Dissenting Voices is a student engineered eJournal collaboratively designed, authored, and published by undergraduate Women and Gender Studies majors in connection with their Women and Gender Studies Senior Seminar at SUNY Brockport. Dissenting Voices grows out of a course learning structure through which Women and Gender Studies students could reflect upon their undergraduate experience in the discipline, and through engagement, activism, and synthesis of acquired knowledge, establish a theoretical foundation to inform future feminist practices. Course readings comprised students’ discipline-specific interests, enabling an intellectual forum in which majors dialogued on a women and gender focused topic. This work culminated in a meaningful capstone project grounded in contemporary and emerging feminist scholarship. Journal topics span issues organic to college campuses and surrounding communities. In broader strokes, they call into question contested gender equity measures overlaying home and nation. Dissenting Voices preserves the authenticity of student voice, sanctioning a wide range of ability and talent as engendered within students’ senior seminar coursework. Error in topic interpretation can occur and is the nature of undergraduate student learning.
|Table of Contents|
|1 (2012)||Issue 1|
|2 (2013)||Issue 1|
|3 (2014)||Issue 1|
|4 (2015)||Issue 1|
|5 (2016)||Issue 1|
|6 (2017)||Issue 1|
|7 (2018)||Issue 1|
|8 (2019)||Issue 1|
|9 (2020)||Issue 1|
|10 (2021)||Issue 1|
|11 (2022)||Issue 1|
|12 (2023)||Issue 1|
Our primary purpose in creating this journal was to construct an arena that facilitated the reflection of our feminist journeys, making connections between disconnected identities. Our hope is that Dissenting Voices becomes a beacon of change, a mechanism of interchange for scholar activists from across the diverse spectrum of identity within our discipline. The publication of the first issue and the completion of the design for this journal is not the culmination of our journey. Rather, this publication demands that we utilize our creativity, diverse backgrounds and academic interests to engage in topics that are as problematic as they are crucial in the hopes that Dissenting Voices transcends our scholarship. We have made every effort to build a community that is inclusive of all people, to have a permanent impact, and to share our activism by spreading our knowledge, but we do realize that our scholarship is both transient and fluid. The completion of this journal and the publication of the first issue is only the beginning of our vision. Gazing into the future, we recognize the continued need for a compelling voice that declares the universal accessibility and opportunities that feminism and feminist activism offers for everyone. We hope that Dissenting Voices will be an activist tool for the exploration of feminism and gender equality now and into the future.
Em Scrivani, WMS ‘12
Sherly Urena, WMS, ENG, ‘12
Barbara LeSavoy, PhD, The College at Brockport
Pat Maxwell, MLS, The College at Brockport
Tristan Bridges, PhD, The College at Brockport
Amber A. Humphrey, MA, The College at Brockport
Jennifer M. Lloyd, PhD, Associate Professor Emerita, The College at Brockport
Barbara Mitrano, EdD, The College at Brockport
Megan L. Obourn, PhD, The College at Brockport
Philosophy of Dissenting Voices
For more information, please see Dissenting Voices Founders' Statement above.
Who Can Submit?
Anyone may submit an original article to be considered for publication in Dissenting Voices provided he or she owns the copyright to the work being submitted or is authorized by the copyright owner or owners to submit the article. Authors are the initial owners of the copyrights to their works (an exception in the non-academic world to this might exist if the authors have, as a condition of employment, agreed to transfer copyright to their employer).
General Submission Rules
Submitted articles cannot have been previously published, nor be forthcoming in an archival journal or book (print or electronic). Please note: "publication" in a working-paper series does not constitute prior publication. In addition, by submitting material to Dissenting Voices, the author is stipulating that the material is not currently under review at another journal (electronic or print) and that he or she will not submit the material to another journal (electronic or print) until the completion of the editorial decision process at Dissenting Voices. If you have concerns about the submission terms for Dissenting Voices, please contact the editors.
Dissenting Voices has no general rules about the formatting of articles upon initial submission. There are, however, rules governing the formatting of the final submission. See Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for details. It is ultimately the responsibility of the author to produce an electronic version of the article as a high-quality PDF (Adobe's Portable Document Format) file, or a Microsoft Word, WordPerfect or RTF file that can be converted to a PDF file.
