Recent Submissions

  • Will Strengthening the Cervical Muscles of the Neck Diminish the Risk of Concussions?

    Kozub, Francis M.; Bull, Nathan D.; The College at Brockport (4/26/2015)
    Recent research has postulated that strengthening the muscles surrounding the head-neck vertebrae may help minimize the risk of concussion in football. Although no study has confirmed that stronger and larger neck muscles will minimize football related concussions, nevertheless sport practitioners have incorporated a wide array of strength training protocols focused on strengthening this area in an attempt to dissipate the force of an impact away from the brain. The purpose of this synthesis was to examine if a critical mass of literature supported the perception that stronger and larger neck muscles facilitate the attenuation of impact forces to the head thus minimizing the risk of concussion. The studies reviewed within the critical mass of this synthesis related to neck strength and the diminished risk of concussion in sport failed to support this direct correlation. However a number of studies indirectly showed that cervical musculature can minimize several risk factors of concussions such as head impact angular, rotational and linear acceleration. Additionally it was deduced that neck stiffness or muscle activation upon impact rather than cervical size and strength alone may be the greatest contributor to the dissipation of forces to the head upon impact. This information provides a better understanding of the risk factors associated with a concussion and how an athlete’s cervical anatomy is affected and can affect the onslaught of a concussive force. More research is needed to study the best strength training strategies possible as well as if and how polymeric training rather than isotonic resistance training improves the cervical musculature responses to a traumatic head impact and eliminate the risk of concussion.
  • Equity in the Impact of Title IX on Officiating in the United States

    Kozub, Francis M.; Verbridge, Steven; The College at Brockport (5/12/2014)
    Gender equity in the United States has received considerable attention since the passage of Title IX in 1972. This synthesis seeks to explore the impact on the officiating industry for both male and female referees. Based on a critical mass of research conclusions were drawn to infer how Title IX has helped the officiating industry grow by increasing the job opportunities for officials seeking a career in sports. Conclusions drawn from the critical mass include that there are similarities and differences of female officials to male officials in general. However, the intent of Title IX was to create gender equity. The findings from the current research and conceptual writing on the topic demonstrate that the American sport industry has farther to go in creating equal opportunity for both males and females to benefit from the increased sport participation that has occurred as a result of Title IX. Further, a major finding in this synthesis is that there is inadequate research on Title IX and its impact on the makeup of officials who cover the games that both males and females play. With the female athlete participation rate almost five times that of the pre 1972 rate, why has that not translated over into the officiating realms, this is not clearly understood. In some instances, findings support that female participation in officiating has decreased since the enactment of Title IX. Although not a tenant of gender equity legislation specifically, only a small number of females officiate in the male dominated professional sports. More research is needed on opportunity as well as potential differences in males and females in decision making to determine if this exclusion from male professional sport is warranted or simply an avenue for discrimination that Title IX has not impacted.
  • Overcoming Barriers on Including of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Physical Education

    Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Baker, Lynzy (5/17/2021)
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a disability that affects one in 68 children. The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) states that students with disabilities should have equal opportunities in an educational environment including physical education. Undergraduate students in physical education preparation programs and in-service teachers lack the knowledge and experiences needed to teach inclusive physical education. Students with ASD face issues related to individual challenges, peer interactions and exclusion. In order for students with ASD to be successful in inclusive physical education it is essential that physical education teachers are highly qualified, and understand the barriers that students with ASD face and how to overcome them. The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature on overcoming barriers on including of students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in physical education.
  • The Impact Food Insecurity Has on Children in Elementary School

    Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Raimondo, Daniel; Bouchard, Kyle (5/1/2021)
    Food insecurity is an issue that impacts many people, and these impacts present themselves in many different ways when it comes to elementary school students. This synthesis was conducted by coming up with specific search criteria in order to find out what was being presented in the current research. As a result of this search and analysis, it was found that elementary school students who experienced food insecurity during childhood were negatively impacted in the areas of academic performance, physical health, behavioral health, mental health, and emotional health. Something else that was found was that these children who experienced food insecurity may have been at a higher risk for food insecurity during young adulthood as a result of these experiences. Although there were many negative impacts identified as a result of food insecurity, there was also research found that stated food assistance programs can be utilized in a way that helps children and families deal with this issue. Going forward, it is suggested that food assistance programs be updated and supported by those in positions of power in order to help families and decrease some of the negative impacts seen among children in elementary school. In the end, the purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on the impact food insecurity has on children in elementary school.
  • Effects of an Athletic Scholarship on Student-Athlete Behavior

