• Periodization Programs and their Effects on the Physiological Outcomes of Collegiate Athletes

      Irish, Raymond; The College at Brockport (10/1/2017)
      Many different strength and conditioning professionals are attempting to find more efficient ways to train their athletes to improve strength, power, body mass and body composition. There are many different types of training models that are used within the realm of strength and conditioning. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on periodization programs and their effects of physiological outcomes on collegiate athletes. Research has shown that both Linear and Nonlinear periodization models improved physiological outcomes of the subjects presented. With that being said, there was no sufficient evidence to which model is more efficient. Further education and studies need to be conducted for future research
    • Effects of Athletics on Character and Moral Development of Collegiate Athletes

      Clarke, Jenna (10/1/2018)
      Character and moral development within intercollegiate athletics has been a topic of interest for some time, more specifically within the last five years. Leadership plays an important role in the development of character and morality. Specifically discussed, topics such as moral development education, influences who play a role in moral development of student athletes and positive and negative effects of moral development on athletes Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on the effects of athletics on character and moral development of collegiate athletes. Research has shown that there are positive and negative effects on moral development within college athletes. Further research on this topic can give athletes a better idea on what is best for them overall.
    • The Barriers to Physical Activity for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Strategies for Overcoming these Barriers

      Varin, Bridgette (10/1/2019)
      The purpose of this synthesis is to examine the barriers to physical activity (PA) for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Individuals with ASD face more barriers to PA than their typically developing peers, and therefore, tend to lead less active lifestyles (Must et al., 2015). This can lead to limited motor coordination, health-related issues, and hypokinetic diseases for individuals with ASD (Case & Yun, 2015). The research studies synthesized through this project were analyzed in hopes of uncovering commonly cited barriers to PA for individuals with ASD and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Understanding the unique barriers this population faces and understanding the strategies to overcome these barriers can help physical educators, parents and community instructors increase PA levels in individuals with ASD.
    • The Impact of Extrinsic Motivation on Athletic Performance

      Petranchuk, Timothy (10/1/2019)
      Youth participation in sports include recreational, organized, informal programs as well as Olympic hopefuls. These young athletes can have positive or negative experiences from their participation in sports. Perhaps an important aspect of what makes those experiences either positive or negative is how they are motivated to participate in these activities. Motivation in these young athletes can come in various ways. One main theme found in the literature that has a direct influence on their experiences is extrinsic motivation. It is important to understand how these athletes' performances are affected by outside influences, such as parents, coaches and peers. This synthesis of the research of literature examines how extrinsic motivation impacts athletic performance
    • The Relationship between Resiliency and the Athlete

      Hopple, Christine J.; Joseph, Ronnie M. (10/1/2020)
      The level of resilience in athletes can impact performance, self-concept, and overall mental health. This synthesis investigates the many factors which contribute, both positively and negatively, to an athlete’s level of resilience. The research was conducted using the EBSCOHOST search engine in the SUNY-Brockport Drake Memorial Library’s online resources. Three databases (SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete, and Physical Education Index) were mined using several different combinations of keywords. Data was collected from a selected critical mass of 10 studies. Each study was conducted in the previous 10 years, peer-reviewed, and data-based. The studies were used to answer the following five research questions: 1. What are factors that impact resiliency in athletes?, 2. What impact do coaches have on an athlete’s resiliency?, 3. Do psychological skills training programs have an impact on the resiliency of athletes?, 4. What role does resiliency play in helping athletes respond to loss in a positive way?, and 5. How can athletes be helped to become more resilient? Results indicate that many internal and external factors affect the level of resiliency in athletes. Mental toughness and positive self-concept, specifically, are positively correlated with high levels of resiliency. Task-oriented coping strategies and mastery-oriented motivational climates have a positive effect on self-concept and on resiliency in athletes. Results can be used to help coaches understand the importance of creating mastery-oriented climates. Furthermore, future studies can investigate the effectiveness of psychological skills training programs and the effects they have on resiliency and on overall mental health. Keywords: Resiliency, Athletics, Coping, Losing, Psychology, Sports
    • The Barriers and Facilitators of After-School Physical Activity Participation for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

