• A Comparison of the Physical Fitness of Nonretarded and Mildly Retarded Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

      Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1991)
      In order to compare their physical fitness, the UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 203 retarded and nonretarded subjects with cerebral palsy from both segregated and integrated settings throughout the United States. The test was administered to subjects between the ages of 10 and 17 by professional persons prepared as field testers. Subjects were free from multiple handicapping conditions other than mild mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the performance of younger subjects on dominant grip strength. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the scores of younger subjects on the softball throw and flexed arm hang. No significant differences between retarded and nonretarded subjects at the .01 level of significance were found on any of the test items on the UNIQUE test. The factor structures of both retarded and nonretarded groups were identical with regard to the items that loaded on specific physical fitness factors.
    • A Golden Second Place: Manuel Plaza in South America

      Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport (4/1/2009)
    • A Pragmatic Research Philosophy for Applied Sport Psychology

      Giacobbi, Peter R.; Poczwardowski, Artur; Hager, Peter F.; Barry University; The College at Brockport; University of Florida (3/1/2005)
      A pragmatic research philosophy is introduced that embraces mixed-method approaches to applied research questions. With its origins in the work of Peirce (1984), James (1907), Dewey (1931), and contemporary support from Rorty (1982, 1990,1991), pragmatism emphasizes the practical problems experienced by people, the research questions posited, and the consequences of inquiry. As a way to highlight applications of pragmatism in sport psychology, pragmatism is compared to constructivism and positivism in terms of philosophical underpinnings and methodological applications. The pragmatic researcher is sensitive to the social, historical, and political context from which inquiry begins and considers morality, ethics, and issues of social justice to be important throughout the research process. Pragmatists often use pluralistic methods during multiphase research projects. Exemplar design types are discussed that logically cohere to a pragmatic research philosophy.
    • A Primer for Administrative/Managerial Success

      Stier, William F.; The College at Brockport (9/1/2011)
      As one who is contemplating retirement, having spent some 45 ± years in the profession as an administrator (academic, business and athletic arenas) as well as a teacher, and coach, it is not infrequently that I am asked to summarize and share what I have learned (or thought that I have learned)—from both formal education and from experience—with the young and not so young professionals within the arenas of education and/or sports. This article is the result. It is applicable for those in administrative roles who might benefit from such strategies and hints as well as those subordinates who must work for and with administrators and managers.
    • A Survey of Campus Recreation Directors at NIRSA Institutions: Activities Emphasized, Student Participation Patterns, Trends and Future Offerings Contemplated

      Stier, William F.; Schneider, Robert C.; Kampf, Stephen; Haines, Scott G.; Wilding, Gregory E.; Bowling Green State University - Main Campus; The College at Brockport; University at Buffalo (1/1/2005)
      A survey, using an instrument constructed expressly for this investigation, was conducted of directors of campus recreation at all 682 NIRSA colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to determine the current status of (a) the degree of emphasis institutions currently place on nine categories of sports and recreational activities, (b) the percentage of students, undergraduate and graduate, actually participating in each of these nine categories of activities, (c) future recreational activities and programs, not currently offered to students, but being considered for inclusion within the next 12 months, and (d) future trends in terms of problems (challenges and opportunities) facing college campus recreation departments. Two hundred and sixty-nine schools returned usable surveys for a 39% rate of return. This investigation provides a snapshot of specific current practices and programming offerings of campus Recreation Directors, as well as their opinions in terms of future programming plans and anticipated trends affecting their campus recreation departments. The data were analyzed in light of the locations of the responding institutions within the six regions of NIRSA, the size of the institutions and whether the schools were classified as public or private. The nine categories of recreational activities included: (a) intramurals, (b) club sports, (c) open recreation, (d) outdoor recreation, (e) group exercise/aerobics, (f) aquatics, (g) instructional programming, (h) special events, and (i) youth and family activities.
    • Abuso de Derecho y Fair Play en el Deporte

