• Affirmative Action: Goals and Consequences

      Crandall, John C.; The College at Brockport (1974-01-01)
    • Alcibiades and the Politics of Rumor in Thucydides

      Reeve, C.D.C.; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (2011-01-01)
      This is a story about Alcibiades, about Athens, and about the politics of rumor. When rumor set its claws into Alcibiades, it contributed not only to his own downfall, but to the downfall of Athens. The very traits that made Alcibiades an effective public figure also made him vulnerable to rumor. In the end, Thucydides himself excised rumor from his own histories because he came to see its destructive force
    • All Animals Are Equal

      Singer, Peter; New York University (1974-01-01)
    • Ambiguity, Incoherence and Evaluation in Constitutional Theory

      Lyons, David; Cornell University (1988-01-01)
    • An Argument for Skepticism

      Unger, Peter; New York University (1974-01-01)
    • An Honest Ghost?

      Ayer, A. J.; Oxford University (1970-01-01)
      Gilbert Ryle’s The Concept of Mind purports to exorcise “the ghost in the machine” by translating all talk about the mind into talk about behavior, and sometimes Ryle asserts that he has succeeded in this endeavor. However, on closer inspection, there is still a residue of our private, mental lives left in Ryle’s account. So the ghost remains. But perhaps it is a more honest ghost, and that is still quite an achievement.
    • Animal Minds

      Dretske, Fred; Stanford University (2001-01-01)
      One particular form of the problem of other minds is the problem of animal, non-human minds. Do dogs feel pride? Are cats ever embarrassed? Do ants feel anything when you step on them? In order to answer these questions, we must first ask and answer the question of what minds are supposed to do. Only then can we answer the question of animal minds.
    • Animals Have No Rights And Are Not The Equal of Humans

      Margolis, Joseph; Temple University (1974-01-01)
    • Another View of Reverse Discrimination

      Burke, Armand; The College at Brockport (1974-01-01)
    • Appearance vs. Reality as a Scientific Problem

      van Fraassen, Bas C.; Princeton University (2005-10-01)
      The history of science is replete with ideals that involve some criterion of completeness. One such criterion requires that physics explain how the appearances are produced in reality. This paper argues that it is scientifically acceptable to reject this criterion, along with all other completeness criteria that have been proposed for modern science.
    • Are Women Morally Different from Men?

      Slote, Michael; University of Miami (2004-01-01)
      In recent years there has been a surge of interest in the differences between men and women. Some recent work appears to show that men and women differ in the ways in which they approach moral issues. This paper considers the implications of this research for moral philosophy. It is argued that this research does not undermine the idea of a single morality that applies equally to both men and women.
    • Arguing for Equality

      Nielsen, Kai; University of Calgary (1986-01-01)
    • Aristotelian Happiness

      Gottlieb, Paula; University of Wisconsin (2011-04-01)
      Aristotle’s account of happiness aims to show that happiness is both objective and attainable. According to Aristotle, the pursuit of happiness benefits both the agent and other people too. This paper attempts to explain how Aristotle’s account supports these claims. Along the way, I argue that Aristotle’s much-maligned doctrine of the mean has some true and important implications concerning the nature and value of happiness.
    • Aristotle and Darwin: Antagonists or Kindred Spirits?

      Lennox, James G.; University of Pittsburgh (2017-01-01)
      In the decades following the forging of the so-called Neo-Darwinian Synthesis in the 1940s, a number of its philosophical defenders created a myth about what Charles Darwin was up against, a viewpoint called “typological essentialism” often attributed to Aristotle. In this paper I first sketch the history of how this myth was created. I then establish that it is a myth by providing an account of Aristotle’s essentialism as it is actually displayed in his philosophy of biology and in his biological practice. It has nothing to do with the ‘mythic’ version. We then turn to what Darwin was really up against—a common, anti-evolutionary way of defining the species concept in Darwin’s time (that owes nothing to Aristotle), and to his attempts to re-orient thinking about it. I will close by reconsidering Aristotle and Charles Darwin: Does it make any sense to think about the relationship between two thinkers separated by more than two millennia living in such vastly different cultures? What did Charles Darwin himself think about Aristotle?
    • Aristotle's Analysis of Courage

      Pears, David; Oxford University (1976-01-01)
    • Art, Pleasure, Value: Reframing the Questions

      Matthen, Mohan; University of Toronto (2018-01-01)
      In this essay, I’ll argue, first, that an art object's aesthetic value (or merit) depends not just on its intrinsic properties, but on the response it evokes from a consumer who shares the producer's cultural background. My question is: what is the role of culture in relation to this response? I offer a new account of aesthetic pleasure that answers this question. On this account, aesthetic pleasure is not just a “feeling” or “sensation” that results from engaging with a work of art. It is rather a mental state that facilitates engagement with an artwork, and (in the long run) enables a consumer to learn how to maximize this kind of pleasure. This is where culture comes in. If you belong to a culture, you know how to engage pleasurably with an artwork that is produced so you can engage with it in just this way. The aesthetic value of an artwork is that it plays into such a culture-pleasure nexus.
    • Atheism: Young Hegelian Style

      Levine, Andrew; University of Maryland (2009-01-01)
      In the decade after the death of Hegel in 1833, a group of young philosophers sought to extend some of Hegel’s ideas to criticize contemporary thought and society. These were the so-called “Young Hegelians,” which included the young Karl Marx. With interest in Marx and Marxism on the wane, interest in the Young Hegelians has also subsided. That is unfortunate, since the Young Hegelians have much to teach us. This paper recounts the Young Hegelians’ critique of religion, beginning with that of Ludwig Feuerbach in his seminal work, The Essence of Christianity.
    • Bargaining Our Way Into Morality: A Do-It-Yourself

      Gauthier, David; University of Toronto (1979-01-01)
    • Borges’s Two Refutations of Time

      Van Cleve, James; Brown University (2001-01-01)
      Jorge Luis Borges offers two proofs of the unreality of time. One of these is based on the idealism of Berkeley. The other is based on Leibniz’s principle of the identity of indiscernibles. Though the logic of both arguments is valid, neither of them is fully compelling in its premises.