Recent Submissions

  • The Impact of New or Renovated Collegiate Recreation Centers on Recruitment and Retention

    Kampf, Stephen; Haines, Scott G.; Gambino, Stephen; Bowling Green Technical College; The College at Brockport (1/1/2018)
    Colleges and Universities have invested a great deal of resources in constructing and renovating recreational facilities over the course of time. These facilities serve as a location for health, fitness, and socialization, and provide many other wellness benefits. This study examines the impact of new/renovated collegiate recreational facilities on three different campuses and the return on investment (ROI). The ROI is measured through student participation, impact on recruitment, and retention. Additionally, this study intends to provide other institutions with examples on how they can provide data to reflect the collegiate recreation facility
  • A Comparison of the Physical Fitness of Nonretarded and Mildly Retarded Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1991)
    In order to compare their physical fitness, the UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 203 retarded and nonretarded subjects with cerebral palsy from both segregated and integrated settings throughout the United States. The test was administered to subjects between the ages of 10 and 17 by professional persons prepared as field testers. Subjects were free from multiple handicapping conditions other than mild mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the performance of younger subjects on dominant grip strength. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the scores of younger subjects on the softball throw and flexed arm hang. No significant differences between retarded and nonretarded subjects at the .01 level of significance were found on any of the test items on the UNIQUE test. The factor structures of both retarded and nonretarded groups were identical with regard to the items that loaded on specific physical fitness factors.
  • The Effect of Pedal Crank Arm Length and Seat Height on Joint Angles in an Upright Cycling Position

    Too, Danny; Williams, Christopher D.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2020)
    Manipulations in crank arm length and seat height have resulted in significant changes in cycling performance. To better understand how these manipulations affect cycling performance, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of 5 pedal crank arm lengths (l10, 145, 180, 215 and 250 mm) and 3 seat height (short, medium, and long) on joint angles (minimum, maximum, and range of motion) of the hip, knee, and ankle, as determined by 3 in an upright cycling position for 7 male participants. Nine 5 x 3 Repeated Measures Factor ANOVAs revealed that 35 mm increments in crank arm length from I l0-250mm resulted in a significant (p < 0.01): (1) decrement int he minimum hip and knee angle; (2) increment in the minimum ankle angle; (3) increment in the hip and knee range of motion; and (4) decrement in the ankle range of motion. It was determined that 6 cm changes in seat height from the shortest to the longest seat height resulted in a significant (p < 0.01): (l) increment in the minimum and maximum joint angle of the hip, knee, and ankle; and (2) increment in the range of motion of the knee. No significant interactions were found between crank arm length and seat height for different angle measurements (minimum, maximum, and range of motion) of the hip, knee, and ankle. In conjunction with the results of previous investigations, certain joint angle ranges result in more effective cycling performance.
  • Coordination changes in the early stages of learning to cascade juggle

    Haibach, Pamela; Daniels, Gregory L.; Newell, Karl M.; Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University; SUNY College at Brockport (9/8/2004)
    The experiment was setup to examine the coordination changes in assembling the movement form of 3-ball cascade juggling. Eight adult participants learned to juggle over 4 weeks of practice. Juggling scores were recorded at each session and performance was videotaped at eight selected sessions for purposes of movement analysis. Once the basic spatial and temporal constraints on cascade juggling were satisfied, and the figure-8 juggling mode was established, temporal modulations of the relative motions of the hands were emphasized. All participants learned to juggle and the increase over practice in the number of consecutive balls caught was best fit with a power law. The non-proportional rate of performance increment was consistent with the qualitative changes in the form of the hand and ball movement kinematics that occurred over practice.
  • The Desirability of the Season Long Tournament: A Response to Finn

    Torres, Cesar R.; Hager, Peter F.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2011)
  • De-emphasizing Competition in Organized Youth Sport: Misdirected Reforms and Misled Children

    Torres, Cesar R.; Hager, Peter F.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
  • What is Wrong with Playing High?

    Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2009)
  • Philosophy of Sport in Latin America

    Torres, Cesar R.; Campos, Daniel G.; Brooklyn College; The College at Brockport (1/1/2010)
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolution of the philosophical analysis of sport in Latin America from the nineteenth century to the present. To do so, this paper identifies the main themes and the leading works that emerged throughout this period as well as their relation to regional philosophical traditions. Likewise, to situate the philosophical analysis of sport in Latin America in a broader perspective, this paper makes reference to its relation to the philosophy of sport in parts of the English-speaking world and the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). This paper also includes an account of the character and extent of philosophical thinking in relation to sport in contemporary Latin America and speculations about the future of the discipline in the region.
  • Results or Participation?: Reconsidering Olympism's Approach to Competition

    Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2006)
    In spite of the privileged position that Olympism arguably occupies within the Olympic Movement, its understanding and implementation have been a challenging task. This is due to a lack of specifi city, conceptual lacunas, and inconsistencies in the interpretation and elucidation of Olympism. One inconsistency pertains to the meaning and emphasis of results in Olympic contests. In this regard, the Olympic creed and the Olympic motto seem to send contradictory messages. This paper investigates the role that results should have in Olympic contests and, more broadly, in an enlightened sporting life. It argues that the most developed approach to the sporting and Olympic life is one in which the process of contesting and its ensuing results come together to form a meaningful unity.
  • Abuso de Derecho y Fair Play en el Deporte

    Pérez Triviño, José Luis; Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (4/1/2013)
    Este trabajo plantea una reflexión sobre un tema central en el deporte, el enjuiciamiento de aquellas jugadas en las que un jugador o equipo, amparándose en las normas del sistema normativo deportivo, obtiene ventaja de la buena fe del rival. Un ejemplo de este tipo de jugadas tuvo lugar recientemente en un partido entre el FC Shakhtar Donetz de Ukrania y el FC Nordsjaelland de Dinamarca, en el cual el jugador del equipo ucraniano Luiz Adriano se aprovechó de un saque neutral para marcar un gol. Curiosamente, el árbitro no anuló el gol, pero el órgano disciplinario de la UEFA impuso una sanción al jugador. En este trabajo proponemos caracterizar este tipo de jugadas que “ensucian el juego” a partir de una institución característica del derecho como es el abuso de derecho, para posteriormente analizar estos supuestos desde las diferentes teorías del deporte (formalismo, convencionalismo, interpretativismo) y concluir que la última es la concepción que permite una más completa explicación y calificación. This paper offers a reflection on a central subject in sport, the characterization of those plays in which a player or team, getting protection in the norms of the sport normative system, obtains an advantage out of the good faith of the rival. An example of this type of plays took place recently in a match between FC Shakhtar Donetz of Ukrania and FC Nordsjaelland of Denmark, in which the player of the Ukrainian team Luiz Adriano took advantage of a neutral kickoff to score a goal. Curiously, the referee did not cancel the goal, but the disciplinary organ of the UEFA imposed a sanction to the player. In this paper, we propose to characterise this type of play that “spoils the game” based on the notion of abuse of law, typical of the theory of law. Additionally, we analyse this type of play from the point of view of different theories of the sport (formalism, conventionalism, and interpretivism) and conclude that the latter is the conception that allows for a more complete explanation.
  • The Performance of Visually Impaired Youngsters in Physical Education Activities: Implications for Mainstreaming

    Winnick, Joseph P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1985)
    The relative performance of individuals with visual handicapping conditions in physical education is directly or indirectly associated with severity of visual impairment, gender, age. activity type, method of ambulation. and parenial attitudes. Each of these influences success, extent, and/or nature of participation in physical activity, which in turn resuits in characteristics, limitations, abilities, and needs that musl be considered in order to effectively implement physical education programs in mainstreamed settings. Several implications for mainstreaming based on research pertaining to these factors are presented.
  • Perceived Barriers to Including Students with Visual Impairments in General Physical Education

