• Lear and Nature

      Cohen, Marshall; The Rockefeller University (1/1/1970)
      Morris Weitz is mistaken in his interpretation of King Lear. The distinction between good and evil is maintained clearly and sharply throughout the play, and nature actually provides the key to the difference between the two.
    • A Scientist’s Comments on ‘The Scientific Enterprise and Social Conscience'

      Morison, Robert; Cornell University (1/1/1970)
      Professor Edel correctly emphasizes the ecological mode of thought. As we penetrate deeper into that ecological mode of thought, we will discover that almost every decision that we make in science will have consequences for many people. Thus, science has an obligation to consider and show, as clearly as possible, what the consequences of these decisions will be.
    • The Coinage of Man: King Lear and Camus’ Stranger

      Weitz, Morris; Brandeis University (1/1/1970)
      In Shakespeare’s King Lear, the universe is indifferent to human values, but human values are of the utmost importance for human life. Good and evil are not built into the fabric of nature. Rather, they rest of human prerogative. However, this does not diminish the importance of human values for human life. The plot of King Lear charts Lear’s own progress through the many stages of this realization.
    • Civil Disobedience in a Constitutional Democracy

      Cohen, Marshall; The Rockefeller University (1/1/1970)
      Civil disobedience is an action that is intended to appeal to the public, to show that they have violated principles that they otherwise generally accept. This is why acts of civil disobedience must be public acts. Acts of civil disobedience cannot involve violence to persons, for that might provoke fear, which undermines the public’s ability to listen to the appeal. The civil disobedient accepts his punishment in order to demonstrate his commitment to the rule of law, and also to demonstrate the seriousness of his commitment to the principles that have been violated by the public.
    • A Note on Professor Edel’s Paper

      Black, Max; Cornell University (1/1/1970)
      Professor Edel’s conclusions are excessively mild. We are often frighteningly ignorant of the consequences of scientific and technological innovations. This ignorance requires a much greater degree of caution in science than Professor Edel has admitted.
    • Remarks on Violence and Paying the Penalty

      Nielsen, Kai; University of Alberta, Calgary (1/1/1970)
      The civil disobedient need not accept his punishment in order to demonstrate his commitment to the rule of law, and in some circumstances it would be inappropriate to do so. The use of violence is justified when and only when the pain, suffering, and injustice that we overcome thereby outweighs the pain, suffering and injustice that results from our actions. There have been circumstances in recent history in which, it is plausible to believe, these conditions were met.
    • Weitz on the Coinage of Man

      Sparshott, F. E.; Victoria College, University of Toronto (1/1/1970)
      The events in Shakespeare’s King Lear are not represented as typical, nor are the judgments made in the play represented as wise or reliable. This complicates any attempt to interpret the play as making the sorts of claims that Professor Weitz attributes to it.
    • The Academy IS Political

      Harcleroad, Fred F.; American College Testing Program (1/1/1970)
      The university is political as a matter of fact, and the people who hold the power are the people who have the money and fund the university. However, Henry Aiken is wrong about the history of General Education. It was not created for ideological purposes.
    • Professor Ayer’s Honest Ghost

      Hartnack, Justus; The College at Brockport (1/1/1970)
      Professor Ayer is right that Ryle’s strongest thesis is incorrect. However, I do not agree with all of Ayer’s arguments for that conclusion. I also wish that Professor Ayer had examined some other mental concepts, which also seem to resist any kind of behaviorist reduction.
    • The Scientific Enterprise and Social Conscience

      Edel, Abraham; City University of New York (1/1/1970)
      The scientific enterprise is constantly changing, and the moral conscience of society changes as well. The moral obligations of scientists to society change with both of these changes. Four such changes are especially relevant here. Over time, society has come to accept the idea of intervening to change the course of nature. Both science and society have begun to believe that there are no principled barriers to progress in science. Within society, there has emerged an “ecological mode of thought.” Finally, the relationship between theory and practice has changed. All four of these changes profoundly affect the ethics of science in society today.
    • Response to Professor Marshall Cohen