It is understood that the current state of technology of Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) is such that there are no, and can be no, guarantees that documents in PDF will work perfectly with all possible hardware and software configurations that readers may have.
Rights for Authors
As further described in our submission agreement (the Submission Agreement), in consideration for publication of the article, the authors assign to SUNY Open Access Repository all copyright in the article, subject to the expansive personal--use exceptions described below.
Attribution and Usage Policies
Reproduction, posting, transmission or other distribution or use of the article or any material therein, in any medium as permitted by a personal-use exemption or by written agreement of SUNY Open Access Repository, requires credit to SUNY Open Access Repository as copyright holder (e.g., SUNY Open Access Repository © 2021).
The following uses are always permitted to the author(s) and do not require further permission from SUNY Open Access Repository kport provided the author does not alter the format or content of the articles, including the copyright notification:
- Storage and back-up of the article on the author's computer(s) and digital media (e.g., diskettes, back-up servers, Zip disks, etc.), provided that the article stored on these computers and media is not readily accessible by persons other than the author(s);
- Posting of the article on the author(s) personal website, provided that the website is non-commercial;
- Posting of the article on the internet as part of a non-commercial open access institutional repository or other non-commercial open access publication site affiliated with the author(s)'s place of employment (e.g., a Phrenology professor at the University of Southern North Dakota can have her article appear in the University of Southern North Dakota's Department of Phrenology online publication series); and
- Posting of the article on a non-commercial course website for a course being taught by the author at the university or college employing the author.
People seeking an exception, or who have questions about use, should contact the editors.
Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for Dissenting Voices
This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to final manuscript submission to Dissenting Voices.
- Do not include a title page or abstract. (Begin the document with the introduction; a title page, including the abstract, will be added to your paper by the editors.)
- Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers. These will be added by the editors.
- Write your article in English (unless the journal expressly permits non-English submissions).
- Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word, RTF, or PDF files are accepted).
- Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
- All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), including your tables and figures.
- Single space your text.
- Use a single column layout with both left and right margins justified.
- Main Body - 12 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
- Footnotes - 10 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
- If figures are included, use high-resolution figures, preferably encoded as encapsulated PostScript (eps).
- Copyedit your manuscript.
- When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.
Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification
Indent all paragraphs except those following a section heading. An indent should be at least 2 em-spaces.
Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.
Don't "widow" or "orphan" text (i.e., ending a page with the first line of a paragraph or beginning a page with the last line of a paragraph).
All text should be left-justified (i.e., flush with the left margin - except where indented). Where possible, it should also be right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin). "Where possible" refers to the quality of the justification. For example, LaTeX and TeX do an excellent job of justifying text. Word does a reasonable job. But some word processors do a lousy job (e.g., they achieve right justification by inserting too much white space within and between words). We prefer flush right margins. However, it is better to have jagged right margins than to have flush right margins with awkward intra- and inter-word spacing. Make your decision on whichever looks best.
Language & Grammar
All submissions must be in English. Except for common foreign words and phrases, the use of foreign words and phrases should be avoided.
Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (now in its fourth edition) is the "standard" guide, but other excellent guides (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press) exist as well.
Because this journal publishes electronically, page limits are not as relevant as they are in the world of print publications. We are happy, therefore, to let authors take advantage of this greater "bandwidth" to include material that they might otherwise have to cut to get into a print journal. This said, authors should exercise some discretion with respect to length.
Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc., however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.
Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup.)
Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.
Except, possibly, where special symbols are needed, use Times or the closest comparable font available. If you desire a second font, for instance for headings, use a sans serif font (e.g., Arial or Computer Modern Sans Serif).
The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Avoid the use of fonts smaller than 6pt.
Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.
Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text by their fonts or by using small caps. Use the same font face for all headings and indicate the hierarchy by reducing the font size. There should be space above and below headings.
The font for the main body of text must be black and, if at all possible, in Times or closest comparable font available.
Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.
Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be in 10 pt. Times or closest comparable font available, they should be single spaced, and there should be a footnote separator rule (line). Footnote numbers or symbols in the text must follow, rather than precede, punctuation. Excessively long footnotes are probably better handled in an appendix. All footnotes should be left and right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin), unless this creates awkward spacing.