      Seaver, Nicole; The College at Brockport (11/29/2016)
      Children with disabilities are more likely to be sedentary in comparison to their typically developing peers. This especially occurs with children who are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) as many of these individuals show impairments in motor and physical functioning. Research has shown that children with ASD have been found to be less physically active in an after-school setting in comparison to their peers of typical development. There are several categories of barriers and facilitators impacting the after-school physical activity levels of children with ASD. Previous research separates these barriers and facilitators into four categories including: interpersonal, intrapersonal, physical, and community/institutional. To date, several research studies have assessed the barriers and facilitators children with ASD encounter when participating in after-school physical activity, but there has been no attempt by researchers to prioritize their importance. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to synthesize relevant literature to prioritize the importance of the known barriers and facilitators of after-school physical activity participation for children with ASD. Coded data from 10 research articles were used to list all the known barriers and/or facilitators and both were prioritized by counting the number of times they were cited in the original literature. The most frequently cited categories of barriers in the literature were intrapersonal, followed by interpersonal, physical, and community/ institutional. The most frequently cited categories of facilitators were interpersonal, followed by physical, intrapersonal, and community/institutional.
    • The Effects of Physical Activity on Inappropriate Behaviors of School-Aged Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Sherman, Rachel (12/1/2019)
      Abstract The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the effects of physical activity on inappropriate behaviors of school-aged students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Inappropriate behaviors can include: hitting, biting, screaming, kicking and swearing. In particular the following research questions were examined: What types of inappropriate behaviors are exhibited by students with Autism Spectrum Disorder during physical activity? Does physical activity help to eliminate or reduce inappropriate behaviors of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder during physical activity? Which forms of physical activity have demonstrated the most effective ways to eliminate or reduce inappropriate behaviors of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder? Results indicated that school-aged students with Autism Spectrum Disorder have less stereotypical behaviors when they are in instructional based physical activity settings that are tailored to their specific needs.
    • The Effects of Peer Tutoring on School-Aged Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities in Physical Education

      Hume, Abbey (12/1/2019)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the existing scholarly knowledge regarding impact of peer tutoring programs on students with disabilities and typically developing students in physical education. Previous research identified several factors that contributed to the benefits and barriers of peer tutoring programs in physical education. Studies reviewed within the critical mass had common themes such as increase in socialization among students, engagement in activities, and improvement of skills. Common barriers that were discovered included, time consuming program, non-trained peer tutors, and peer tutors not participating in activities. Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that is thought to be difficult to implement, however the benefits outweigh the barriers. Although, previous research notes peer tutoring program being effective and impactful on both students with and without disabilities in physical education, further research is necessary. Further research should study the effects of removing paraeducator proximity while implementing peer tutoring programs.
    • Effective Strategies for Reducing Sedentary Lifestyles of Adolescent Youth

      Raimondo, Daniel; fendryk, jesse (12/1/2020)
      As society continues to evolve and adopt new ways of performing tasks, so have the people. In years past, children played outside with friends, entertained themselves, and walked to get where they were going. Children were physically active through play. Now more than ever, children are becoming complacent. They would prefer to play inside on a game console or computer rather than hang out with friends and play outside. It has been found that childhood obesity has a direct correlation with the overuse of electronic devices and children who live sedentary lifestyles (Granich et al., 2011). Barriers, such as a lack of parental involvement and unsupervised leisure time, have allowed adolescents the freedom to spend their time overly engaged in screen time activities and less involved in daily recommended physical activity (PA) (Abarca-Sos et al., 2016). The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on effective strategies for reducing sedentary lifestyles in adolescent youth.
    • The Effects of Professional Athletes as Role Models on High School Students

      Hopple, Christine J.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Raimondo, Daniel; Piccolo, George (12/1/2020)
      Professional athletes have been around for decades with major mainstream attention. With all of that attention, comes many young eyes who look up to professional athletes as role models. Athletes are not the only role models that the youth look up to, but they are an important one that many do look to up to. Professional athletes are humans who also make mistakes and do not always agree with their position as a role model. This leads to positive and negative athletic role models. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the effects of professional athletes as role models for high school students.
    • The relationship between the use of heart rate monitors and MVPA levels of secondary school students (Grades 7-12)