      Hughes, Graham; New York University (1/1/1970)
      At trial, a civil disobedient may appeal to his reasonable belief in the unconstitutionality of the law that he violated. However, he cannot appeal to any technical difficulties that would require him to lie about his performance of the act in question, or about the role of his conscience in motivating his action.
    • Response to Professor A. J. Ayer

      Taylor, Richard; University of Rochester (1/1/1970)
      Professor Ryle does not deny the common distinction between inner and outer, nor that between public and private. What he denies is that either of these distinctions entail a third distinction – between minds and bodies. As far as I can tell, Professor Ayer has not shown that Ryle is mistaken about that.
    • From the Platitudinous to the Absurd

      Hook, Sidney; New York University (1/1/1970)
      Henry Aiken has misrepresented the history of the university, and the historical context of this debate. The university should be depoliticized in order to protect academic freedom.
    • Can American Universities be Depoliticized

      Aiken, Henry David; Brandeis University (1/1/1970)
      Every institution in society is involved in politics, and the university is no exception. So the university cannot be depoliticized. The question is how, and to what ends the university should be involved in politics. The answer is determined by the task of the university, which is to educate men and women for life in a free society. This has some specific political implications.
    • An Honest Ghost?

      Ayer, A. J.; Oxford University (1/1/1970)
      Gilbert Ryle’s The Concept of Mind purports to exorcise “the ghost in the machine” by translating all talk about the mind into talk about behavior, and sometimes Ryle asserts that he has succeeded in this endeavor. However, on closer inspection, there is still a residue of our private, mental lives left in Ryle’s account. So the ghost remains. But perhaps it is a more honest ghost, and that is still quite an achievement.
    • Remarks on ‘Philosophy and the Curriculum’

      Wilson, John D.; Wells College (1/1/1971)
      The ‘philosophy-of’ approach advocated by Professor Scheffler would be enormously helpful to the future teacher. Systematic experience with the philosophical literature in his area will do more to bolster the confidence of the teacher than almost anything else that he or she will learn in the liberal arts.
    • Philosophy and the Curriculum

      Scheffler, Israel; Harvard University (1/1/1971)
      There are many ways in which philosophy can contribute to the improvement of education. This paper proposes one particular contribution. Those who are studying to be teachers should be taught some of the philosophy that is related to the discipline that they will teach. There are four ways in which this can contribute to their education. First, it will give an analytical description of the forms of thought employed in their discipline. Second, it will provide some evaluation and criticism of those same forms of thought. Third, it will analyze some specific materials in such a way as to systematize them and illustrate these forms of thought. Fourth, it will provide an interpretation of these forms of thought that is accessible to the novice.
    • Ethical and Epistemic Dilemmas of Behaviorism and the Identity Thesis

      Stack, George J.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1971)
      Jerome Shaffer’s argument against behaviorism and the identity theory assume that the wrongness of causing pain is constituted entirely by that effect. However, the intrinsic wrongness of such actions lies in the intentions of the agent, not in the physical responses of the victim.
    • Religion and Belief

      Keene, J. Calvin; St. Lawrence University (1/1/1971)
      I agree with Dr. Blanshard that religion needs reason, and belief should be made as rational as possible. It is an ethical responsibility to believe the truth. But belief always includes an element of tentativeness. So belief is sometimes appropriate, even in the absence of compelling evidence. Moreover, religion is related to a very different reality than is science. Consequently, the kinds of evidence that are appropriate to the one are not necessarily appropriate to the other. Insofar as God is conceived as a person, rather than an impersonal object, God cannot be approached or studied in the way in which we study impersonal objects.
    • The Philosophy of Mind and Some Ethical Implications

      Shaffer, Jerome A.; University of Connecticut (1/1/1971)
      Materialism is the view that the only things in existence are material – matter in motion. Materialists hold that mental events are either identical to bodily events, or that mental events are particular kinds of behavior exhibited by particular material objects. These theories face several serious problems, involving spatial location, privileged access, and other phenomena. Moreover, these theories cannot explain why it is wrong to cause pain in another person. It is not obvious why it is wrong to cause another person to exhibit pain behavior, nor is it obviously wrong to cause physical events to occur in another person’s brain. These ethical implications of behaviorism and the identity theory constitute serious disadvantages for those theories. Consequently, what we have here is an argument for dualism.