• Integration in Interscholastic Sport: What is still missing 23 years after ADA?

      Kozub, Francis M.; Brown, Ruth E.; The College at Brockport (2013-04-01)
      On January 25, 2013, the United States Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) published a guidance document clarifying that extracurricular activities are a component of the public education program under Section 504. In the years to come, creating opportunities for integrated participation in interscholastic sports will be essential. Research in Physical Education has shown positive attitudes from students with disabilities in regards to integrated settings and hesitancy from Physical Educators and coaches. There are questions as to whether or not the feelings about integration in an education setting and integration in a sports setting will parallel one another. Training for adults facilitating integration will be essential as the window for integration widens in interscholastic sports. A recommendation is to provide these adults with information in a minimum of three key areas: the legal obligations and compliance with the law; appropriate integration practices; and education about different types of disabilities.
    • A Comparison of Learner Assessment Use Between Physical Education and Core Academic Subjects

      Kozub, Francis M.; Orlowski, Jessica L.; The College at Brockport (2013-05-08)
      As advocated by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, physical education demonstrates the same characteristics that define core academic subject areas (NASPE, 2010). This synthesis investigates a critical mass of research that aims to compare and contrast core academic subjects and non-core academic subjects, specifically physical education and their use of learner assessments. Results from the critical mass identified three main themes: (1) skill acquisition through the use of learner assessments, (2) student perceptions of learner assessments and (3) teacher perceptions of learner assessments and their effects on the stakeholders involved in the teaching-learning process. Skill acquisition through the use of learner assessments refers to a student’s ability to gain knowledge and develop abilities in a multitude of domains. Perceptions of learner assessments for both students and teachers refer to the way in which researchers recognize and interpret the use of learner assessment data as valuable in the teaching-learning process. This synthesis concludes that if students and teachers perceive learner assessment as important and valuable in the teaching-learning process, then assessment in general becomes more in line with the intent of designating which areas become core academic subjects. This includes content areas that generate important educational outcomes that are vital and meaningful for a child’s overall learning experience during school age years.
    • Cultural Competence in Physical Education and Core Academic Subjects: Are There Differences?

      Kozub, Francis M.; Peruzzini, Danielle; The College at Brockport (2013-05-08)
      This synthesis studied a critical mass of literature to determine cultural competence as it pertains to physical educators training and preparation for teachers in core academic subject areas. The studies focused more on experience and teacher training in physical education as well as core academics. Contact theory was used to help identify how teacher educators should utilize more hands on experiences to better train a more culturally competent teacher, who in turn will facilitate success in future students. Results of this synthesis show that the teacher training programs need to be changed in order to create a more culturally competent teacher. Results supported the notion that many teachers are being trained in programs that are not sensitive to creating a culturally competent skill set in today’s educators. This is at odds with trends in the United States that have traditionally led to increased diversity in the population. Teachers sensitive to constant changing demographics need to be culturally competent and this starts with teacher training programs.
    • Adventure Based Education as a Potential Intervention for Disruptive School Behavior

      Kozub, Francis M.; Jurek, Renae Y.; The College at Brockport (2013-05-08)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the existing body of knowledge on adventure education and its potential as an intervention for disruptive student behavior such as off task behavior, insubordination, and bullying. Previous research has identified low self-concept and low levels of social intelligence as predictors of disruptive behavior. Adventure education was examined for its ability to address these predictors. Common themes which emerged throughout the critical mass of adventure education research were positive effects on self-concept, social intelligence, relationships, resilience, and overall student behavior. The majority of the current body of knowledge examines adventure education programs in outdoor settings rather than the context of public school physical education classes. While previous research indicates that adventure education is an effective treatment for low levels of self-concept and social intelligence further research is needed to address the impact of this intervention on learners who display challenging behavior. Specifically, future research should examine the critical characteristics that must be included in an adventure education physical education curriculum to make it an effective intervention.
    • Does Gender Impact on the Learning Style of Student Athletes?

