Recent Submissions

  • On the Merit of the Legacy of Failed Olympic Bids

    Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport (2012-01-01)
    Olympic legacy has become a dominant theme within the Olympic Movement. For decades, legacy concerns were confined to the hosting of the Olympic Games. However, these concerns have been recently extended to the bidding process itself. Cities bidding for the Olympic Games are now required to identify their legacy regardless of the outcome of their bids. This paper explores the merits of extending legacy discourse in case bids failed. It contends that the extension of legacy discourse into failed bids, at least as typically articulated in Olympic circles, is problematic. It also contends that failed bids should be seen themselves as a form of legacy worth recognizing and protecting.
  • The Role, Direction, and Future of Biomechanical Research in Strength and in Resistance Training

    Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1994-06-13)
    There is a plethora of literature related to strength training, resistance training, weight training, weight lifting, body building, and rehabilitation. The majority of the literature is physiological in nature, involving the neural, muscular, skeletal and hormonal systems. These studies have focused on the physiological response and muscular adaptations that occur with different: (1) training programs (circuit weight training, light-heavy, pyramid, etc.); (2) exercise prescriptions (intensity, volume, variation, progression, rest intervals, specificity); (3) resistance modalities (free weights, machines, etc.); and (4) types of contractions (isometric, isokinetic, dynamic). The biomechanical literature on strength appears to be quite extensive, whereas the literature on the biomechanics of resistance training appear to be very limited. This dichotomy may be attributed to an number of reasons, including: (1) insufficient interest, expertise and/or experience in the field of biomechanics and resistance training; (2) confusion and differences in opinion as to what defines biomechanical research in resistance training; (3) the overlap of resistance training research with other disciplines; and (4) the generally a theoretical nature of biomechanics. This paper proposes to address the role of biomechanics in strength research, probable directions for future strength research; and possible biomechanical research in resistance training.
  • The Youth Olympic Games, Their Programs, and Olympism

    Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
    The Youth Olympic Games were inaugurated by the International Olympic Committee in Singapore in 2010. Their scale was nothing short of impressive. Focused around a vision to inspire young people to participate in sport and learn about the values of Olympism, the YOG implemented an extensive Cultural and Educational Program and an innovative Competitive Program. This paper evaluates both these programs and the extent to which they embody and advance Olympism. It identifies strengths as well as potential areas of improvements. This paper argues that the YOG demonstrate that alternate Olympic scenarios, ones that are more sensible to Olympism, are not only desirable but also possible.
  • The Effect of Pedal Crank Arm Length on Lower Limb Joint Angles in an Upright Cycling Position

    Too, Danny; Williams, Christopher D.; The College at Brockport (2012-08-17)
    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether changes in CAL resulted in significant changes in joint angles, and how these changes are related to changes in cycling performance.
  • The Effect of Seat-To-Pedal Distance on Anaerobic Power and Capacity in Recumbent Cycling

    Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1993-06-11)
    Paper submitted to the Dr. G. Arthur Broten Young Scholars Recognition Award Program, Western College Physical Education Society, and investigating how the human organism interacts with human powered vehicles to maximize performance. What is the most effective body position. body orientation. body configuration, seat-to-pedal distance, and pedal crank-arm length that would maximize power production in cycling? The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of systematic changes in seat-to-pedal distance on·peak anaerobic power and capacity in recumbent cycling.
  • Effective Leadership of Sport Organizations through Political Astuteness

    Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2012-07-22)
    The sport leader’s astuteness to the politics of the sport organization is a necessary component of effective sport leadership. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of the organizational politics literature for the purpose developing recommendations to sport leaders that will help improve their astuteness of organizational politics in the sport organization.
  • Sport as a Medium for Supporting Global Problem Solving

    Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2014-06-20)
    A Peer-Reviewed Presentation by Professor Dr. Robert C. Schneider Director, Sport Management Program The College at Brockport, State University of New York given at the Center for Global Studies; Shanghai University, China; June 19-21, 2014.
  • The Amateurism Façade of NCAA Major College Basketball and Morality

    Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2013-06-15)
    Dr. Robert C. Schneider, Professor of Sport Management, KSSPE, Power Point Presentation of his peer-reviewed paper on The amateurism facade of NCAA major college basketball and morality presented at the International Conference in Chicago.
  • Utilitarian Moral Theory: Parallels between a Sport Organization and Society

    Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2014-07-11)
    Paper presented at the ISSA World Congress of Sociology of Sport 2014. Beijing, China by Dr. Robert C. Schneider, Sport Management Program Director, The College at Brockport.
  • Commercialism and the Moral Standing of the National Collegiate Athletic Association

    Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2014-07-16)
    Presentation at the Fifth International Conference on Sport and Society titled: Commercialism and the Moral Standing of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, it offers insights generated from utilitarian moral analysis that provide National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) leadership with a structured foundation from which to make commercialism related choices supporting overall organizational happiness and stability. By Professor Dr. Robert C. Schneider Director, Sport Management Program, The College at Brockport.
  • Ethics in Sport: Socio-Political Point of View

    Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2015-07-28)
    Sport is a natural medium for bringing together people of different backgrounds throughout the world. If grounded in ethics and if participants follow the rules and cooperate, sport can be a conduit for world harmony (Sport great for human bonding, 2010).As international relationships are developed through sport, those relationships can help support larger global endeavors in pursuit of a better world. If international sport based relationships are grounded in Mill’s utilitarianism that calls for actions resulting in the most long-term happiness for the most amount of people (Mill, 1863/1969) those relationships are well positioned to transition to the domain of governmental politics, where meaningful attempts to resolve large world issues can be addressed, under the same utilitarian premise. In pursuit of a better world, identifying common groundamong the many differences held by people throughout the world is a magnanimous challenge. Beauchamp’s (1982) practical suggestion that common sense, habits, and past experience are most helpful when attempting to select actions that will determine long-term happiness. Moving beyond sport and transferring the application of Beauchamp’s practical utilitarian approach to larger global conflicts, can help guide governments as they engage in the necessary politics, to move toward improving global problems in the interest of world harmony.
  • Understanding and Managing Organizational Politics

    Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2016-02-18)
    The aim of this paper is to present a basis for an understanding of organizational politics and provide various approaches to decreasing its presence and generally negative effects on the organization. Self-interest is a common component of organizational politics and is represented by members’ interests to preserve one’s career (Vigoda, 2000) and to advance one’s career (Randall, Cropanzano, Borman, & Birjulin, 1999). The negative effects of organizational politics can ultimately undermine the overall goals of the organization and include: the playing of favorites (Malik, Danish, & Ghafoor, 2009); poor organizational citizenship behaviors (Chang, et al., 2009); the decline in job satisfaction and increases of job stress (Miller, Rutherford, & Kolodinsky, 2008; an indifferent employee attitude, and poor job performance (Witt, Andrews, & Kacmar, 2000); disruption of return on employee investment (Hochwarter, Kacmar, Perrewe, & Johnson, 2003); and lower morale (Chang et al., 2009). Strategies found effective in reducing organizational politics include but are not limited to: involving employees in decision making, fostering teamwork, building trust and social support, hiring politically under-skilled employees, and basing personnel and program decisions on objective criteria. Politics’ omnipresence across organizations presents a challenge for managers in that it will never be eradicated but must be consistently addressed if organizational outcomes are to be achieved and maximized.
  • Sport’s Manifestation of Equity across Multiple Demographics

    Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2015-03-01)
    The challenges of manifesting equity across community are many. Sport, ranging from competitive to recreational is one medium that can foster and support equity across the myriad differences between people. Whether the differences are chosen or unchosen, sport can help meld those differences in the interest of the common goal of winning or joining together in the enjoyable activity referred to as sport. Sport can be considered a successful contributor to supporting healthy community if its presence improves community happiness and diminishes community unhappiness.
  • The Role of Sport as a Mediator in International Relations

    Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2016-10-13)
    Sport, beginning with athletes, has historically brought persons from around the world together (Tomlinson & Young, 2011). Despite the propensity of sport to reinforce intense competitive attitudes toward opponents and anti-social behaviors (Marasescu, 2013), the opportunities for goodwill throughout and beyond sport are many. Loyalties, bonds, and friendships are established through shared international sporting experiences between competing nations (Darnell, 2010; Darnell & Black, 2011). Host nations, including citizens and governments of sporting events can accommodate visiting nations by featuring attractions unique to their cultures, e.g., food, customs, history, recreational activities, and wonders of nature. Social gatherings, complementary touristic activities, and privately arranged meetings offer convenient opportunities for fans, citizens, and even government officials, including heads of state to interact in a non-political, neutral sporting environment (Brownell, 2014). The in-person interactions resulting from sport, has long been known to help remove learned prejudices (Allport, 1954), allowing for positive dialogue between nations. Through sport, nations can consistently and persistently create accurate and favorable portrayals of nations, one athlete, coach, official, organizer, and fan at a time. With an open mind and optimism, sport, as a mediator can, in fact, enhance international relations.
  • Balance in Adults with Visual Impairments

    Haibach, Pamela; The College at Brockport (2015-11-05)
    During this session, attendees will learn about balance, and it's role in performing activities of daily living and maintaining an independent lifestyle. Attendees will also participate in some basic assessments to better understanding your own balance, and finally, attendees will learn some at home activities to improve their balance.