Dissenting Voices is a student engineered eJournal collaboratively designed, authored, and published by undergraduate Women and Gender Studies majors in connection with their Women and Gender Studies Senior Seminar at SUNY Brockport. Dissenting Voices grows out of a course learning structure through which Women and Gender Studies students could reflect upon their undergraduate experience in the discipline, and through engagement, activism, and synthesis of acquired knowledge, establish a theoretical foundation to inform future feminist practices. Course readings comprised students’ discipline-specific interests, enabling an intellectual forum in which majors dialogued on a women and gender focused topic. This work culminated in a meaningful capstone project grounded in contemporary and emerging feminist scholarship. Journal topics span issues organic to college campuses and surrounding communities. In broader strokes, they call into question contested gender equity measures overlaying home and nation. Dissenting Voices preserves the authenticity of student voice, sanctioning a wide range of ability and talent as engendered within students’ senior seminar coursework. Error in topic interpretation can occur and is the nature of undergraduate student learning.

Table of Contents
1 (2012) Issue 1
2 (2013) Issue 1
3 (2014) Issue 1
4 (2015) Issue 1
5 (2016) Issue 1
6 (2017) Issue 1
7 (2018) Issue 1
8 (2019) Issue 1
9 (2020) Issue 1

Our primary purpose in creating this journal was to construct an arena that facilitated the reflection of our feminist journeys, making connections between disconnected identities. Our hope is that Dissenting Voices becomes a beacon of change, a mechanism of interchange for scholar activists from across the diverse spectrum of identity within our discipline. The publication of the first issue and the completion of the design for this journal is not the culmination of our journey. Rather, this publication demands that we utilize our creativity, diverse backgrounds and academic interests to engage in topics that are as problematic as they are crucial in the hopes that Dissenting Voices transcends our scholarship. We have made every effort to build a community that is inclusive of all people, to have a permanent impact, and to share our activism by spreading our knowledge, but we do realize that our scholarship is both transient and fluid. The completion of this journal and the publication of the first issue is only the beginning of our vision. Gazing into the future, we recognize the continued need for a compelling voice that declares the universal accessibility and opportunities that feminism and feminist activism offers for everyone. We hope that Dissenting Voices will be an activist tool for the exploration of feminism and gender equality now and into the future.

Em Scrivani, WMS ‘12
Sherly Urena, WMS, ENG, ‘12

Executive Editor

Barbara LeSavoy, PhD, The College at Brockport

Managing Editor

Pat Maxwell, MLS, The College at Brockport

Editorial Board

Tristan Bridges, PhD, The College at Brockport

Amber A. Humphrey, MA, The College at Brockport

Jennifer M. Lloyd, PhD, Associate Professor Emerita, The College at Brockport

Barbara Mitrano, EdD, The College at Brockport

Megan L. Obourn, PhD, The College at Brockport

Philosophy of Dissenting Voices

For more information, please see Dissenting Voices Founders' Statement above.

Who Can Submit?

Anyone may submit an original article to be considered for publication in Dissenting Voices provided he or she owns the copyright to the work being submitted or is authorized by the copyright owner or owners to submit the article. Authors are the initial owners of the copyrights to their works (an exception in the non-academic world to this might exist if the authors have, as a condition of employment, agreed to transfer copyright to their employer).

General Submission Rules

Submitted articles cannot have been previously published, nor be forthcoming in an archival journal or book (print or electronic). Please note: "publication" in a working-paper series does not constitute prior publication. In addition, by submitting material to Dissenting Voices, the author is stipulating that the material is not currently under review at another journal (electronic or print) and that he or she will not submit the material to another journal (electronic or print) until the completion of the editorial decision process at Dissenting Voices. If you have concerns about the submission terms for Dissenting Voices, please contact the editors.

Formatting Requirements

Dissenting Voices has no general rules about the formatting of articles upon initial submission. There are, however, rules governing the formatting of the final submission. See Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for details. It is ultimately the responsibility of the author to produce an electronic version of the article as a high-quality PDF (Adobe's Portable Document Format) file, or a Microsoft Word, WordPerfect or RTF file that can be converted to a PDF file.

It is understood that the current state of technology of Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) is such that there are no, and can be no, guarantees that documents in PDF will work perfectly with all possible hardware and software configurations that readers may have.

Rights for Authors

As further described in our submission agreement (the Submission Agreement), in consideration for publication of the article, the authors assign to SUNY Open Access Repository all copyright in the article, subject to the expansive personal--use exceptions described below.