      Kozub, Francis M.; Marchese, Kristina; The College at Brockport (2013-05-08)
      Throughout life everyone learns, but everyone does not learn the same. This is why learning styles have been a focal point of much research examining learning in various contexts. This synthesis examined a critical mass of research to determine if gender was a factor in the learning style preference of student athletes. Along with learning style preferences, this project focused on how to use existing research and identifying strategies to assist coaches working with female athletes. Results indicated that nonathletic males prefer to learn by words (read/write, abstract conception, and reflective learner) while females outside of athletics have been identified as preferring the learning styles of pictures (visual and reflective observation) and words. Collectively, males and females prefer pictures over the other learning styles. This synthesis examined a critical mass of research and found that the learning styles using pictures and words are most preferred over hearing/speaking and experience regardless of gender or athletic status. Additional research is needed to identify the learning style of student athletes and particularly female athletes.
    • The Impact of Student Choice on Learner Engagement in Physical Education

      Kozub, Francis M.; Bray, Michael; The College at Brockport (2013-05-08)
      Physical activity levels decline with age and this begins in children as young as sixth grade and continues into adulthood. Research has demonstrated that children ages 12-21 do not regularly participate in vigorous physical activity and that there is a 50-75 percent decrease in physical activity levels from kindergarten to 12th grade (Bryon & Solmon, 2012). Inactivity is attributed to a decrease in motivation due to various factors, including boredom of repeated activities, coeducational classes, and a lack of perceived competence. This synthesis comprised of 14 studies that examined how curriculums that offer choices can have an impact on self-determination and student engagement. Choice in general has been found to increase self-determination in persons of all ages (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and the findings from the critical mass also supports more self-determined learners in physical education when choices are offered. It was also found that students have a desire to choose activities that they enjoy and increase self-competence. Students in general want to receive several opportunities to participate and feel physically challenged. Students lose interest in large-sided games because team sizes are too large. Gender appears to be a factor that influences findings and it appears that males may differ from females in relation to activity preferences. Gender differences are something that physical educators should consider when developing or revising their curriculum. Factors related to choice were examined and then recommendations were provided for implementing choice into a physical education curriculum.
    • An Examination of the Role of Physical Education as a Determinant to Continued and Lifelong Physical Activity in Females

      Kozub, Francis M.; Asquith, Erin; The College at Brockport (2014-05-06)
      This synthesis examined a critical mass of research to identify significant determinants of continued physical activity in females across the lifespan. More specifically, a central aim of this project was to examine physical education programming as a one of these determinants and examine the potential avenues for educators to instill lifelong involvement for female participants. Literature was used to create themes such as youth participation, physical activity across the life span, gender differences, ethnic and economic determinants of lifetime participation, attitudes and perceptions of physical education and physical activity, physical activity preferences, and physical education as an indicator / promoter of lifelong physical activity. Based on a synthesis of the literature, the following list of recommendations as well as a “Yearly Student Influenced Curricular Plan of Action” was developed in order to increase the likelihood of continued involvement outside and after the influence of physical education programs: (1) programs should increase focus on achievement in the “affective domain” (50% or greater), (2) provide students with a student-selected, choice curriculum based on more non-traditional activities, (3) ensure that each activity has a focus that female students especially find meaningful and enjoyable and can access outside of the classroom, individually, and at least potentially across the lifespan, (4) ensure a safe and success oriented environment sensitive to females and accepting of a variety of attitudes, perceptions and backgrounds, and (5) provide a genuine reflection process at the end of each class session or unit to assess whether or not student attitudes and perception toward course activities are remaining positive and influential.
    • An Analysis of Factors Related to Time-Dependent vs. Acquired Aging in Males