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; McCabe, Trevor (12/1/2020)
      Abstract As people progress throughout their childhood, team sports and lifetime activities are hobbies that most adolescents choose to participate in during their secondary schooling years (grades 7-12). Lifetime activities are being taught to students in hopes that they will be able to live more active lifestyles on their own as they progress throughout life. Team sports are taught and participated through physical education lessons or organized sports. Physical activity levels are crucial for adolescents to understand in order to reach MVPA (moderate to vigorous physical activity). There are many tools that can assist with measuring these physical activity levels, however, an accessible and reliable tool would be: heart rate monitors. These heart rate monitors provide students with the information to understand multiple forms of heart rate zones and how they are connected to their physical activity levels. Most students in secondary schools begin to decline in terms of physical activity. Sports become extremely competitive as people get older and sedentary lifestyles start to become more frequent. The review of literature will examine the connection between heart rate monitors and MVPA levels in secondary school students (grades 7-12). Keywords: Heart Rate Monitors, MVPA Levels (Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity), Lifetime Activities, and Heart Rate Zones.
    • The Economic Impact of Professional Sports in the United States

      Raimondo, Daniel; Quackenbush, Ryan (12/1/2020)
      Abstract Since 1990, stadium construction for professional sport franchises has boomed significantly (Harger et al., 2016). Often times these stadiums are publicly subsidized by tax payers to lure franchises to either stay in the city they are present in, or replace the organization in a new city. Public officials often promise economic benefits to come with the presence of a new stadium or professional franchise when subsidies are campaigned for (Feng & Humphreys, 2018). Literature on this topic of economic impacts, relating to professional sport franchises and sports facilities, show mixed evaluations (Jasina & Rotthoff, 2016). The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the economic impact of American professional sports franchises.
    • An Examination of Collegiate Student Athletes Maintaining Positive Mental Health

      Raimondo, Daniel; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Merrill, Emily (12/1/2020)
      Abstract Student athletes who perform at any collegiate level are required to balance the roles of being both a scholar and an athlete. The stress of a college student is magnified as student athletes must plan their schedule down to the minute of each day in order to keep up with the duties in each role. Many students at the college level, athletes or not, are hesitant to seek help because of the negative perception surrounding mental health. The stigma that receiving help makes a person look weak, or identifying that they might have an issue, scares many people. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on effective strategies for maintaining positive mental health for student athletes.
    • The Effects of Caffeine on Performance of Trained Cycling Athletes

      Raimondo, Daniel; Boester, Bradley (12/1/2020)
      With many methods being used in cycling to gain an edge on the competition, researchers wanted to find the effects of caffeine on performance of trained cycling athletes. While most researchers realize that caffeine has an impact, further determining what ergogenic effects caffeine has, the process of caffeine methods, and comparing methods to other options lead to various studies on purpose of this study. Fifteen articles were found to be delimited enough to gain access to a vast amount of knowledge on types of caffeine cycling studies. Results showed that caffeine had a significant positive impact on time and power output performance. Throughout this, caffeine supplements were concluded as the most consistent option, especially when taken an hour before the trial. Still, other methods like caffeinated gum, and a study that focused on caffeine withdrawal were also important foci for furthering caffeine’s impact and future research.
    • Physical Activity Patterns of Students from Low-Socioeconomic Status

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Johnson, Elizabeth (12/11/2019)
      Research indicates that in today’s society, there is less and less physical activity happening amongst young children from low-socioeconomic households. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on physical activity patterns and behaviors of children from low socioeconomic families. Teachers, families, and communities can have an impact on the lives of these children. Results indicate that there are ways we can increase physical activity and positive behaviors amongst low-socioeconomic youth.
    • Positive Relationship Physical Activity Has on Cognitive Function in High School Students

      zaccarella, nicholas (12/11/2019)
      Research shows a link between physical activity and cognitive function. This connection sheds light on the idea that physical activity can improve cognitive function. Penning et al., (2017) mentions that adolescents have high levels of sedentary behavior which makes them vulnerable for health concerns. During the school day students spend most of their time sitting and staying at a resting heart rate. Vazou, Pesce, Lakes, and Smiley-Owen (2019) found consistent evidence that aerobic or motor skill physical activity, enhanced children’s spatial abilities and working memory. Many hours were spent searching through data bases to find articles on this topic. The most common finding was that cognitive function improves, depending on the specific type of physical activity performed. Specific keyword searchers were performed to find the correct articles. Information was then sorted by keyword search and the types of physical activity performed. Data and articles were put into tables. In conclusion, there is viable information to prove physical activity can improve cognitive function.
    • Evidence-Based Best Practices in Physical Activity for Children with Serious Disabilities A Synthesis of the Research Literature