Attribution and Usage Policies

Reproduction, posting, transmission or other distribution or use of the article or any material therein, in any medium as permitted by a personal-use exemption or by written agreement of SUNY Open Access Repository, requires credit to SUNY Open Access Repository as copyright holder (e.g., SUNY Open Access Repository © 2021).

Personal-use Exceptions

The following uses are always permitted to the author(s) and do not require further permission from SUNY Open Access Repository kport provided the author does not alter the format or content of the articles, including the copyright notification:

  • Storage and back-up of the article on the author's computer(s) and digital media (e.g., diskettes, back-up servers, Zip disks, etc.), provided that the article stored on these computers and media is not readily accessible by persons other than the author(s);
  • Posting of the article on the author(s) personal website, provided that the website is non-commercial;
  • Posting of the article on the internet as part of a non-commercial open access institutional repository or other non-commercial open access publication site affiliated with the author(s)'s place of employment (e.g., a Phrenology professor at the University of Southern North Dakota can have her article appear in the University of Southern North Dakota's Department of Phrenology online publication series); and
  • Posting of the article on a non-commercial course website for a course being taught by the author at the university or college employing the author.

People seeking an exception, or who have questions about use, should contact the editors.

Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for Dissenting Voices

This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to final manuscript submission to Dissenting Voices.

Formatting Requirements

  • Do not include a title page or abstract. (Begin the document with the introduction; a title page, including the abstract, will be added to your paper by the editors.)
  • Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers. These will be added by the editors.
  • Write your article in English (unless the journal expressly permits non-English submissions).
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word, RTF, or PDF files are accepted).
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
  • All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), including your tables and figures.
  • Single space your text.
  • Use a single column layout with both left and right margins justified.
  • Font:
    1. Main Body - 12 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
    2. Footnotes - 10 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
  • If figures are included, use high-resolution figures, preferably encoded as encapsulated PostScript (eps).
  • Copyedit your manuscript.
  • When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.

Additional Recommendations

Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification

Indent all paragraphs except those following a section heading. An indent should be at least 2 em-spaces.

Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.

Don't "widow" or "orphan" text (i.e., ending a page with the first line of a paragraph or beginning a page with the last line of a paragraph).

All text should be left-justified (i.e., flush with the left margin - except where indented). Where possible, it should also be right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin). "Where possible" refers to the quality of the justification. For example, LaTeX and TeX do an excellent job of justifying text. Word does a reasonable job. But some word processors do a lousy job (e.g., they achieve right justification by inserting too much white space within and between words). We prefer flush right margins. However, it is better to have jagged right margins than to have flush right margins with awkward intra- and inter-word spacing. Make your decision on whichever looks best.

Language & Grammar

All submissions must be in English. Except for common foreign words and phrases, the use of foreign words and phrases should be avoided.

Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (now in its fourth edition) is the "standard" guide, but other excellent guides (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press) exist as well.

Article Length

Because this journal publishes electronically, page limits are not as relevant as they are in the world of print publications. We are happy, therefore, to let authors take advantage of this greater "bandwidth" to include material that they might otherwise have to cut to get into a print journal. This said, authors should exercise some discretion with respect to length.

Colored text

Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc., however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.

Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup.)

Emphasized text

Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.

Font faces

Except, possibly, where special symbols are needed, use Times or the closest comparable font available. If you desire a second font, for instance for headings, use a sans serif font (e.g., Arial or Computer Modern Sans Serif).

Font size

The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Avoid the use of fonts smaller than 6pt.

Foreign terms

Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.


Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text by their fonts or by using small caps. Use the same font face for all headings and indicate the hierarchy by reducing the font size. There should be space above and below headings.

Main text

The font for the main body of text must be black and, if at all possible, in Times or closest comparable font available.


Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.


Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be in 10 pt. Times or closest comparable font available, they should be single spaced, and there should be a footnote separator rule (line). Footnote numbers or symbols in the text must follow, rather than precede, punctuation. Excessively long footnotes are probably better handled in an appendix. All footnotes should be left and right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin), unless this creates awkward spacing.

Tables and Figures

To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.


Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.

Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.

Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.

Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help insure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly on her printer. When proofing your document under PDF pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from other than standard fonts.