    Raimondo, Daniel; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Arita, Matt (5/17/2021)
    Intercollegiate athletics has become a multi-million dollar industry in the past 30 years. Athletic scholarships have become more lucrative for prospective student-athletes to obtain. Analysis of previous research at the NCAA scholarship level of Division I and Division II shows that athletic scholarships have strong affects on student-athlete behavior. Overall, behavior influences academic performance, motivation, and financial implications for the school and the student-athlete. Non-guaranteed scholarships and non-scholarship positions have caused major changes in behavior both positively and negatively for student-athletes in college. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on the effects of an athletic scholarship on athlete's behavior.
  • Concussion Prevention and Technology

    Raimondo, Daniel; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Prince, Nicholas Todd (5/20/2021)
    As more information emerges involving the long-term effects of concussions on athletes, so does the push to protect them, and in turn, continue to encourage participation. Concussions are extremely prevalent in the sport of football in particular, despite athletes wearing protective equipment such as helmets. Analysis of previous research shows that technological advancements in video analysis as well as impact tracking systems can positively influence player safety. When combining this with continued advancement in equipment development, testing, and proper usage, especially in the sport of football, athletes will be better protected. The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature on the effects of technology on reducing the risk of concussions in sports. A second purpose of this synthesis is to review the importance of football equipment and its effects on concussion prevention.
  • A Review of the Campus Recreation Programming Factors Impacting the Recruitment and Retention of College Students

    Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Cvijetinovic, Nedeljko; The College at Brockport (5/12/2017)
    This synthesis will highlight the impact of campus recreation programming on the recruitment and retention of college students. In order to study this matter to the fullest extent there were ten peer-reviewed articles examined that studied the campus recreation programming factors impacting the recruitment and retention of college students. Several factors that affected the recruitment and retention of college students included: Fitness and Wellness Needs, Campus Recreation Programming, Place Bonding, and Student Involvement and Integration. The review of literature provides information, data, results, and conclusions that support the notion that the best way to recruit and retain a college student is through campus recreation programming because of benefits that are attained through participation. Higher education administrators need to understand the value of campus recreation programming and the influence that it has on a student’s experience while bringing value to an institutions bottom line.
  • The Effects of Peer Tutoring on School-Aged Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities in Physical Education

    Hume, Abbey (12/1/2019)
    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the existing scholarly knowledge regarding impact of peer tutoring programs on students with disabilities and typically developing students in physical education. Previous research identified several factors that contributed to the benefits and barriers of peer tutoring programs in physical education. Studies reviewed within the critical mass had common themes such as increase in socialization among students, engagement in activities, and improvement of skills. Common barriers that were discovered included, time consuming program, non-trained peer tutors, and peer tutors not participating in activities. Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that is thought to be difficult to implement, however the benefits outweigh the barriers. Although, previous research notes peer tutoring program being effective and impactful on both students with and without disabilities in physical education, further research is necessary. Further research should study the effects of removing paraeducator proximity while implementing peer tutoring programs.
  • An Analysis of Factors Related to Time-Dependent vs. Acquired Aging in Males

    Kozub, Francis M.; Potenza, Michael J.; The College at Brockport (5/12/2014)
    The purpose of this synthesis was to determine which factors impact, slow down, or even halt certain aspects of the natural aging process in males. Initial review of the topic included an examination of the aging theories found in the literature. The subsequent focus of this synthesis was on a critical mass of data based literature relating to the signs and symptoms of the aging processes. Next, the critical mass was synthesized to determine the most prominent findings in the published research regarding the slowing of the aging process in both the physical and cognitive domains. This included studies about the effects of physical activity, nutrition, supplementation, and cosmetic care to examine the potential impact these variables have on males as they grow older. Data for this synthesis came from studies examined in both published literature and thesis collections. The results from the critical mass of literature demonstrated that evidence exists supporting the notion that people can slow the aging process with proper physical activity, nutrition, supplementation, and cosmetic care. Disease and disability were once considered an inevitable part of growing older, but that is no longer true. While aging does put us at greater risk for health issues, many older adults can be healthy and active well into their advancing years. Currently, the average active life expectancy for the ADL is 68.4 years for males in the United States. It was determined that with an evolving regimen of proper exercise, nutrition, supplementation, and cosmetic care an individual can successfully delay the acquired effects of aging.
  • Effects of Cumulative Concussions on High School and College Athletes and Concussion Prevention Strategies

    Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Cooke, Taylor; The College at Brockport (5/12/2017)
    Concussions are a common injury that can occur at almost any time. There are many different causes of these injuries, but athletic participation is one of the most common. There are many different ways in which sustaining multiple concussions can have an impact on your overall health and well being not only immediately after the injury, but also moving well into the future. Although these injuries cannot be completely prevented in athletics, there are steps that we can take that can help to limit the number of these injuries in athletics.
  • The Affective Benefits for Children With Specific Disabilities Associated With Attending Therapeutic Respite Summer Camps From a Camper and Parent Perspective

    Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Stewart, Abigail; The College at Brockport (5/12/2017)
    Therapeutic respite summer camps for individuals with disabilities are a unique opportunity for growth and exploration of one’s self. By bringing together individuals with similar disabilities and life experiences, campers can relate and form unique relationships and bonds. Surveys and interviews of campers with disabilities have shown that attending therapeutic respite summer camps increase levels of autonomy, self-esteem, self-efficacy, social acceptance, and relatedness. These affective benefits have been described and felt by both the campers and the parents of campers with disabilities.Therapeutic respite summer camps are beneficial for individuals with disabilities and continue to provide meaningful programing for campers.
  • A Review of Literature on the Benefits of Sport Education on Secondary Physical Education

    Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Herrera, Hugo; The College at Brockport (5/12/2017)
    This synthesis will review the benefits of Sport Education on secondary physical education. More specifically, the literature review will review benefits in the topics of enjoyment, activity time and participation, skill increase, content knowledge and motivation. The literature review uses peer-reviewed and scholarly articles in order to examine the benefits in these areas. The literature review points to benefits in all these areas of physical education for secondary students and also provides results to be considered by current and future teachers. Results show that Sport Education can be especially beneficial for low-skilled and amotivated students. Sport Education can increase enjoyment, activity time and participation, skills, content knowledge and motivation. Sport Education provides teachers with a different way of delivering content to students which has the potential to benefit students in multiple areas of learning.
  • Will physical activity increase academic performance?

    Kreso, Samantha; The College at Brockport (8/8/2017)
    The purpose of this synthesis project is to collectively assess and analyze the critical mass of research articles to determine if physical activity can increase academic performance. The studies that met the inclusion criteria of examining the effects of physical activity on academic performance were included in this project. The articles were analyzed by using a synthesis grid, which helped to organize and examine the methods, results and discussions. Themes, such as effects on executive functioning, effects on academic core subjects and weekly hours, were accumulated from the articles. Based upon the critical mass; the results indicate that there can be a positive relationship between physical activity and academic performance. From this, discussion points were concluded examining grade level differences, advocating for physical education, comprehensive school physical activity program, after school sport participation, limitations and recommendations for future research.
  • The Barriers and Facilitators of After-School Physical Activity Participation for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Seaver, Nicole; The College at Brockport (11/29/2016)
    Children with disabilities are more likely to be sedentary in comparison to their typically developing peers. This especially occurs with children who are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) as many of these individuals show impairments in motor and physical functioning. Research has shown that children with ASD have been found to be less physically active in an after-school setting in comparison to their peers of typical development. There are several categories of barriers and facilitators impacting the after-school physical activity levels of children with ASD. Previous research separates these barriers and facilitators into four categories including: interpersonal, intrapersonal, physical, and community/institutional. To date, several research studies have assessed the barriers and facilitators children with ASD encounter when participating in after-school physical activity, but there has been no attempt by researchers to prioritize their importance. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to synthesize relevant literature to prioritize the importance of the known barriers and facilitators of after-school physical activity participation for children with ASD. Coded data from 10 research articles were used to list all the known barriers and/or facilitators and both were prioritized by counting the number of times they were cited in the original literature. The most frequently cited categories of barriers in the literature were intrapersonal, followed by interpersonal, physical, and community/ institutional. The most frequently cited categories of facilitators were interpersonal, followed by physical, intrapersonal, and community/institutional.
  • Importance of Support in Weight Management

    Kozub, Francis M.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Lopez, Michael; The College at Brockport (4/1/2017)
    Weight loss and weight management can be difficult for many individuals to achieve or maintain. There are numerous forms of support available to those who wish to lose or manage their body weight. With over two-thirds of U.S. adults classified as overweight (33.0%) or obese (35.9%), effective interventions that help adults achieve and maintain a healthy weight are imperative for the prevention and management of obesity and related diseases. Social relationships and interactions can have positive and negative influences on diet, physical activity, and weight status (Wang, Pbert & Lemon 2014). This synthesis of research literature focuses on mobile apps, family and friends, and personal fitness trainers. By focusing on these three popular categories of support, the literature will show how different forms of support can have different impacts on success with both weight loss and weight management. A comprehensive literature review took place to investigate why these three forms of support may be beneficial to those trying to lose or maintain their body weight.
  • How Do Interventions through the Self-Determination Theory Affect Middle and High School Student’s Participation in Physical Education Class?