      Pérez Triviño, José Luis; Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (4/1/2013)
      Este trabajo plantea una reflexión sobre un tema central en el deporte, el enjuiciamiento de aquellas jugadas en las que un jugador o equipo, amparándose en las normas del sistema normativo deportivo, obtiene ventaja de la buena fe del rival. Un ejemplo de este tipo de jugadas tuvo lugar recientemente en un partido entre el FC Shakhtar Donetz de Ukrania y el FC Nordsjaelland de Dinamarca, en el cual el jugador del equipo ucraniano Luiz Adriano se aprovechó de un saque neutral para marcar un gol. Curiosamente, el árbitro no anuló el gol, pero el órgano disciplinario de la UEFA impuso una sanción al jugador. En este trabajo proponemos caracterizar este tipo de jugadas que “ensucian el juego” a partir de una institución característica del derecho como es el abuso de derecho, para posteriormente analizar estos supuestos desde las diferentes teorías del deporte (formalismo, convencionalismo, interpretativismo) y concluir que la última es la concepción que permite una más completa explicación y calificación. This paper offers a reflection on a central subject in sport, the characterization of those plays in which a player or team, getting protection in the norms of the sport normative system, obtains an advantage out of the good faith of the rival. An example of this type of plays took place recently in a match between FC Shakhtar Donetz of Ukrania and FC Nordsjaelland of Denmark, in which the player of the Ukrainian team Luiz Adriano took advantage of a neutral kickoff to score a goal. Curiously, the referee did not cancel the goal, but the disciplinary organ of the UEFA imposed a sanction to the player. In this paper, we propose to characterise this type of play that “spoils the game” based on the notion of abuse of law, typical of the theory of law. Additionally, we analyse this type of play from the point of view of different theories of the sport (formalism, conventionalism, and interpretivism) and conclude that the latter is the conception that allows for a more complete explanation.
    • Accuracy of Voice-Announcement Pedometers for Youth with Visual Impairment

      Beets, Michael W.; Foley, John T.; Tindall, Daniel W.S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Central Missouri State University; Oregon State University; SUNY Cortland; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      Thirty-five youth with visual impairments (13.5 plus or minus 2.1 yrs, 13 girls and 22 boys) walked four 100-meter distances while wearing two units (right and left placement) of three brands of voice-announcement (VA) pedometers (Centrios[TM] Talking Pedometer, TALKiNG Pedometer, and Sportline Talking Calorie Pedometer 343) and a reference pedometer (NL2000). Registered pedometer steps for each trial were recorded, compared to actual steps assessed via digital video. Inter-unit agreement between right and left VA pedometer placement was low (ICC range 0.37 to 0.76). A systematic error was observed for the VA pedometers on the left placement (error range 5.6% to 12.2%), while right placement VA pedometers were at or below plus or minus 3% from actual steps (range 2.1% to 3.3%). The reference pedometer was unaffected by placement (ICC 0.98, error approximately 1.4%). Overall, VA pedometers demonstrated acceptable accuracy for the right placement, suggesting this position is necessary for youth with visual impairments. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)
    • Activity at Home for Children and Youth who are Deafblind

      Lieberman, Lauren J.; Pecorella, Michael; Perkins School for the Blind; The College at Brockport (10/1/2006)
      This article suggests healthy, productive and rewarding physical activities that can take place in the home for children who are deafblind. These activities are intended for children who range in age from pre-school to high school and who are deafblind with additional disabilities.
    • Adapting Games, Sports and Recreation for Children and Adults who are Deaf-Blind

      Lieberman, Lauren J.; The College at Brockport (5/1/1996)
      With the loss of sight and hearing, an individual’s sensory input and experiences are reduced and overall development may be delayed. As a result, limits or predetermined expectations are sometimes placed on individuals who are deaf-blind by parents, professionals, agencies, and people who are deaf-blind themselves. This is equally true regarding recreational activities. Creative adaptations can alter recreation activities and programs so they will meet unique needs and provide fun and healthy exercise for all who participate. The purpose of this article is to encourage parents, teachers, professionals, therapists, and consumers, to set up and adapt recreational activities and programs to meet the needs of all children and adults.
    • Address the "Whole Person" Ensuring Student Success

      James, Alisa; Cruz, Luz M.; The College at Brockport (11/1/2005)
      The article points out that physical education teachers need to consider the whole person to ensure developmental appropriateness and student success. Instructional approaches provide one avenue to address motor, cognitive and affective domains. Effective teachers use a variety of instructional approaches to enhance the teaching-learning environment in physical education. Instructional approaches should be selected deliberately with regard to content and the developmental characteristics of students. Some possible instructional approaches which consider the whole person are proposed.
    • An Examination of the Relationship Between Aerobic Fitness Level and Bodymass Index in 8 to 12 Year Old Children

      Konukman, Ferman; Yilmaz, Ilker; Koklu, Yusuf; Alemdaroglu, Utku; Agbuğa, Bülent; Anadolu Üniversitesi; Pamukkale University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 20 meter shuttle run test performance (aerobic fitness) and body mass index (BMI) among minority elementary school children of low socio-economic level in a physical education and sport program. Participants included 75 students in grades 3-6 (38 boys and 37 girls). A physician’s balance beam and a stadiometer (Holtain, UK) with the sliding vertical bar and hinged horizontal head lever were used to measure children’s weight and height. Then Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by dividing the children’s body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared. To examine relationship between 20 meter shuttle run test and BMI, the Pearson product-moment coefficients of correlation and a simple regression were computed. The results indicated that the relationship between 20 meter shuttle run test and BMI was low, negative but statistically significant (r = -.281, p < .01), suggesting that a portion of this total variance may be explained by these measures. Low correlation and regression levels in this study indicate that other studies should be performed to examine such a relationship.
    • Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