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Kozub, Francis M.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2002)
    The purpose of this study was to examine barriers perceived by teachers when including students with visual impairments in general physical education. Teachers (52 males, 96 females) who had children with visual impairments in their physical education classes were surveyed prior to in-service workshop participation. The most prevalent barriers were professional preparation, equipment, programming, and time. A logistic regression analysis, regressing gender, in-service training, number of students with visual impairments taught, masters degree attained, masters hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), undergraduate hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), and years of experience failed to indicate significant predictors of professional preparation as a barrier, Model x2 (6, n = 148) = 4.48, p > .05.
  • Untangling the Links Among Athletic Involvement, Gender, Race, and Adolescent Academic Outcomes

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Melnick, Merill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.; Sabo, Don; D'Youville College; The College at Brockport; University at Buffalo (1/1/2005)
    Although previous research has established that high school sports participation may be associated with positive academic outcomes, the parameters of the relationship remain unclear. Using a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 Western New York adolescents, this study examined gender- and race-specific differences in the impact of two dimensions of adolescent athletic involvement (“jock” identity and athlete status) on changes in school grades and school misconduct over a two-year interval. Female and black adolescents who identified themselves as “jocks” reported lower grades than those who did not, whereas female athletes reported higher grades than female nonathletes. Jocks also reported significantly more misconduct (including skipping school, cutting classes, having someone from home called to the school for disciplinary purposes, and being sent to the principal’s office) than nonjocks. Gender moderated the relationship between athlete status and school misconduct; athletic participation had a less salutary effect on misconduct for girls than for boys.
  • Competitive Sport, Evaluation Systems, and Just Results: The Case of Rugby Union's Bonus-Point System

    Torres, Cesar R.; Hager, Peter F.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
  • The Relationship Between Instructional Alignment and the Ecology of Physical Education

    James, Alisa; Griffin, Linda L.; Dodds, Patt; The College at Brockport; University of Massachusetts - Amherst (1/1/2008)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the ecologies of two teachers and the extent that each teacher's agenda aligned with instructional activities and assessments for each unit of instruction. Data were collected in four ways: (1) videotaped record of each lesson, (2) live observation field notes and expanded field notes from the videotape, (3) formal and informal interviews, and (4) document data. Field note data were analyzed inductively and excerpted into meaningful units that demonstrated aspects of the classroom ecology and instructional alignment. Interview data were analyzed qualitatively through constant comparison. Results indicated that the teachers had differing agendas for the units of instruction. The differences in their agendas resulted in different classroom ecologies and a weakened program of action. The teachers shifted their espoused agendas (focus on student learning) to an enacted agenda that focused on safety and completing tasks. As a result of this shift, the focus of each teacher's agenda was not assessed in the manner that they had espoused. Consequently, there was no instructional alignment between the teachers' espoused agenda, lesson tasks, and assessments.
  • The Emotional Reactions to Challenging Behavior Scale-Korean (ERCBS-K): Modification and Validation

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kozub, Francis M.; California State University - San Bernardino; Indiana University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2010)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the original version of Mitchell and Hastings's (1998) Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale (ERCBS) and estimate validity and reliability of a revised version containing 29 items. The Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale-Korean (ERCBS-K) was studied using 445 in-service physical educators (228 females; 217 males). Data were collected using onsite administration as well as mail survey administration procedures. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses results supported a five factor, 28-item scale (ERCBS-K). Acceptable internal consistency coefficients were found for each of the subscales of the ERCBS-K (Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.71 to 0.87).
  • Peer Tutors' Effects on Activity Levels of Deaf Students in Inclusive Elementary Physical Education

