• Aristotle's Analysis of Courage

      Pears, David; Oxford University (1976-01-01)
    • Art, Pleasure, Value: Reframing the Questions

      Matthen, Mohan; University of Toronto (2018-01-01)
      In this essay, I’ll argue, first, that an art object's aesthetic value (or merit) depends not just on its intrinsic properties, but on the response it evokes from a consumer who shares the producer's cultural background. My question is: what is the role of culture in relation to this response? I offer a new account of aesthetic pleasure that answers this question. On this account, aesthetic pleasure is not just a “feeling” or “sensation” that results from engaging with a work of art. It is rather a mental state that facilitates engagement with an artwork, and (in the long run) enables a consumer to learn how to maximize this kind of pleasure. This is where culture comes in. If you belong to a culture, you know how to engage pleasurably with an artwork that is produced so you can engage with it in just this way. The aesthetic value of an artwork is that it plays into such a culture-pleasure nexus.
    • Atheism: Young Hegelian Style

      Levine, Andrew; University of Maryland (2009-01-01)
      In the decade after the death of Hegel in 1833, a group of young philosophers sought to extend some of Hegel’s ideas to criticize contemporary thought and society. These were the so-called “Young Hegelians,” which included the young Karl Marx. With interest in Marx and Marxism on the wane, interest in the Young Hegelians has also subsided. That is unfortunate, since the Young Hegelians have much to teach us. This paper recounts the Young Hegelians’ critique of religion, beginning with that of Ludwig Feuerbach in his seminal work, The Essence of Christianity.
    • Bargaining Our Way Into Morality: A Do-It-Yourself

      Gauthier, David; University of Toronto (1979-01-01)
    • Borges’s Two Refutations of Time

      Van Cleve, James; Brown University (2001-01-01)
      Jorge Luis Borges offers two proofs of the unreality of time. One of these is based on the idealism of Berkeley. The other is based on Leibniz’s principle of the identity of indiscernibles. Though the logic of both arguments is valid, neither of them is fully compelling in its premises.
    • Can American Universities be Depoliticized

      Aiken, Henry David; Brandeis University (1970-01-01)
      Every institution in society is involved in politics, and the university is no exception. So the university cannot be depoliticized. The question is how, and to what ends the university should be involved in politics. The answer is determined by the task of the university, which is to educate men and women for life in a free society. This has some specific political implications.
    • Can Science Disprove the Existence of God?

      van Inwagen, Peter; University of Notre Dame (2004-01-01)
      In order for science to establish that God does not exist, it would be necessary to determine which observations we would make if there were a God, and which observations we would make if there were not a God. However, these claims about what we would observe if God does or does not exist, are philosophical claims, not scientific claims. Therefore science alone could not disprove the existence of God.
    • Can the First Amendment Survive?

      Haiman, Franklyn S.; Northwestern University (1984-01-01)
    • Carroll's "From Real to Reel"

      Wolf, Jack C.; The College at Brockport (1983-01-01)
    • Causation and Memory

      Pears, David; Oxford University (1975-01-01)
    • Certainty Without Dogmatism: A Reply To Unger's "An Argument for Skepticism"

      Dicker, Georges; The College at Brockport (1974-01-01)
    • Chess as Art: Reflections on Richard Reti

      Rachels, James; University of Alabama in Birmingham (1984-01-01)
    • Civil Disobedience in a Constitutional Democracy

      Cohen, Marshall; The Rockefeller University (1970-01-01)
      Civil disobedience is an action that is intended to appeal to the public, to show that they have violated principles that they otherwise generally accept. This is why acts of civil disobedience must be public acts. Acts of civil disobedience cannot involve violence to persons, for that might provoke fear, which undermines the public’s ability to listen to the appeal. The civil disobedient accepts his punishment in order to demonstrate his commitment to the rule of law, and also to demonstrate the seriousness of his commitment to the principles that have been violated by the public.
    • Comment on "Some Essays at Objectivity"

      Kateb, George; Amherst College (1973-01-01)
    • Comment on Dewart's Language and Religion

      Catan, John; The College at Brockport (1972-01-01)
      Professor Dewart’s thesis is every bit as much a metaphysical view as the one that he opposes. It is also unfalsifiable.
    • Comment on Monroe Beardsley’s ‘Inevitability in History’

      Krieger, Leonard; Columbia University (1971-01-01)
      There seem to be inevitabilities both within and without history. Thus, Monroe Beardsley’s analysis of historical inevitability raises this question: what is the relationship between the extra-historical and the historical inevitability? There seems to be an assumption that the concept of inevitability is the same within and without history. I wish to question that assumption. There are distinctively historical forms of inevitability that cannot be assimilated to other kinds of inevitability.
    • Comments on "Patient Morality"

      White, David E.; St. John Fisher College (1983-01-01)
    • Computers, Ethics and Business

      De George, Richard T.; The University of Kansas (1998-01-01)
      When it comes to computers and computer-related activities, moral responsibility is in short supply. Our language often manifests the myth that computers are responsible and hence no one is to blame. This paper explores the idea that computer programmers are morally responsible for the consequences of their programming.
    • Conceptual Analysis and its Limits

      Bennett, Karen; Cornell University (2017-10-18)
      My topic is conceptual analysis and its limits. I will start by sketching what I mean by ‘conceptual analysis’, and saying a bit about how it is used in contemporary philosophy. Then I will point out two limitations of the method, and illustrate these limits with examples: some from the philosophical literature, and some from biology.