      Haibach, Pamela; Lieberman, Lauren J.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2013)
      Introduction: Balance is a critical component of daily living, because it affects all movements and the ability to function independently. Children with CHARGE syndrome have sensory and motor impairments that could negatively affect their balance and postural control. The purpose of the study presented in this article was to assess the balance and self-efficacy of balance of these children. Methods: Twenty-one children with CHARGE syndrome aged 6 - 12 and 31 age - and gender-matched sighted control participants without CHARGE syndrome completed the study. Each participant completed the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) and a self-efficacy of balance survey, the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC). Results: The PBS results revealed that the participants in the control group performed significantly better than did those with CHARGE syndrome (p
    • Balance in Adolescents with and without Visual Impairments

      Haibach, Pamela; Pritchett, Jennifer; Lieberman, Lauren J.; The College at Brockport (7/1/2011)
      Research has found balance to be significantly delayed in children and adolescents with visual impairments in comparison to their sighted peers, but the relationship between balance self-efficacy and actual balance is unknown. This study examined dynamic and static balance and balance self-efficacy in adolescents who are blind (B) and have low vision (LV); the role of visual experience upon balance; sighted (S) and sighted blindfolded (SB); and experience with vision (SB compared to LV and B); and the relationship between perceived and actual balance. The results revealed that the degree of impairment (Lv compared to B)and experience with vision (SB compared to LV and B)were significant factors in many of the balance assessments, but not the balance self-efficacy ratings. Main effects for self-efficacy ratings and significant correlations for self-efficacy and balance measurements were found for only a few of the more difficult tasks. In conclusion, it is important to examine both motor performance and self-efficacy in adolescents with visual impairments on a variety of familiar tasks and contexts to gain a thorough understanding of the individual's balance. This information is essential when developing appropriate and effective balance interventions for adolescents with visual impairments.
    • Biomechanics of Cycling and Factors Affecting Performance

      Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1/1/1990)
      Cycling performance in human powered vehicles is affected by the interaction of a number of variables, including environment, mechanical and human factors. Engineers have generally focused on the design and development of faster, more efficient human-powered vehicles based on minimizing aerodynamic drag, neglecting the human component, On the other hand, kinesiologists have examined cycling performance from a human perspective, but have been constrained by the structure of a standard bicycle. Therefore, a gap exists between research in the various disciplines. To maximize/optimize cycling performance in human-powered vehicles requires a bridging of this gap through interdisciplinary research. Changes in different variables can affect the energy requirements of cycling. These variables include: (a) changes in body position, configuration. and orientation; (b) changes in seat to pedal distance; and (c) the interaction of workload, power output, and pedalling rate. Changes in these variables alter joint angles, muscle lengths, and muscle moment arm lengths, thus affecting the tension-length, force-velocity-power relationships of multij-oint muscles and the effectiveness of force production. This is ultimately manifested as a change in the energetics of cycling. A large number of factors affect cycling performance in human-powered vehicles and a gap still exists between cycling research in various disciplines. To bridge this gap, if not completely close it, requires cooperation between disciplines and further interdisciplinary research.
    • Blanket Medical Excuses From Physical Education

      Lieberman, Lauren J.; Cruz, Luz; The College at Brockport (7/1/2001)
    • Boxing and the Youth Olympic Games

      Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport (10/31/2017)
      Boxing has been featured in the Competitive Program of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) since the event was inaugurated in Singapore in 2010. This paper examines whether boxing is a suitable sport to advance the professed goals of the YOG. It concludes that it is not, and that it should be removed from the YOG’s Competitive Program. One line of argument focuses on the questionable impact of boxing on the health of young athletes. In this regard, issues of autonomy, consent, and paternalism are discussed in relation to the health of these athletes. A second line of argument focuses on the central purpose of boxing and its relation to Olympism. The paper suggests that, in light of the sport’s moral failings, the discontinuation of boxing would better align the YOG with the values of Olympism.
    • Bullying Experiences of Individuals with Visual Impairment: The Mitigating Role of Sport Participation