      Petersen, Susan C.; Miranda-Mercado, Roselym M.; The College at Brockport (12/12/2017)
      Serious disabilities are diagnosed in approximately 1 in 100 of children who have serious disabilities (Jasma, 1988). The development of the psychomotor domain in children with serious disabilities is typically below the development of their peers without special needs (Jasma, 1988). Generally, children with serious disabilities tend to be sedentary or lack opportunities to participate in physical activity compared with their peers without disabilities (Jasma, 1988). Traditional assessments such as TGMD-3 (Test of Gross Motor Development) or Brockport Physical Fitness Test, are not designed or do not have accommodations for children with serious disabilities (Grenier, & Miller, 2018). The purpose of this synthesis is to identify, based on research the best practices and programing recommendations in physical education for children with serious disabilities. In addition, facilitators and barriers to this process will be explored. The intent of this synthesis is to determine how to best increase physical activity performance in students with serious disabilities. The results of this synthesis indicated Aquatic environment is the most appropriate environment for physical activity for individuals with serious disabilities. Literature reveals that the main barriers are people’s perceptions of disability and level of support needed. Adequate professional preparation when working with and modifying activities for children with serious disabilities is extremely important for teachers and paraprofessionals.
    • Effects of Sport Specialization on Youth and Interscholastic Athletes

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Innes, Joseph; The College at Brockport (12/12/2017)
      Athletes are beginning to specialize in one specific sport more recently than ever before. There are two types of athletes, a single sport athlete, and a multi-sport athlete. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on sport specialization. More specifically the various effects specializing versus participating in multiple sports has on an athlete, both physically and mentally. Research has shown that there are positive and negative effects to both sport specialization and diversification. Further research on this topic can give athletes a better idea on what is best for them overall.
    • Strategies for Encouraging Positive Social Engagements in Physical Education for Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

      Paasch, Ashley; The College at Brockport (12/12/2018)
      This synthesis reviews the literature on strategies for encouraging positive social engagement in physical education for children with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s syndrome. The types of interventions looked at in this synthesis included the use of task analysis, social stories, video modeling and other interventions that have been used to help with the development of the social skills necessary to be successful in their environment. The results showed that these interventions have a positive effect on increasing positive social engagement among children with high-functioning Autism and Asperger’s syndrome. It is concluded that the interventions examined implemented in a physical education setting to help increase positive social engagement.
    • Key Factors to Consider in Sport Specialization for Youth: A Review of the Literature

      Craig, Corey; The College at Brockport (12/12/2018)
      Youth sport provides a valuable environment in which children can develop their motor and psychosocial skills, learn how to be “coached”, and become part of a team (Goodway & Robinson, 2015). This topic is important because decisions to specialize too young can impact the lives of young athletes in terms of their physiological and psychological health. The purpose of this synthesis was to explore the factors that go into the decision to specialize in one sport when children are young. Ten articles were reviewed and synthesized to answer five research questions. Results indicate that so-called “specializers” may be at a greater risk for physical, psychological, and developmental issues including burnout, overuse injuries, and social isolation. Specialization also may limit long-term motor skill development and inhibit identity and psychological development. Finally, sport dropout is also a major concern with early specialization. Millions of youth in the United States participate in organized sports, yet given their popularity, additional concerns exist relating to high injury rates, lack of coach training, high attrition rates, and an overemphasis on early specialization. Despite low odds that early specialization may lead to athletic scholarships or a professional career, many parents, coaches, teammates, and peers continue to pressure youth to specialize (Russell & Symonds, 2015). By examining research articles it was evident that specialization can have a huge impact on youth athletes when it comes to the development of their physical, social, and motor skills necessary to achieve success on a daily basis. Due to the overall complexity of this topic, future directions for research have also been provided to fill in the gaps.