Tables and Figures
To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.
Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.
Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.
Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.
Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help insure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly on her printer. When proofing your document under PDF pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from other than standard fonts.
It is the author's obligation to provide complete references with the necessary information. After the last sentence of your submission, please insert a line break - not a page break - and begin your references on the same page, if possible. References should appear right after the end of the document, beginning on the last page if possible. References should have margins that are both left and right- justified. You may choose not to right-justify the margin of one or more references if the spacing looks too awkward. Each reference should give the last names of all the authors, their first names or first initials, and, optionally, their middle initials. The hierarchy for ordering the references is:
- Last name of first author
- First name of first author
- Last name of second author (if any). Co-authored work is listed after solo-authored work by the same first author (e.g., Edlin, Aaron S. would precede Edlin, Aaron S. and Stefan Reichelstein).
- First name of second author
- Publication date
- Order cited in text
The information to be given with each citation in the references is as follows:
Articles in traditional journals:
Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of article, name of journal, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), volume number, page numbers.
Optional (but desirable): issue number and month/season of publication. For forthcoming (in press) articles, put expected year of publication and substitute "forthcoming" for the volume and page numbers.
Optional(but desirable): A hyperlink to the article.
Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of book, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), publisher, publisher's address, edition (if not first). For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming."
Chapters in collections or anthologies:
Required: Name(s) of author(s) of chapter, name(s) of editor(s) of book, title of chapter, title of book, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), publisher, publisher's address, and edition (if not first). For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming."
Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of working paper, year (or "n.d." if no date), location (e.g., "Department of Economics Working Paper, University of California, Berkeley" or "Author's web site: http://www.someurl.edu/author." If the working paper is part of series, then the series name and the number of the working paper within the series must also be given.
Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of work, year (or "n.d." if no date), and information about how the reader could obtain a copy.
Within the references section, the citations can be formatted as you like, provided (i) the formatting is consistent and (ii) each citation begins with the last name of the first author. That is, the following would all be acceptable:
Smith, Adam (1776) The Wealth of Nations, . . .
Smith, A., The Wealth of Nations, . . . , 1776.
Smith, Adam: The Wealth of Nations, 1776, . . .
Use hanging indents for citations (i.e., the first line of the citation should be flush with the left margin and all other lines should be indented from the left margin by a set amount). Citations should be single-spaced with extra space between citations.
When works by the same author are listed in a row, use - instead of writing the name again. Hence, one might have
Smith, Adam: The Wealth of Nations, . . .
- : The Theory of Moral Sentiments, . . .
Similarly, instead of repeating two names use
" - and - ."
Edlin, A. and S. Reichelstein (1995) . . . - and - (1996) . . .
Within the text of your manuscript, use the author-date method of citation. For instance,
"As noted by Smith (1776)."
When there are two authors, use both last names. For instance,
"Edlin and Reichelstein (1996) claim . . . "
If there are three or more authors give the last name of the first author and append et al. For instance, a 1987 work by Abel, Baker, and Charley, would be cited as
"Abel et al. (1987)."
If two or more cited works share the same authors and dates, use "a," "b," and so on to distinguish among them. For instance,
"Jones (1994b) provides a more general analysis of the model introduced in Example 3 of Jones (1994a)."
After the first cite in the text using the author-date method, subsequent cites can use just the last names if that would be unambiguous. For example, Edlin and Reichelstein (1996) can be followed by just Edlin and Reichelstein provided no other Edlin & Reichelstein article is referenced; if one is, then the date must always be attached.
When citations appear within parentheses, use commas - rather than parentheses or brackets - to separate the date from the surrounding text. For instance,
" ...(see Smith, 1776, for an early discussion of this)."
Misrepresentation of Queer Folks in TheatreThis essay uses content analysis to explain the misrepresentation of queer folks in theatre. This topic is important because a lack of proper representation can harm young queer people. I hope readers understand the information presented and advocate for proper representation.