      Kozub, Francis M.; Potenza, Michael J.; The College at Brockport (2014-05-12)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to determine which factors impact, slow down, or even halt certain aspects of the natural aging process in males. Initial review of the topic included an examination of the aging theories found in the literature. The subsequent focus of this synthesis was on a critical mass of data based literature relating to the signs and symptoms of the aging processes. Next, the critical mass was synthesized to determine the most prominent findings in the published research regarding the slowing of the aging process in both the physical and cognitive domains. This included studies about the effects of physical activity, nutrition, supplementation, and cosmetic care to examine the potential impact these variables have on males as they grow older. Data for this synthesis came from studies examined in both published literature and thesis collections. The results from the critical mass of literature demonstrated that evidence exists supporting the notion that people can slow the aging process with proper physical activity, nutrition, supplementation, and cosmetic care. Disease and disability were once considered an inevitable part of growing older, but that is no longer true. While aging does put us at greater risk for health issues, many older adults can be healthy and active well into their advancing years. Currently, the average active life expectancy for the ADL is 68.4 years for males in the United States. It was determined that with an evolving regimen of proper exercise, nutrition, supplementation, and cosmetic care an individual can successfully delay the acquired effects of aging.
    • Equity in the Impact of Title IX on Officiating in the United States

      Kozub, Francis M.; Verbridge, Steven; The College at Brockport (2014-05-12)
      Gender equity in the United States has received considerable attention since the passage of Title IX in 1972. This synthesis seeks to explore the impact on the officiating industry for both male and female referees. Based on a critical mass of research conclusions were drawn to infer how Title IX has helped the officiating industry grow by increasing the job opportunities for officials seeking a career in sports. Conclusions drawn from the critical mass include that there are similarities and differences of female officials to male officials in general. However, the intent of Title IX was to create gender equity. The findings from the current research and conceptual writing on the topic demonstrate that the American sport industry has farther to go in creating equal opportunity for both males and females to benefit from the increased sport participation that has occurred as a result of Title IX. Further, a major finding in this synthesis is that there is inadequate research on Title IX and its impact on the makeup of officials who cover the games that both males and females play. With the female athlete participation rate almost five times that of the pre 1972 rate, why has that not translated over into the officiating realms, this is not clearly understood. In some instances, findings support that female participation in officiating has decreased since the enactment of Title IX. Although not a tenant of gender equity legislation specifically, only a small number of females officiate in the male dominated professional sports. More research is needed on opportunity as well as potential differences in males and females in decision making to determine if this exclusion from male professional sport is warranted or simply an avenue for discrimination that Title IX has not impacted.
    • Will Strengthening the Cervical Muscles of the Neck Diminish the Risk of Concussions?

      Kozub, Francis M.; Bull, Nathan D.; The College at Brockport (2015-04-26)
      Recent research has postulated that strengthening the muscles surrounding the head-neck vertebrae may help minimize the risk of concussion in football. Although no study has confirmed that stronger and larger neck muscles will minimize football related concussions, nevertheless sport practitioners have incorporated a wide array of strength training protocols focused on strengthening this area in an attempt to dissipate the force of an impact away from the brain. The purpose of this synthesis was to examine if a critical mass of literature supported the perception that stronger and larger neck muscles facilitate the attenuation of impact forces to the head thus minimizing the risk of concussion. The studies reviewed within the critical mass of this synthesis related to neck strength and the diminished risk of concussion in sport failed to support this direct correlation. However a number of studies indirectly showed that cervical musculature can minimize several risk factors of concussions such as head impact angular, rotational and linear acceleration. Additionally it was deduced that neck stiffness or muscle activation upon impact rather than cervical size and strength alone may be the greatest contributor to the dissipation of forces to the head upon impact. This information provides a better understanding of the risk factors associated with a concussion and how an athlete’s cervical anatomy is affected and can affect the onslaught of a concussive force. More research is needed to study the best strength training strategies possible as well as if and how polymeric training rather than isotonic resistance training improves the cervical musculature responses to a traumatic head impact and eliminate the risk of concussion.
    • The Barriers and Facilitators of After-School Physical Activity Participation for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

