• The Solitary Dancer: A Problem in Aesthetics

      Sparshott, Francis; Victoria College, University of Toronto (1981-01-01)
    • The Strengths and Limits of the Theory of Retributive Punishment

      Baier, Kurt; University of Pittsburgh (1977-01-01)
      In textbooks on punishment one usually finds four major "theories" or "justifications" of punishment: (1) the retributive, (2) the deterrence, (3) the reform or rehabilitation, and ( 4) the incapacitation or social defense, theories.1 They are usually offered as rival theories of the proper (primary) purpose or function of punishment.2 And it is generally assumed that the general practice of punishing people and individual acts of punishment are morally justified if and only if, and to the extent that, they serve that purpose or perform that function.
    • The ‘Faith’ of an Atheist

      Antony, Louise; The Ohio State University (2002-01-01)
      For many religious believers, belief in God is as fundamental as my belief in my own body. That is because the believer thinks that belief in God is a necessary condition for living a meaningful life. This paper argues that belief in God is not necessary for living a meaningful life. Morality, meaning, and love are all independent of God. All that is required for a meaningful life is a sustaining belief that humankind is worth something. This kind of faith is available to an atheist.
    • Tired of Capitalism? How about Something Better?

      Schweickart, David; Loyola University of Chicago (2013-05-01)
      Capitalism causes staggering inequality, rising unemployment, growing poverty, and the degradation of democracy. But is there any viable alternative? Is there a form of socialism that would preserve the strengths of competitive capitalism, yet mitigate its worst evils? This paper argues that there is such an alternative -- economic democracy. An economic democracy keeps competitive markets for goods and services, but dispenses with labor markets and capital markets. It replaces labor markets with worker ownership, and capital markets with democratic control of investment. These mechanisms will preserve the principal advantages of capitalism, while mitigating its worst evils.
    • Toward a Philosophy of Chess

      Benardete, Jose; Syracuse University (1979-01-01)
    • Toward a Reasonable Ethics of Belief

      Ferre, Frederick; Dickenson College (1971-01-01)
      Reason has an important role to play in every area of life, including religion. However, Dr. Blanshard’s definition of what is “reasonable” is too narrow. There are many kinds and degrees of evidence. Even if one should not believe contrary to the evidence, or without any evidence, one might be permitted to believe in the absence of perfect evidence. Moreover, what constitutes relevant evidence is not the same in all areas of life. The kind of evidence that is relevant to a belief in physics is not the same as the kind of evidence that is relevant to a belief about the values of music, for example.
    • Toward an Experiential Sport Aesthetic

      Thomas, Carolyn E.; SUNY Buffalo (1974-01-01)
    • Towards a Critique of Contemporary Aesthetics

      Sircello, Guy (1990-01-01)
      This paper distinguishes two sub-fields of aesthetics: the study of a certain kind of experience, which is “aesthetics” proper, and the philosophy of art. The last fifty years have seen a turn away from aesthetics proper, in favor of the second sub-field, the philosophy of art. This paper argues against that trajectory, and in favor of aesthetics proper.
    • Towards a Technoethics

      Bunge, Mario; McGill University (1975-01-01)
    • Towards a Theory of Punishment

      Bennett, Jonathan; Syracuse University (1980-01-01)
    • Tradition and Innovation: Metaphor in Philosophy and Philosophy of Religion

      Duhan Kaplan, Laura; University of North Carolina at Charlotte (2003-01-01)
      Philosophy aspires to be a radical discipline, with the power to critique existing social structures. However, the practice of philosophy as a discipline seems to be quite conservative, especially insofar as the terms of the discipline are established by a canon of philosophers from the past. How can philosophy be at once conservative and critical in these ways? The answer is that philosophers reinterpret the language they inherit in ways that both honor its older meanings and introduce new ones.
    • Tragic Error and Agent Responsibility

      Witt, Charlotte; University of New Hampshire (2005-09-01)
      The characters of tragedy are in some sense responsible for their errors. However, given their ignorance of the consequences of their actions, it seems that they ought not be held responsible by others for what they have done. This is a paradox. The way to resolve the paradox is to distinguish two kinds of agent responsibility: accountability and culpability. Being accountable is primarily a private affair, whereas being culpable entails the possibility of just punishment.
    • Transcendental Semiotics and the Paradigms of First Philosophy

      Apel, Karl-Otto; University of Frankfurt, Germany (1978-01-01)
    • Trust as Robustly Moral

      Carse, Alisa; Georgetown University (2010-10-01)
      Trust is more than mere reliance on another person. To trust someone is to rely on her goodwill for the care of something valuable. It is to have a confident expectation that the other person will take care of the valuable thing because she recognizes its value to you. It is to expect her to take care of it because she recognizes that she should take care of it. Therefore trust is a robustly moral attitude.
    • Truth and Convention in Morality

      Taylor, Richard; University of Rochester (1977-01-01)
      The author considers the question of whether there is one true or valid set of moral principles, or whether all ethics are the distillation of our inherited codes and prohibitions.
    • Two Constraints on Interpreting

      Stern, Laurent; Rutgers University (1987-01-01)
    • Unconscious Actions Emanating From the Human Cerebral Cortex

      Eccles, John C.; The College at Brockport (1972-01-01)
      This paper presents some recent work of Roger Sperry and his associates on “split-brain cases.” The remarkable finding is that, after surgery, the actions that are programmed from one side of the cerebral cortex are not recognized by the other side of the cerebral cortex as belonging to the subject.
    • Understanding the Human World: Structure, Instruction and Deconstruction

      Caws, Peter (1999-01-01)
      This paper offers an account of the emergence of the human from the natural, for the species and for the individual. I show how human sciences are possible, and suggest some strategies for change based on the understanding that the human sciences provide.