      Danes-Staples, Emily; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Ratcliff, Jennifer; Rounds, Kala; Saint John Fisher College; The College at Brockport (12/1/2013)
      In bullying research, status plays a key role in who is the instigator and who is the recipient of bullying. Athletes are often considered a high status individual and have been accused of engaging in bullying behaviors. Individuals with disabilities are seen as possessing lower status and are often the victims of bullying. What is unclear is if athletes who have a disability are instigators of bullying or are victims themselves. This study explored implications of status as it relates to bullying experiences by athletes and non-athletes with visual impairments. Specific attention was paid to uncovering similarities and differences between the two groups. Results indicate that individuals with visual impairments are both the victim and instigator of bullying activities. The hypothesis of status as a factor in bullying was supported within both populations.
    • Characteristics, Attributes, and Competencies Sought in New Hires by Campus Recreation Directors

      Schneider, Robert C.; Stier, William F.; Kampf, Stephen; Haines, Scott G.; Wilding, Gregory E.; Bowling Green State University - Main Campus; The College at Brockport; University at Buffalo (1/1/2006)
      Professionals and students working in college recreation departments are often involved in many facets relating to the hiring of competent employees. A review of literature revealed that various professions sought different qualities in potential job candidates. There were few examples of research relating to the qualities sought by potential employers of campus recreation personnel. Therefore, recreation directors, holding a NIRSA institutional membership, were surveyed to determine the characteristics, attributes, and competencies preferred in new hires for: (a) professional positions, (b) graduate assistantships, and (c) student employees. The findings revealed the most highly sought after qualifications in professional job candidates were excellent language/speaking skills, prior experience in campus recreation, neat overall appearance, excellent writing skills, and possession of a graduate degree. In terms of graduate assistant positions, campus recreation directors highly ranked the categories neat overall appearance, excellent writing skills, and prior experience in campus recreation. Campus recreation directors ranked the possession of certifications in first aid and CPR highly among student employee applicants.
    • Children?s Step Counts on Weekend, Physical Education, and Non?Physical Education Days

      Brusseau, Timothy A.; Kulinna, Pamela H.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; van der Mars, Hans; Darst, Paul W.S.; Arizona State University; Pennington Biomedical Research Center; The College at Brockport (1/1/2011)
      There have been well?documented increases in overweight and obese children, sedentary lifestyles, and increased prevalence of a hypokinetic disease over the past 20 years. Thus understanding the physical activity patterns of children is essential for developing effective interventions. Little evidence exists that illustrates the contribution of weekend, physical education, and non?physical education days to overall physical activity patterns of children. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in pedometer?determined physical activity patterns of fourth and fifth grade children during weekend, physical education and non–physical education days. Three hundred and sixty?three children (8?11 years old) from six Southwestern USA elementary schools participated by wearing pedometers (Yamax Digiwalker SW?200) for seven consecutive days. Children recorded their steps at arrival to school and when they woke up and went to bed on weekend days. During weekdays, the fourth and fifth grade children averaged 13,196 ± 3,334 and 11,295 ± 3,168 steps/day for boys and girls, respectively. This is compared to a weekend average of 7,660 ± 4,647steps/day (boys) and 7,317 ± 4,062 steps/day (girls). Children were significantly more active on physical education days, averaging 12,979 steps/day (14,197 ± 4,697 steps/day for boys and 12,058 ± 3,772 steps/day for girls),compared to non?physical education school days, when they accumulated 11,809 steps/day (12,788 ± 3,600 steps/day for boys and 11,047 ± 3,382 steps/day for girls). Based on the findings in this study, children and youth are more active during school days than on weekend days. Furthermore, children are more active on physical education days than non?physical education days. These findings suggest that increased physical activity programming and interventions during weekend days may be needed to increase physical activity. The expansion of school?based physical education across more school days may also serve to increase children’s physical activity during the school week.
    • Club Sport Legal Liability Practices at NIRSA Institutions

      Schneider, Robert C.; Stier, William F.; Kampf, Stephen; Gaskins, Brady P.; Haines, Scott G.; Bowling Green State University - Main Campus; The College at Brockport (1/1/2008)
      Current legal practices in collegiate club sport programs were studied. A 23-item questionnaire consisting primarily of close-ended questions was mailed to 563 campus recreation directors representing all six National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (NIRSA) regions. Data obtained showed that mean club sport budgets ranged from $51,657 in Region 4 to $135,657 in Region 6, with an overall mean of $69,138 across all regions. Signing a waiver before participating was required by 91 % of the directors. Lack of consistency in waiver language and font size was reported. Only 9% of campus recreation directors always require that an institutional employee travel with a club sport team. The most frequent modes of approved travel for club sport participants were students driving personal cars (94%), renting vans from outside vendors (95%), and the use of private transportation such as a chartered bus (70%). Paid coaches were used by 15% of the directors.