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Dunn, John M.; van der Mars, Hans; McCubbin, Jeff; Oregon State University; The College at Brockport; University of Utah (1/1/2000)
    The purpose of this study was to examine barriers perceived by teachers when including students with visual impairments in general physical education. Teachers (52 males, 96 females) who had children with visual impairments in their physical education classes were surveyed prior to in-service workshop participation. The most prevalent barriers were professional preparation, equipment, programming, and time. A logistic regression analysis, regressing gender, in-service training, number of students with visual impairments taught, masters degree attained, masters hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), undergraduate hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), and years of experience failed to indicate significant predictors of professional preparation as a barrier, Model x2 (6, n = 148) = 4.48, p > .05.
  • Connecting Through Summer Camp: Youth with Visual Impairments Find a Sense of Community

    Goodwin, Donna L.; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Johnston, Keith; Leo, Jennifer; The College at Brockport; University of Alberta (1/1/2011)
    The social meaning of a one-week residential summer sports camp to young people with visual impairments is described. The experiences of 13 youths (7 females and 6 males) with visual impairments (3 B1, 1 B2, and 9 B3) between 9 and 15 years of age were gathered using the phenomenological methods of focus groups, conversational interviews, and field notes. The thematic analysis revealed three themes: connected, reaching out, and resisting and acquiescing. Experiences of group membership and shared emotional connection to others with visual impairments surfaced in a supportive sport context although resistance to others' assumptions of ability was evident. The theory of psychological sense of community (McMillan & Chivas, 1986) provided the conceptual framework for interpreting the findings.
  • The Psychometric Properties of the Difficult Behavior Self-Efficacy Scale

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Kozub, Francis M.; California State University - San Bernardino; The College at Brockport (1/1/2010)
    The study was designed to estimate the psychometric properties of Hastings and Brown’s (2002a) Difficult Behavior Self-efficacy Scale. Participants were two samples of physical educators teaching in Korea (n = 229) and the United States (U.S.; n = 139). An initial translation of the questionnaire to Korean and pilot study were conducted along with the larger study using a confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Internal consistency estimates (weighed Omega) for the five-item scale were 0.88 both the Korean and U.S. samples. The average variances extracted for the one factor were 0.59 for the total data set and 0.57 each for the Korean and U.S. samples. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a five-item, unidimensional model for self-efficacy for the total sample: Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) = 0.97, Nonnormed Fit Index (NNFI) = 0.95, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.98, and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.03. Only the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.12) fell below criterion levels of acceptable fit, with similar fit indices occurring in separate analyses of the Korean and U.S. samples. Invariance testing across the two samples supported metric invariance (similarity of factor loadings) but not scalar invariance (U.S. means higher on all five items). The factor structure for the self-efficacy scale provides an initial estimate of validity and internal consistency for use with different teacher groups.
  • Accuracy of Voice-Announcement Pedometers for Youth with Visual Impairment

    Beets, Michael W.; Foley, John T.; Tindall, Daniel W.S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Central Missouri State University; Oregon State University; SUNY Cortland; The College at Brockport (1/1/2007)
    Thirty-five youth with visual impairments (13.5 plus or minus 2.1 yrs, 13 girls and 22 boys) walked four 100-meter distances while wearing two units (right and left placement) of three brands of voice-announcement (VA) pedometers (Centrios[TM] Talking Pedometer, TALKiNG Pedometer, and Sportline Talking Calorie Pedometer 343) and a reference pedometer (NL2000). Registered pedometer steps for each trial were recorded, compared to actual steps assessed via digital video. Inter-unit agreement between right and left VA pedometer placement was low (ICC range 0.37 to 0.76). A systematic error was observed for the VA pedometers on the left placement (error range 5.6% to 12.2%), while right placement VA pedometers were at or below plus or minus 3% from actual steps (range 2.1% to 3.3%). The reference pedometer was unaffected by placement (ICC 0.98, error approximately 1.4%). Overall, VA pedometers demonstrated acceptable accuracy for the right placement, suggesting this position is necessary for youth with visual impairments. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

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