It is the author's obligation to provide complete references with the necessary information. After the last sentence of your submission, please insert a line break - not a page break - and begin your references on the same page, if possible. References should appear right after the end of the document, beginning on the last page if possible. References should have margins that are both left and right- justified. You may choose not to right-justify the margin of one or more references if the spacing looks too awkward. Each reference should give the last names of all the authors, their first names or first initials, and, optionally, their middle initials. The hierarchy for ordering the references is:

  1. Last name of first author
  2. First name of first author
  3. Last name of second author (if any). Co-authored work is listed after solo-authored work by the same first author (e.g., Edlin, Aaron S. would precede Edlin, Aaron S. and Stefan Reichelstein).
  4. First name of second author
  5. Publication date
  6. Order cited in text

The information to be given with each citation in the references is as follows:

Articles in traditional journals:

Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of article, name of journal, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), volume number, page numbers.

Optional (but desirable): issue number and month/season of publication. For forthcoming (in press) articles, put expected year of publication and substitute "forthcoming" for the volume and page numbers.

Optional(but desirable): A hyperlink to the article.


Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of book, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), publisher, publisher's address, edition (if not first). For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming."

Chapters in collections or anthologies:

Required: Name(s) of author(s) of chapter, name(s) of editor(s) of book, title of chapter, title of book, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), publisher, publisher's address, and edition (if not first). For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming."

Working papers:

Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of working paper, year (or "n.d." if no date), location (e.g., "Department of Economics Working Paper, University of California, Berkeley" or "Author's web site: http://www.someurl.edu/author." If the working paper is part of series, then the series name and the number of the working paper within the series must also be given.

Other works:

Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of work, year (or "n.d." if no date), and information about how the reader could obtain a copy.

Within the references section, the citations can be formatted as you like, provided (i) the formatting is consistent and (ii) each citation begins with the last name of the first author. That is, the following would all be acceptable:

Smith, Adam (1776) The Wealth of Nations, . . .
Smith, A., The Wealth of Nations, . . . , 1776. 
Smith, Adam: The Wealth of Nations, 1776, . . .

Use hanging indents for citations (i.e., the first line of the citation should be flush with the left margin and all other lines should be indented from the left margin by a set amount). Citations should be single-spaced with extra space between citations.

When works by the same author are listed in a row, use - instead of writing the name again. Hence, one might have

Smith, Adam: The Wealth of Nations, . . .
 - : The Theory of Moral Sentiments, . . . 

Similarly, instead of repeating two names use

" -  and  - ."

For instance,

Edlin, A. and S. Reichelstein (1995) . . .
 -  and  -  (1996) . . . 

Within the text of your manuscript, use the author-date method of citation. For instance,

"As noted by Smith (1776)." 

When there are two authors, use both last names. For instance,

"Edlin and Reichelstein (1996) claim . . . "

If there are three or more authors give the last name of the first author and append et al. For instance, a 1987 work by Abel, Baker, and Charley, would be cited as

"Abel et al. (1987)." 

If two or more cited works share the same authors and dates, use "a," "b," and so on to distinguish among them. For instance,

"Jones (1994b) provides a more general analysis of the model introduced
in Example 3 of Jones (1994a)."

After the first cite in the text using the author-date method, subsequent cites can use just the last names if that would be unambiguous. For example, Edlin and Reichelstein (1996) can be followed by just Edlin and Reichelstein provided no other Edlin & Reichelstein article is referenced; if one is, then the date must always be attached.

When citations appear within parentheses, use commas - rather than parentheses or brackets - to separate the date from the surrounding text. For instance,

" ...(see Smith, 1776, for an early discussion of this)."

Recent Submissions

  • Treatment of Female Politicians and Impact on Voter Perception in the U.S.

    Bygall, Jenna B. (8/9/2019)
    This essay explores the treatment of female politicians in the United States government and the impact of negative treatment on potential candidates as well as voters’ perception of said candidates. Readers may obtain a better understanding of the stereotypes, double standards, and biases that are projected upon female politicians in the U.S. This work is based on a literature review of peer-reviewed journal entries, research-based books, and credible news sources.
  • Why are there No Great, Female, and Egyptian Scholars?

