• 04. Introduction

      Downey, Edward H.; Guhde, Robert; The College at Brockport (1980-04-01)
      The Public Management Simulation (PMS) was conceived as a unique way to combine teaching and research in, public administration. The ideal of combining teaching and research all too often finds its expression as a classroom lecture on somebody's pet study or as the lonely process of grinding out a dissertation or thesis. While both of these methods have undeniable merit, they tend to lack the vitality and challenge that comes from working with a group of intelligent and informed people to understand complex social phenomenon. PMS provides an alternative that utilizes the students as policy researchers with the added stimulus of an adversary setting. In this instance the PMS was used to develop alternatives for government funding of Long Term Care.
    • 05. Uncovering the Issues

      Logel, Tracy; The College at Brockport (1980-04-01)
      The goal in this chapter is to uncover the issues as viewed by the three student teams. First is a synopsis of the papers in the order they were presented at the competition in Brockport. Each is outlined in terms of stated values, problems and causes, and recommended solutions. A few of the questions and answers asked after the presentation are included at the end of each synopsis. An analysis of the similarities and differences among the team approaches to the problem is presented. The chapter concluded with some unanswered questions and paradoxes that arise in the long term phase of health care. The complete team answers may be found in the Appendix to this monograph .
    • 07. Appropriate Levels of Care

      Vogel, Robert R.; Simpson, Judith; The College at Brockport (1980-04-01)
      Consumers of long-term care are primarily the elderly, whose numbers are approaching 25 million; they comprise almost eleven percent of this nation's population.1 They experience higher incidents of chronic disease and long term illness, with the most serious health care problems occurring in those over 75.2 These health care problems are usually costly because of the need for hospital and nursing home care, as well as other forms of intervention, and the unavailability of suitable, less costly alternatives, particularly in rural areas. In addition, these problems are compounded by lack of mobility, poor nutrition, lack of primary care and other elements often related to limited financial resources.
    • 08. The Financing of Long Term Care

      O'Connor, Kevin; Volpe, Fred J.; The College at Brockport (1980-04-01)
      Two arguments, one for full Federal funding and one for a continuance of state - Federal funding of long term care, are made in this chapter. Both arguments have one important area of agreement; they both set forth cost containment as a primary objective of any funding scheme. Furthermore, both suggest that this can best be achieved through some form of prospective reimbursement. Under the present system of retrospective reimbursement Medicaid pays, without limit, for all eligible services provided. This, many believe, encourages the provision of unnecessary services which results in an unnatural escalation of costs. Prospective reimbursement simply means forecasting service needs for some future period (usually one year) and then determining how much will be paid for those services. This would establish a limit or "cap" on Medicaid expenditures which would presumably have the effect of containing run-away costs.
    • 09. Federalizing the Administration of Medicaid

      Caccamise, Sandra; The College at Brockport (1980-04-01)
      This chapter presents an argument for the federal domination of Medicaid Administration. Unlike the other chapters, this one includes no counterpoint, no position paper exploring state control of Medicaid Administration due to one participant's inability to sufficiently research the area. While we consider the omission a serious one, there are a few mitigating circumstances. First, the state control perspective is essentially an argument for the status quo which suggests that little which is fresh or innovative would be included. Second, the system of state control for large federally-funded programs that provide local services has been extant in this country for the past decade. Two notable examples, the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) and Community Development Block Grants, have long provided us with state control management models.
    • 10. Ethics: The Quality of Life

      Gonzalez, Litz; Palokoff, Kathy; The College at Brockport (1980-04-01)
      The quality of life for the elderly is something we all wish to improve; yet, there is wide disagreement on how this is to be done. In this chapter, the contributing authors address themselves to this question, and although they differ as to the means, there is an implied consensus on the end sought. Broadly speaking, the authors indicate that a quality life is one in which the individual considers himself and is considered by others to have not only a past but a meaningful future over which he has control. Furthermore, it is a life in which the individual is able to retain, wherever applicable and whenever possible, his connection to the activities of the family, the community and the work force. However agreement on goals does not extend to agreement on strategy. This chapter presents two views, two possibilities for an improved system of long term care for the elderly. First, there is an examination of long term care delivery under federal control and then a consideration of delivery under a state controlled system.
    • 11. Concluding Comments

      Downey, Edward H.; Guhde, Robert; The College at Brockport (1980-04-01)
      The time to consider our futures, who will care for us when we are the sick and the aged, is now! Today, the answer to that question is often the skilled nursing facility, the most expensive way for society to bundle off the chronic health problems associated with aging. As the elderly increase as a portion of the population, the increase in payments for LTC will cause a massive redistribution of wealth, far outstripping inheritance taxes and other mechanisms for transferring wealth from one generation to another. It will eat away at our national savings and the domino effect it generates may affect the housing industry, industrial investments and other forms of industry reliant upon a ready supply of capital.
    • 14. The Long Term Care Medicaid Reimbursement Problem

      Ekstrom, Carl; Doremus, Jean S.; Hutchins, Jeanne B.; Volk, Laura B.; The College at Brockport (1980-04-01)
      A growing public concern about the high cost of Medicaid reimbursement for Long Term Care (LTC) has created the need for careful analysis of the causes & consequences of past public policies and to develop strategies that provide solutions to identified problems. Guiding the team through the assigned simulation, that reflects a serious public concern, were our stated political values serving to shape our policy proposals. Using a systems approach, we analyzed current public policy and explored alternatives. We considered the forces that operate in the environment producing demands on the political system, pressing for allocation of resources toward desired objectives. An integral part of the medical inflation picture, Medicaid reimbursement costs reflect the system's failure to create a cost-effective balance between supply and demand, government and the private sector, quality and price, provider and consumer, flexibility and control.