    Perreault, Melanie; Droegmoeller, Nicholas; The College at Brockport (8/11/2017)
    Abstract Students today seem less likely to participate in physical education class because they are either disinterested, unmotivated, or are disengaged in the activity. At the secondary level, students’ disengagement in class may be due to lack of motivation. The self-determination theory has been used to help increase students’ motivation to participate in physical activity. The purpose of this synthesis research is to examine how middle and secondary students’ participation in physical education class is impacted by interventions based on the self-determination theory. It will include three different motivational conditions; psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) in an autonomy support environment, perceived autonomy-supports, and motivational climate (mastery-oriented). Results indicated that students showed significant needs in relatedness, and competency, but not autonomy. Students in autonomy support environments showed increases in perceived autonomy, but some studies showed students weren’t motivated. When physical education (PE) teachers provide choice for students, it enhanced student engagement. In the motivational climate, some students demonstrated increased motivation within a mastery-oriented climate focused on personal competency. Older adolescents, especially females, displayed less engagement in activity. Thus, the need for teachers to select activities that are suitable for all students is crucial. PE teachers help influence student’s motivation to participate in physical education. It’s important for PE teachers to setup an environment where students feel connected, where they have the ability to complete the task, and where they are given an opportunity for choice.
  • The Impact of Coaching Styles on the Motivation and Performance of Athletes

    Marcone, Mike; The College at Brockport (5/18/2017)
    Abstract Previous research has been conducted on the concept of coaching styles and their impact on the motivation and performance of athletes, with results suggesting that the impact can be extremely significant. Through the different styles of coaching, coaches impact the athletes with whom they associate in different ways, while also fulfilling or neglecting the athletes’ psychological needs. Through recent research, it has been suggested that coaches who exhibit the most autonomy supportive behaviors tend to fulfill the psychological needs of athletes, resulting in the development of self-determined forms of motivation. When autonomy is supported and athletes become self-determined in their motivation, research shows that these athletes achieve greater success in their overall improvement and performance when participating in their respective activity or sport. The purpose of this synthesis project is to review the literature regarding coaching styles and their impact on the motivation and performance of athletes. More specifically, to establish an understanding of what coaching style has the most positive impact on an athlete's motivation and performance.
  • Factors That Increase Physical Activity in Youth Who Are Visually Impiared

    Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Dwyer, Adam; The College at Brockport (5/19/2017)
    The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on factors that increase physical activity for youth who are visually impaired. The selected studies for this synthesis describe barriers and facilitators that influence physical activity levels in youth ages 7-19. As Kozub and Hyun-Kyoung Oh, (2004) noted, individuals with visual impairment have reported lower levels of physical activity in relation to their same age sighted peers. It is important to understand where this population loses its ground in being regularly and adequately physically active. Research indicates several factors that have been shown to increase physical activity in young people with visual impairments that include the use of external motivators as well as through parental influence.
  • Parents' Understanding of the Impact on Sport Specialization

    LaCelle, Samuel (12/16/2019)
    The purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on parents’ understanding of the impact on sport specialization. An extensive literature review was completed in order to properly examine all the information available regarding the parent’s role when it comes to their child’s participation in sport and whether or not they are specializing in a specific sport. This review was done so by examining 16 peer reviewed articles on multiple web data bases. The research concluded that there should be a high emphasis on the child’s motor development at an early age (Goodway and Robinson, 2015). An athlete’s body should be allowed to grow naturally throughout their sport participation. It was also concluded as the child competes in sport, there should be a focus on having fun. Extended pressure from parents causes amotivation in their child (Sanchez-Miguel, Leo, Sanchez-Oliva, Amado, & Garcia-Calvo, 2013). This result could cause a drop in participation levels among youth athletes. It is critical to inform parents on the potential risk factors of early sport specialization. Further research must be conducted on this topic to help develop more information and data to aid with parent understanding.
  • Periodization Programs and their Effects on the Physiological Outcomes of Collegiate Athletes

    Irish, Raymond; The College at Brockport (10/1/2017)
    Many different strength and conditioning professionals are attempting to find more efficient ways to train their athletes to improve strength, power, body mass and body composition. There are many different types of training models that are used within the realm of strength and conditioning. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on periodization programs and their effects of physiological outcomes on collegiate athletes. Research has shown that both Linear and Nonlinear periodization models improved physiological outcomes of the subjects presented. With that being said, there was no sufficient evidence to which model is more efficient. Further education and studies need to be conducted for future research

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