    Mohamed, Jasmine (8/9/2019)
    This essay is a study on the topics that Egyptian women shine their lights on. I write this because I identify as an Egyptian woman, and I never hear these women’s names during my scholarship. I hope readers receive a sense of individualism for the “othered” women who write their ways out of their binds. My topic is crucial because Egyptian women are bound to either sexism in their own culture and racism in others, which begs my theory of a third space.
  • Readying the Rape Rack: Feminism and the Exploitation of Non-Human Reproductive Systems

    April, Mackenzie L.; The College at Brockport, State University of New York (8/9/2019)
    In this paper I will discuss the sexual exploitation of non-human bodies, specifically, dairy cows. As a vegan and animal rights activist, I feel compelled to take this opportunity to share and maybe even enlighten fellow social justice advocates on feminist aspects of animal agriculture, an under-researched topic that many overlook and might not even consider relevant to feminist discourse.
  • The Pretty Pink Box

    Knapp, Allie; The College at Brockport, State University of New York (8/9/2019)
    This essay focuses on the consumerization, capitalization, and popularization of feminism within mainstream culture: how it is branded, how it is portrayed, and who it represents. As a young consumer and feminist, I acknowledge that this needs to be addressed for the sole reason that feminism is not a trend or fad that can afford to die out for its goals and strife are far from over- when we water down a political and social movement based on equality into nothing more than a trendy label, we put our needs at risk. It is important to critique and question what is happening around us even if it is appears to be “fighting” the good fight.
  • Our Voices

    Bygall, Jenna B.; Mohamed, Jasmine; Karapinar, Christina; Knapp, Allie; Kupiec, Kelsie; Whitehorne, Angelica; April, Mackenzie L.; The College at Brockport, State University of New York (8/9/2019)
    Our voices provide a sense of individualization for the ‘othered’ women who write their ways out of their binds.
  • Note from the Editor

    LeSavoy, Barbara; The College at Brockport, State University of New York (8/9/2019)
    Brave. Creative. Radical. Unapologetic. Imaginative. The writers here are committed to the gender equality causes for which they write, passionate in their resolve to see these gender equality causes forward.
  • The Abortion Fight: Neither Worn nor Won

    Whitehorne, Angelica (8/9/2019)
    This paper includes a narrative intended to allow readers to embody a kind of ‘pregnancy panic’ often overlooked in the politics of reproductive rights. In an issue revolving around the biological anatomy of the person, their own feelings, needs, and experiences are not often weighed in the arguments. Through this narrative’s character, readers can reconnect to the humanity of fear and bridge a better understanding that abortion is not a gleeful murder but a necessity for survival and medical agency.
  • The Comfort Women’s Activism through the Arts

    Karapinar, Christina (8/9/2019)
    This essay explores how "comfort women", used as sexual slaves, turned to art to showcase the deep emotional scars they suffered. The comfort women use different forms of artistic expressions to start the healing process within their lives. Before I talk about the artwork, I will refer to how the comfort women manifested to become one of history’s inequalities of human rights and torture.
  • A Woman Veteran Student’s Perspective

    Lachman, Bernice (8/27/2018)
    This essay describes my life experiences as a woman veteran who is currently a student at The College at Brockport. My experiences and perspectives although specific to me, are also in general terms, the same for other women veterans. I reviewed the references studying women military service members both past and present, and I have noted the lack of information available. Therefore, I have decided to tell my story with the hope that my story will assist civilian students, staff, and faculty to better understand women veteran students on the college campus.
  • Editor's Note

    LeSavoy, Barbara; The College at Brockport, State University of New York (8/21/2012)
    This first volume of Dissenting Voices advances an array of topics important to the Women and Gender Studies discipline as examined by diverse student voices and as presented in shifting palates from art to poetry to traditional essay.
  • Redressing Dress Codes: The Effects of Sexualized School Dress Codes

    Hoose, Gabriella (8/27/2018)
    This paper analyzes the way society sexualizes women’s bodies through the education system. I am writing about dress codes because fellow classmates and I have been affected by this. It is important for society to understand that a sexualized view of students perceived as female can affect society as a whole. I hope that readers of this essay will want to change this system and redress the dress codes they have unwittingly followed.
  • Missing from Research: Exposing the Deficit in Knowledge and Research of Endometriosis and Women’s Health

    Kupiec, Kelsie (8/9/2019)
    Endometriosis, one of the many reproductive health related diseases that specifically impact female bodies, could be either less prevalent, or less excruciating in a society that integrates a feminist approach to health care. As one of the many women impacted by the disease, I could be living a less painful and distressing life. I would not be the one in the “one of ten women” who exist with an inferior quality of life due to the lack of knowledge and research surrounding women's health.
  • Dissenting Voices Volume 8 Issue 1 (Spring 2019) Complete Issue