      Seaver, Nicole; The College at Brockport (2016-11-29)
      Children with disabilities are more likely to be sedentary in comparison to their typically developing peers. This especially occurs with children who are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) as many of these individuals show impairments in motor and physical functioning. Research has shown that children with ASD have been found to be less physically active in an after-school setting in comparison to their peers of typical development. There are several categories of barriers and facilitators impacting the after-school physical activity levels of children with ASD. Previous research separates these barriers and facilitators into four categories including: interpersonal, intrapersonal, physical, and community/institutional. To date, several research studies have assessed the barriers and facilitators children with ASD encounter when participating in after-school physical activity, but there has been no attempt by researchers to prioritize their importance. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to synthesize relevant literature to prioritize the importance of the known barriers and facilitators of after-school physical activity participation for children with ASD. Coded data from 10 research articles were used to list all the known barriers and/or facilitators and both were prioritized by counting the number of times they were cited in the original literature. The most frequently cited categories of barriers in the literature were intrapersonal, followed by interpersonal, physical, and community/ institutional. The most frequently cited categories of facilitators were interpersonal, followed by physical, intrapersonal, and community/institutional.
    • Approaches to Overcoming Barriers to Physical Activity in Urban Areas

      Dimyan, Chelsea D.; The College at Brockport (2016-12-08)
      Students in urban areas face many unique challenges when it comes to achieving at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily. Students in urban areas face many unique obstacles that prevent them from meeting this guideline. In this literature review, the barriers to physical activity are identified and broken down into four sub-categories, which are safety concerns, personnel factors, environmental factors and programmatic concerns to help synthesis the approaches to overcome these barriers. Approaches to overcome these barriers include, providing education to professional staff, provide supervision in appropriate areas where physical activity is in session, and partner with local sports clubs so that students can get the adequate amount of physical activity required.
    • Health-Related Physical Fitness Benefits of Exercise Prescriptions for Individuals with Down Syndrome

      Wooten, Kimberly; The College at Brockport (2016-12-08)
      This literature review synthesizes the published articles that relate to adolescents and adults with Down syndrome and the benefits of exercise prescription on specific health-related fitness components. Individuals with Down syndrome typically have lower levels of health-related physical fitness in regard to most fitness components. Participating in regular exercise can improve each of these components. Depending on the desired outcome of the exercise regiment administered, variations in type, frequency, duration and intensity of exercise can be adjusted. The results found in the literature are similar to the guidelines provided by the American College of Sports Medicine with a few slight differences. In regard to cardiovascular fitness for individuals with Down syndrome, it appears that lower intensities and frequencies can still be effective. In order to improve muscular strength and endurance a program should have a frequency of two to three days per week and consist of eight to 20 reps and two to four sets. Body composition can be improved in individuals with Down syndrome, however it may take more than 16 weeks to see the resulting changes.
    • Dancing as a Tool for Successful Transitioning to Adulthood for Individuals with Disabilities

      Pérez Rodríguez, Edith Mariely; The College at Brockport (2016-12-13)
      The purpose of this synthesis project was to identify the skills dancing can develop in individuals with disabilities that can help them have a successful transition into adulthood. This project aimed to identify information on the benefits of dance and match those benefits to important transitioning skills found in the literature. Life after school can be an area in which young individuals with disabilities can face many challenges. Challenges include socializing, physical inactivity, unemployment, and relationships, among others. Findings from this synthesis project show that dance has both major and minor benefits in the lives of individuals. Socialization and physical fitness were identified as major benefits. These findings coincide with the findings on major needs for transitioning in which the major need that emerged was socialization. Conclusions were made that dance programs should be designed to maximize their socialization benefits to maximize their effect on the transition to adulthood of individuals with disabilities. Recommendations were also made that the physical benefits of dance provide an additional advantage to transitioning as many jobs that individuals with disabilities may acquire are of a physical nature.
    • Prevalent Stressors Found Among Collegiate and Elite Coaches

      Delaney, Kathryn; The College at Brockport (2016-12-19)
      Recent studies have explored the stress that individuals experience in the coaching profession. Stress can have negative effects on an individual physically, mentally, and emotionally. The impact that stress has on a coach can directly influence the anxiety and performance of their athletes. The purpose of this study was to identify and prioritize stressors found in the literature. The prevalence of these stressors was then used to recommend coping techniques to help coaches reduce the impact that coaches experience. A total of 10 studies were analyzed for this synthesis. Results found seven prevalent stressors. The seven prevalent stressors found in the literature were performance, resources, many roles and responsibilities, athletes, assistant coaches, and self-imposed demands. Based on the stressors identified, four different types of coping techniques were recommended for coaches to use. The recommended coping techniques for these stressors were mindfulness training, self-talk, goal setting, and dyadic coping.
    • Importance of Support in Weight Management

