• Test Item Selection for the Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test

      Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1984)
      In order to enhance the physical fitness development of individuals with selected handicapping conditions. Winnick and Short (1984b) published a manual which presented the Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test and training program. This article presents criteria and supporting technical information pertaining to the selection of test items.
    • The physical fitness of youngsters with spinal neuromuscular conditions

      Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1984)
      This study analyzed the physical fitness performance of 141 youngsters with spinal neuromuscular conditions, by age, sex, and severity of condition, and compared the performance of these subjects with 1,192 normal youngsters on selected physical fitness test items. Boys and girls, ages 10-17, with paraplegic spinal neuromuscular conditions were tested on 11 physical fitness test items which were modified, as necessary, for their participation. Where comparisons were appropriate, the scores of normal subjects of the same sex and age generally exceeded significantly those of the paraplegic subjects. There was a trend for paraplegic subjects to possess larger skinfolds than normal youngsters, and, where differences existed in skinfolds, the skinfolds of older paraplegic subjects exceeded those of younger paraplegic subjects. Few significant sex and age differences emerged for the paraplegic group on nonskinfold (performance) items. The test battery administered did not discriminate among the performance of subjects with various levels of spinal lesions at or below the sixth thoracic vertebra.
    • Recent Advancements Related to Special Physical Education and Sport

      Winnick, Joseph P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1984)
      This article synthesizes advances related to special physical education and sport from 1975 to the present. Generic advances are presented within the categories of legislation, sport programs and activities, testing and assessment, certification, and instructional and curricular materials. Subsequently, additional advances particularly relevant to individuals with orthopedic, educational, auditory, or visual handicapping conditions are presented.
    • The Performance of Visually Impaired Youngsters in Physical Education Activities: Implications for Mainstreaming

      Winnick, Joseph P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1985)
      The relative performance of individuals with visual handicapping conditions in physical education is directly or indirectly associated with severity of visual impairment, gender, age. activity type, method of ambulation. and parenial attitudes. Each of these influences success, extent, and/or nature of participation in physical activity, which in turn resuits in characteristics, limitations, abilities, and needs that musl be considered in order to effectively implement physical education programs in mainstreamed settings. Several implications for mainstreaming based on research pertaining to these factors are presented.
    • The Physical Fitness of Adolescents with Auditory Impairments

      Short, Francis X.; Winnick, Joseph P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1985)
      The Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 153 hard of hearing, 892 deaf, and 686 hearing subjects in the age range of 10 to 17 years to contrast their physical fitness status. Relatively few significant differences between groups were found. Only on the sit-up test did hearing subjects surpass the performance of at least one of the two auditory impaired groups in at least two of the three age groups contrasted. Although some gender and age interactions were found on other test items, no clear pattern relative to a comparison of hearing and auditory impaired groups occurred. Age and gender performances within the auditory impaired groups were similar to those expected of hearing groups.
    • History of Adapted Physical Education: Priorities in Professional Preparation

      Winnick, Joseph P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1986)
      This presentation traces and reviews past and contemporary concerns, issues, or priorities relating to professional preparation with special emphasis on the identification of people who have had a significant impact upon professional preparation, and the graduates of our programs, who will provide leadership in the future.
    • The Effect of Body Orientation on Cycling Performance

      Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1/1/1989)
      The design of human-powered vehicles has focused exclusively on the aerodynamic properties of the vehicle exceeding 65 mph, it's obvious as to the importance of minimizing aerodynamic drag. But, from an energetics perspective, how a cyclist should be positioned or what body orientation should be assumed to maximize performance is unknown. Changes in body orientation will place the legs at a different angle with respect to the line of gravity, therefore affecting both the hemodynamics of blood flow and force contribution by the body weight. The effect on cycling performance and whether there may be an interaction effect between blood flow hemodynamics and body weight contribution in different body orientation is also unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of changes in body orientation on energy expenditure, cycling duration and total work output.
    • The Effect of Body Configuration on Cycling Performance

      Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1/1/1990)
      The design of human powered vehicles has focused exclusively on the aerodynamic properties of the vehicle with the cyclist. To further improve performance, it becomes necessary to focus on some aspect other than the aerodynamic properties. The most logical area to explore would be the human engine which powers the vehicles. It is then unknown as to whether improved cycling performance is attributed tn changes in hip angles, knee angles or both; and what the most effective ranges of hip and knee angles are for one pedal revolution. Therefore. the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of changes in hip angles on cycling performance as measured by cycling duration and total work output.
    • Biomechanics of Cycling and Factors Affecting Performance

      Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1/1/1990)
      Cycling performance in human powered vehicles is affected by the interaction of a number of variables, including environment, mechanical and human factors. Engineers have generally focused on the design and development of faster, more efficient human-powered vehicles based on minimizing aerodynamic drag, neglecting the human component, On the other hand, kinesiologists have examined cycling performance from a human perspective, but have been constrained by the structure of a standard bicycle. Therefore, a gap exists between research in the various disciplines. To maximize/optimize cycling performance in human-powered vehicles requires a bridging of this gap through interdisciplinary research. Changes in different variables can affect the energy requirements of cycling. These variables include: (a) changes in body position, configuration. and orientation; (b) changes in seat to pedal distance; and (c) the interaction of workload, power output, and pedalling rate. Changes in these variables alter joint angles, muscle lengths, and muscle moment arm lengths, thus affecting the tension-length, force-velocity-power relationships of multij-oint muscles and the effectiveness of force production. This is ultimately manifested as a change in the energetics of cycling. A large number of factors affect cycling performance in human-powered vehicles and a gap still exists between cycling research in various disciplines. To bridge this gap, if not completely close it, requires cooperation between disciplines and further interdisciplinary research.
    • The Effect of Body Orientation on EMG Patterns in Cycling

      Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1/1/1991)
      In human powered vehicles, manipulation of body orientation often results in changes in cycling performance. These changes in performance may be attributed to alterations in: (1) the aerodynamic properties of the cyclist and vehicle; (2) contribution of the lower limb weight to pedal force production; and/or (3) body configuration (joint angle changes affecting the interactions between the muscle length and moment arm length of the muscle groups involved in cycling). In a previous investigation examining cycling performance in a semi-prone, upright, and semi-recumbent position (the trunk relative to the ground at an angle of 60, 90, and 120 degrees, respectively), it had been concluded that an optimal cycling body orientation exists which maximizes power production (Too, 1991). Because the body configuration (hip, knee, and ankle angle) had been controlled for in that investigation, it had been speculated that differences in power production were attributed to changes in lower limb weight contribution to the total force on the pedals. It is believed that these differences would be reflected by changes in the muscle activity patterns. Therefore, it was the purpose of this investigation to determine whether cycling performance differences with different body orientations are attributed to changes in EMG patterns, as determined by one or more of these: (1) the sequence of activity by the different muscles; (2) the duration of the muscle activity; and (3) the pedal position each muscle was active and inactive during a complete pedal cycle.
    • The Effect of Hip Position/Configuration on Anaerobic Power and Capacity in Cycling

      Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1/1/1991)
      The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of systematic II changes in hip position/configuration on cycling peak anaerobic power (AP) and anaerobic capacity (AC). Fourteen male recreational cyclists (ages 21-32 yrs) were tested in four hip positions (25, 50, 75, and 100°). as defined by the angle formed by the seat tube and a vertical line. Rotating the seat to maintain a backrest perpendicular to the ground induced a systematic decrease in hip angle from the 25 to the KK)" position. The Wingate anaerobic cycling test was used on a Monark cycle ergometer with a resistance of 85 gm/kg of the subject's body mass. Repeated-measures MANOVAs and post hoc tests revealed that AP and AC in the 75° hip position were significantly greater than in the 25 or 100° positionand that a second-order function best describes the trend in AP and AC with changes in hip pwsition.
    • A Comparison of the Physical Fitness of Nonretarded and Mildly Retarded Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

      Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1991)
      In order to compare their physical fitness, the UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 203 retarded and nonretarded subjects with cerebral palsy from both segregated and integrated settings throughout the United States. The test was administered to subjects between the ages of 10 and 17 by professional persons prepared as field testers. Subjects were free from multiple handicapping conditions other than mild mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the performance of younger subjects on dominant grip strength. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the scores of younger subjects on the softball throw and flexed arm hang. No significant differences between retarded and nonretarded subjects at the .01 level of significance were found on any of the test items on the UNIQUE test. The factor structures of both retarded and nonretarded groups were identical with regard to the items that loaded on specific physical fitness factors.
    • Strategies for a New Year