The Reality of Maternal MortalityThis paper explores the racial disparities of maternal mortality, with a focus on the disparities between Black and White women. This topic is important because it is not gaining enough attention on a national scale and it highlights the fact that institutional racism is still very well prevalent in the medical world (e.g., Tuskegee syphilis study, sterilization of Puerto Rican women or the exploitation of Henrietta Lacks’ (HeLa) cells). I hope to bring knowledge on how racism and medical implicit bias can affect people’s quality of life specifically women of color.
Stolen Sisters…Violence against Indigenous WomenThis essay investigates the violence perpetrated against Indigenous women using a social constructivist and feminist perspective. This topic is important because it is often overlooked by society and the media. The violence and assault that Native women experience is an epidemic that has been an ongoing issue that has plagued the Indigenous community. I hope readers will understand the importance that all women regardless of race or class deserve to feel safe.
Not Woman Enough: A Trans Lesbian EpistemologyThis essay explores the concepts of epistemic oppression and gender essentialism from a transfeminist, transfeminine, lesbian lens utilizing a mixed-methods autoethnography which incorporates elements of discourse analysis and phenomenology. This topic is important because of the continued underrepresentation of trans, especially transfeminine, voices in the study of trans experiences. I hope that readers will examine their own relationship with gender essentialism.
The Changes in Sexuality Over Time Through Life ExperiencesThis essay explores the evidence of changes in sexuality that may occur throughout time during the course of many women's lives. The multiple theories proposed in this essay include ideas addressing variation in sexual attitudes and desires as different life experiences present themselves. This essay challenges biology and the concept of nature and nurture in a way that sexuality can be a result of both, not just one or the other. By having an understanding of how sexuality can change, we can begin to acknowledge the women who are struggling with these newfound inclinations and find ways to help them continue on with their lives as desired.
Healthcare Inferno: Exposing Medical Bias and Recounting StoriesThis essay explores medical/healthcare bias, its harms, and how it has personally impacted my health and been exacerbated by my social identities. This topic is important because healthcare bias is under-recognized and causes people to suffer and even die. My goal is to educate readers on healthcare bias and inspire healthcare professionals to work on their biases.
Dissenting Voices Volume 12Epistemic control of gender oppresses us. We challenge biology and the concept of nature and nurture in a way that sexuality can be a result of both, not just one or the other. We argue that violence and assault against Native women is an ongoing epidemic that plagues the indigenous community. We confront the toxic misrepresentation of queer identity in theatre. We expose the detrimental impacts of healthcare bias and highlight ways healthcare bias increases Black maternal death. We come together in strength and unity to dismantle oppressive systems around us. Leana Colletti (she/her), Julie Kim (she/her), Kendra Mace (she/her), Alexis Rivera (she/her), Kylene Smith (she/her), Kay Timmons (they/them) Table of Contents: Opening Voices-- Kay Timmons: Not Woman Enough: A Trans Lesbian Epistemology..1; Kylene Smith: Stolen Sisters…Violence against Indigenous Women ..13. More Voices --Alexis Rivera: Nature and Nurture: The Changes in Sexuality Over Time Through Life Experiences.. 23; Kendra Mace: The Misrepresentation of Queer Folks in Theatre..31. Closing Voices-- Leana Colletti: Healthcare Inferno: Exposing Medical Bias and Recounting Stories..41; Julie Kim: The Reality of Maternal Mortality..53
Breaking the Binary: Failure to Adhere to the Laws of the Traditional Gender BinaryThis essay provides a framework for conceptualizing the social construction of the traditional gender binary within a patriarchal society. The research explores the history of the singular they as well as gender nonconforming identities through a socio-historical lens and utilizes the Social Role (Eagly & Wood, 2011) and Social Identity Theories (Tajfel, 1972) to argue the importance of language and performativity in conceptualizing gender identity, gender performance, and biological sex.
Sex-Based Discrimination in the Workplace: A Closer LookWorkplace discrimination is common in businesses all over the United States. It is crucial to understand different components of discrimination, like bullying, the wage gap, and verbal invalidation which I discuss in this essay. I also offer a possible solution to workplace discrimination and detail the gender wage gap across time.