      Kozub, Francis M.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Lopez, Michael; The College at Brockport (2017-04-01)
      Weight loss and weight management can be difficult for many individuals to achieve or maintain. There are numerous forms of support available to those who wish to lose or manage their body weight. With over two-thirds of U.S. adults classified as overweight (33.0%) or obese (35.9%), effective interventions that help adults achieve and maintain a healthy weight are imperative for the prevention and management of obesity and related diseases. Social relationships and interactions can have positive and negative influences on diet, physical activity, and weight status (Wang, Pbert & Lemon 2014). This synthesis of research literature focuses on mobile apps, family and friends, and personal fitness trainers. By focusing on these three popular categories of support, the literature will show how different forms of support can have different impacts on success with both weight loss and weight management. A comprehensive literature review took place to investigate why these three forms of support may be beneficial to those trying to lose or maintain their body weight.
    • Effects of Cumulative Concussions on High School and College Athletes and Concussion Prevention Strategies

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Cooke, Taylor; The College at Brockport (2017-05-12)
      Concussions are a common injury that can occur at almost any time. There are many different causes of these injuries, but athletic participation is one of the most common. There are many different ways in which sustaining multiple concussions can have an impact on your overall health and well being not only immediately after the injury, but also moving well into the future. Although these injuries cannot be completely prevented in athletics, there are steps that we can take that can help to limit the number of these injuries in athletics.
    • The Affective Benefits for Children With Specific Disabilities Associated With Attending Therapeutic Respite Summer Camps From a Camper and Parent Perspective

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Stewart, Abigail; The College at Brockport (2017-05-12)
      Therapeutic respite summer camps for individuals with disabilities are a unique opportunity for growth and exploration of one’s self. By bringing together individuals with similar disabilities and life experiences, campers can relate and form unique relationships and bonds. Surveys and interviews of campers with disabilities have shown that attending therapeutic respite summer camps increase levels of autonomy, self-esteem, self-efficacy, social acceptance, and relatedness. These affective benefits have been described and felt by both the campers and the parents of campers with disabilities.Therapeutic respite summer camps are beneficial for individuals with disabilities and continue to provide meaningful programing for campers.
    • A Review of Literature on the Benefits of Sport Education on Secondary Physical Education

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Herrera, Hugo; The College at Brockport (2017-05-12)
      This synthesis will review the benefits of Sport Education on secondary physical education. More specifically, the literature review will review benefits in the topics of enjoyment, activity time and participation, skill increase, content knowledge and motivation. The literature review uses peer-reviewed and scholarly articles in order to examine the benefits in these areas. The literature review points to benefits in all these areas of physical education for secondary students and also provides results to be considered by current and future teachers. Results show that Sport Education can be especially beneficial for low-skilled and amotivated students. Sport Education can increase enjoyment, activity time and participation, skills, content knowledge and motivation. Sport Education provides teachers with a different way of delivering content to students which has the potential to benefit students in multiple areas of learning.
    • A Review of the Campus Recreation Programming Factors Impacting the Recruitment and Retention of College Students

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Cvijetinovic, Nedeljko; The College at Brockport (2017-05-12)
      This synthesis will highlight the impact of campus recreation programming on the recruitment and retention of college students. In order to study this matter to the fullest extent there were ten peer-reviewed articles examined that studied the campus recreation programming factors impacting the recruitment and retention of college students. Several factors that affected the recruitment and retention of college students included: Fitness and Wellness Needs, Campus Recreation Programming, Place Bonding, and Student Involvement and Integration. The review of literature provides information, data, results, and conclusions that support the notion that the best way to recruit and retain a college student is through campus recreation programming because of benefits that are attained through participation. Higher education administrators need to understand the value of campus recreation programming and the influence that it has on a student’s experience while bringing value to an institutions bottom line.