      James, Alisa; The College at Brockport (1/1/1993)
      Lesson planning, class control and discipline, working with parents and the administration, establishing a rapport with students-these are important concerns you have to deal with on a daily basis. The following hints address these important facets of teaching and can help make the first few days of school and your whole year go a little more smoothly.
    • Feasibility of the Target Aerobic Movement Test in Children and Adolescents with Spina Bifida

      Rimmer, James H.; Connor-Kuntz, Fiona; Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.; Cleveland Heights University; Northern Illinois University; The College at Brockport (1/1/1997)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the Target Aerobic Movement Test (TAMT)’ in a group of children and adolescents with spina bifida (n = 32). Thirty-two children (11 subjects-thoracic lesion, 21 subjects-lumbar lesion) volunteered for the study. Results indicated there were no significant differences in the proportion of subjects who passed Test 1 or Test 2 (p > .05). Twenty-seven out of 28 eligible subjects (96%) on Test 1 and 25 of 27 eligible subjects (93%) on Test 2 met the criteria for successful completion of the TAMT. The TAMT appears to be a reliable and feasible test for measuring aerobic behavior in children and adolescents with spina bifida. Future research should focus on studying the feasibility of the TAMT with other populations with disabilities and to also determine if the test can become a more refined discriminator of aerobic behavior and aerobic capacity.
    • Implementing a Peer Tutor Program: Strategies for Practitioners

      Barfield, Jean-Paul; Hannigan-Downs, Steve; Lieberman, Lauren J.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1998)
      With the integration of students with disabilities into regular physical education classrooms, practitioners are challenged to provide adequate supports to insure beneficial learning environments. The use of students as peer tutors is one such support. Peer tutoring enhances motor performance, cognitive comprehension, attitudes, and physical education academic learning time (ALT-PE) of both tutees and tutors with differing abilities. Empirical research lends credence to the implementation of peer tutoring programs, but few strategies to include peer tutoring in the physical education setting have been documented. In this article four peer tutoring implementation strategies are discussed: (a) dyads with specific instruction, (b) peers to increase the ALT-PE of students with disabilities, (c) cross-age peers, and (d) class-wide peers. These strategies represent techniques that practitioners can use to enhance and assess the motor and cognitive capabilities of students both with and without disabilities. The recruitment and training of peer tutors, implementation of the tutor program, and assessment of tutee and tutor performance gains are detailed for each strategy. Checklists of the peer tutoring implementation strategies are provided to enhance program success.
    • Summaries of Papers

      Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1/1/1998)
      A summary of the papers published between 1990-1996 by the author in the Human Power journal.
    • Response to Questions

      Too, Danny; The College at Brockport (1/1/1998)
      Danny Too responded to some questions on aspects of his papers, and was gracious enough to allow us to publish them. Questions are shortened in several cases. -Dave Wilson
    • Mass Sport Through Education or Elite Olympic Sport?

      Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1998)
    • Peer Tutors' Effects on Activity Levels of Deaf Students in Inclusive Elementary Physical Education

      Lieberman, Lauren J.; Dunn, John M.; van der Mars, Hans; McCubbin, Jeff; Oregon State University; The College at Brockport; University of Utah (1/1/2000)
      The purpose of this study was to examine barriers perceived by teachers when including students with visual impairments in general physical education. Teachers (52 males, 96 females) who had children with visual impairments in their physical education classes were surveyed prior to in-service workshop participation. The most prevalent barriers were professional preparation, equipment, programming, and time. A logistic regression analysis, regressing gender, in-service training, number of students with visual impairments taught, masters degree attained, masters hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), undergraduate hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), and years of experience failed to indicate significant predictors of professional preparation as a barrier, Model x2 (6, n = 148) = 4.48, p > .05.
    • Fabricating Foot Orthotics

      Henry, Timothy J.; Cohen, Lee J.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2000)