Menstruation and Restrooms: The Gender Nonconforming Community's OppressorsThis essay focuses on the struggles of menstruation and public bathrooms for gender nonconforming communities. This topic is important because the barriers faced by gender nonconforming communities are frequently ignored and create a harmful environment. I argue the importance of menstrual product accessibility because it is important for those who menstruate to have the necessary products available in all public spaces. I also argue for bathroom equality because everyone deserves a bathroom they feel comfortable and safe in. I hope to raise awareness about the importance of bathroom equality and convince readers of how beneficial it truly is for those who identify as gender nonconforming to be heard.
LGBTQIA+ Experiences in Nursing Home SettingsThis essay looks at the experiences of queer individuals and their treatment in healthcare settings; specifically, in nursing homes. The essay focuses on the treatment of queer workers in nursing homes based on a personal account and the treatment of queer individuals living in nursing homes based on research and stories.
An Impasse of Belonging: An Exploration of How Language Impacts IdentityThis essay seeks to identify how the use of language inherently impacts identity. Through the use of historical and influential texts, the essay draws attention to how language as an entity over time has evolved and adapted to continuously perpetuate inequalities. In this essay specifically, the inequalities that are discussed at length are lived and experienced by bisexual women.
Dissenting Voices Volume 11Table of Contents. Opening Voices: Meghan Martin An Impasse of Belonging: An Exploration of How Gender Impacts Identity. More Voices: Brandon Eldredge: LGBTQIA+ Experiences in Nursing Home Settings. Samantha Holmes: Menstruation and Restrooms: The Gender Nonconforming Community's Oppressors. Beth Heberger: Sex-based Discrimination in the Workplace: A Closer Look. Closing Voices. Riley Johnson: Breaking the Binary: Failure to Adhere to the Laws of the Traditional Gender Binary.
Intersecting Identities: Middle Eastern Women in Dual CulturesDual cultures are an experience known only to people who live in two cultures. I was inspired by my poetry and the experiences that I and my family went through as women as well as the stories of Middle Eastern women I read. They lived in dual cultures and experienced violence in their homelands alongside wars and sexism from both cultures they lived in. In the Western culture, they also experienced racism. I, as an Iraqi, tend to turn to poetry to express the variety of injustices I observed, and my people tend to do that. We are well known for our poetry that speaks about our experiences.
Disability Representations in High School English CurriculumThis essay explores the common misconceptions of disability, why disability representation is important, and provides an example of disability studies application through the novel The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini (2003).
When I Realized I was the Gay Best Friend: Queer Media Representation and the “Coming Out” ProcessThis essay examines queer representation in widespread media and its impact during the coming out process. I examine three coming out stories in popular media and use my own story to shine a light on the challenges of coming out as LGBTQIA+. I hope readers who are struggling with coming out can use these examples to voice their LGBTQIA+ stories.
Is Our Medical Community Failing Women? The PTSD Epidemic among Women in the United StatesPTSD has become fairly recognized within the United States Medical Community. Experts have begun to expand PTSD research beyond the confines of PTSD due to war and have begun looking at PTSD in the civilian populations. Due to this advancement in research, we now know that certain identities, like gender, can put someone at a higher risk for developing PTSD. In this essay I argue that even though we are aware that gender, and more specifically being a woman, can increase someone’s chances of developing PTSD, we still see women being misdiagnosed and mistreated by medical professionals. I examine this perspective through an analysis of current PTSD literature regarding women and compare it to my own experience as a young woman who sought out PTSD diagnosis and treatment.
Looking into the Prevalence of Substance Abuse among the LGBTQIA+ PopulationIn this essay, I explore the prevalence of and reasons for substance abuse among the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning, Intersex, & Asexual, or LGBTQIA+ community and ways to lessen the stigma and provide for more adequate treatment opportunities.
STOP: The Sexualization of Women & GirlsThis essay argues that the current mainstream Western beauty ideal in the United States both fetishizes the prepubescent female body and infantilizes the adult female body. This intersection works together to create impossible standards for women and girls and ultimately can perpetuate sexual violence against women and girls.
Varied Experiences of Fat BodiesThis essay argues that the varied experiences of fat bodies are not reflected in the media or public spaces of our society. In creating a world that physically has no room for fat bodies and is socially unkind and unwelcoming, the varied experiences cannot be told let alone be allowed to be understood. Voices of those who are fat need to be uplifted to create more accessible spaces for all.