to females and accepting of a variety of attitudes, perceptions and backgrounds, and (5) provide a genuine reflection process at the end of each class session or unit to assess whether or not student attitudes and perception toward course activities are remaining positive and influential.
    • Approaches to Overcoming Barriers to Physical Activity in Urban Areas

      Dimyan, Chelsea D.; The College at Brockport (2016-12-08)
      Students in urban areas face many unique challenges when it comes to achieving at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily. Students in urban areas face many unique obstacles that prevent them from meeting this guideline. In this literature review, the barriers to physical activity are identified and broken down into four sub-categories, which are safety concerns, personnel factors, environmental factors and programmatic concerns to help synthesis the approaches to overcome these barriers. Approaches to overcome these barriers include, providing education to professional staff, provide supervision in appropriate areas where physical activity is in session, and partner with local sports clubs so that students can get the adequate amount of physical activity required.
    • Barriers to Physical Activity in Adolescents

      Perreault, Melanie; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Vojtisek, Nicole (2019-12-15)
      Abstract Physical activity is an important component to living a healthy lifestyle; however, adolescents’ physical activity levels are often very low. Thus, the purpose of this synthesis was to examine barriers adolescents face when it comes to being physically active and find out how they can be prevented or overcome. The critical mass revealed several internal and external barriers that adolescents face. These include lack of motivation/interest, lack of resources, and increased screen time. Since the research is examining adolescents, parents also played a large role in the studies. In order to address some of the barriers, strategies focused on increasing motivation, providing adequate social support, and redirecting screen time should be implemented. Future research should look further into trying to prevent barriers, especially internal ones that adolescents have more control over. If barriers are prevented, then adolescents will hopefully be more physically active and live a healthy lifestyle. Keywords: Barriers, adolescents, physical activity
    • Behavioral problems and solutions for children with intellectual disabilities in physical activity settings - A review of the literature

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Owens, Robyn (2019-08-21)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to review common behavior issues in children with intellectual disability, explore barriers and facilitators of participation in physical activity, and to find intervention strategies so children can participate successfully in physical activity. Of eighteen articles that were reviewed, thirteen articles were used to answer the research questions: one) what are the physical activity levels and motor skills of children with intellectual disabilities? two) what are the most common behavioral issues in children with intellectual disabilities? three) what are the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for children with intellectual disabilities? and four) what are the most effective strategies for managing behavioral issues in physical activity settings for children with intellectual disabilities? Results indicated that children with intellectual disabilities have significantly lower physical activity levels, and face many barriers that can prevent them from participating in physical activity. The barriers for students with intellectual disabilities to physical activities are lack of supervision, sedentary activities, social impairments, physical impairments, and a scarcity of community programs or resources. The strategies that help children with intellectual disabilities participate in physical activity are behavior interventions, family involvement and encouragement, choice of activities, participation in early intervention programs, playground interventions, after school programs.
    • Benefits of Physical Activity for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

      Perreault, Melanie; Reed, Joshua (2020-08-07)
      Abstract The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the existing body of literature on benefits of physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities. Research has indicated many benefits that could be gained through physical activity and three main themes emerged which were physical, social and emotional health. With the help of caretakers and legal guardians who aid in day to day living for adults with ID, the overall quality of life could be increased through engagement in physical activity. Areas such as daily living, overall negative health prevention and overall well-being were seen as the most prevalent factors that could be improved through the use of physical activity. Future research should be focused on three main points which are quantitative physical test scores, perceptions of caretakers and legal guardians in aiding with the physical activity process and the benefits of long-term engagement in physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities.

      Perreault, Melanie; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; McConnell, Allison (2020-08-15)
      The purpose of this synthesis is to examine the benefits of physical activity, as opposed to prescription medication, on mental health, specifically the diagnosis of depression and anxiety. Within this synthesis there is research done showing data of overprescribing and a lack of healthy treatment options from this generation’s medical professionals. The studies reviewed within the critical mass highlight many factors bringing positive data to using physical activity as a treatment for depression and anxiety in many different types of ways. Studies were reviewed through the length of intervention, type of intervention, based on participant’s symptoms and medication levels. The participants were looked at through the course of using physical activity through their knowledge/interest of activity, ideas for activity, guidance for activity etc. in the hopes that physical activity will become a lifelong treatment option for their diagnosis as opposed to prescription medication. It is the hope that future research continues to gather data to support this topic and spread awareness of it for a healthier future for both the mind and the body. Keywords: [physical activity, mental health, depression/anxiety, medication, overprescribing, symptoms, positive]
    • Character Development in Youth Athletes

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Stenzel, Nicholas S.; The College at Brockport (2019-05-14)
      The purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on factors that influence character development of youth sport athletes. An extensive review of literature was conducted in order to analysis and character development and the leading factors to its development among youth athletes. There are many positives that come along with youth sport participation, and participating in sports has been known to help in the development of character and life skills. This synthesis will review the literature on participation of youth athletes in sports and the role coaches, parents and teachers play in the impact of character development.
    • Coaching Behaviors and their Impact on Burnout of High School Athletes

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Monell, Zachary (2018-12-17)
      Through sport activity, coaches can impact, effect, and influence their athletes in many ways. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on coaching behaviors and their impact on burnout of high school athletes. There is an association between controlling coaching behaviors and athletes’ negative experiences in their respective sports. Negative experiences, such as emotional abuse, is a key issue that was brought up in youth sport that can have long term effects on athletes. Coaches may not know the impact that they have on athletes. Coaches may think that they are motivating the athletes, but in fact they may be discouraging the athletes by a lack of communication on their performance. Research has indicated that athletes themselves serves as the dependent variable in terms of the effect controlling coaches have on athlete burnout. The key categories found in this synthesis are coaching behaviors, controlling coaching behaviors, and athlete mental toughness and burnout.