    Dissenting Voices Cover Art Background Cover Design by Kalynda Culek ‘19Cover People drawn by Jenna Bygall ‘19 The journal cover portrays an artistic rendition of each author holding a sign that communicates their feminist activism. Their words rise up from their signs to frame the sun. Pause and watch closely for their cues. And listen carefully to their voices. If walking near or around this progressively-minded group, you might hear the adage, “When Pigs Fly,” the “when” in reference to what is seemingly impossible. For the authors here, that impossibility is no longer impossible. Because pigs are flying, offering us hope in the face of despair and belief that we can amend even the most broken systems of inequality (Note from the Editor). Table of Contents All Voices - Our Voices. Mackenzie April, Jenna Bygall, Jasmine Kamal-Mohamed, Christina Karapinar, Allie Knapp, Kelsie Kupiec, Angelica Whitehorne, Kayla Sorenson, p. i. - Note from the Editor (Barbara LeSavoy), p. iii. Opening Voices - The Abortion Fight: Neither Worn nor Won. Angelica Whitehorne, p. 1. - Treatment of Female Politicians and Impact on Voter Perception in the U.S. Jenna Bygall, p. 13. More Voices - Why are there No Great, Female, and Egyptian Scholars? Jasmine Mohamed, p. 27. - The Pretty Pink Box. Allie Knapp, p. 39. - Readying the Rape Rack: Feminism and the Exploitation of Non-Human Reproductive Systems. Mackenzie April, p. 51. - Growing up a Witness. Kayla Sorenson, p. 65. Closing Voices - Missing from Research: Exposing the Deficit in Research and Knowledge of Endometriosis and Women’s Health. Kelsie Kupiec, p. 79. - The Comfort Women’s Activism through the Arts. Christina Karapinar, p. 93. - WMS 421 Spring 2019 Activism Photo Essay, p. 111.
  • LGBTQ Intimate Partner Violence: The Invisible Relationship

    Murray, Alise (8/27/2018)
    I have personally experienced LGBTQ Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). My topic is important because those who experience intimate partner violence, and who are LGBT or in queer relationships, are not provided information about IPV as often as heterosexual individuals. I hope readers will learn and realize that individuals in the LGBT community can face IPV, and that this issue needs more discussion. IPV is not something that affects one facet of someone’s life, it can affect multiple parts.
  • Our Voices

    Davidson Davis, Joy; Hoose, Gabriella; Lachman, Bernice; Morse, Bailey; Murray, Alise; Nau, Kelsi; Palozzi, Julia; Szurgyi, Melissa; Tucker, Daphne; The College at Brockport (8/27/2018)
    Our dissenting voices call for the dismantling of all identity-based power hierarchies that silence and oppress marginalized voices. We attempt to understand how the invisible forces of a binary world put women into roles of “lesser”.
  • The Hunter vs. The Hunted

    Palozzi, Julia (8/27/2018)
    I share this story to illustrate an example of psychological sexual coercion and the power dynamics that allow such coercion to exist. We must understand that the root of this problem lies in the nature of power between men and women. I do not think that these dynamics are born to us naturally. The biology of men and women has nothing to do with the nature of the power dynamics that can exist between them. This power dynamic is one that has been ingrained into our society through generations of separating the public and private spheres of work.
  • The Outside Looking in: Examining Reasoning Behind the Choice to Report Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence

    Szurgyi, Melissa; The College at Brockport (8/27/2018)
    This essay looks into reasons women have for reporting or not reporting domestic violence and sexual assault. While this topic has received a considerable amount of research from scholars, it still has not received the attention it should. When the #MeToo movement went viral, these issues started to become more salient in society, however there was still backlash, insinuating that there is still a large amount of misunderstanding around the issues of domestic violence and sexual assault. In this paper, I use my outsider looking in lens to examine reasoning behind the choice to report. Through looking at previous research in addition to my own case studies, I discover personal and institutional reasoning involved in the choice to report, in addition to details such as severity and assailant.
  • Note from the Editor

    LeSavoy, Barbara; The College at Brockport, State University of New York (8/27/2018)
    Dissenting Voices volume seven introduces nine authors who write across a diverse range of topics salient to Women and Gender Studies.
  • Gender’s Impact on Majors in Higher Education: The Causes and the Consequences

    Nau, Kelsi (8/27/2018)
    This paper looks at gender segregation in higher education. I am examining why certain majors are perceived as feminine and masculine, and what students experience when they study fields that do not socially align with their gender. I also summarize the impact gender socialization has on men and women choosing their fields of study and the consequences higher education gender segregation has beyond college. Feminine and masculine should not be labels affiliated with majors and they should not be a precursor for determining the value of majors.

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