Recent Submissions

  • High Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Women Considered Low Risk by Traditional Risk Assessment

    Pollin, Irene S.; Shattuck, Teresa; Sadler, Michele Debarthe; Boyle, Jennifer R.; McKillop, Laurene; Campbell, Catherine; Ashen, Dominique; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F.; BrintzenhofeSzoc, Karlynn; et al. (1/1/2008)
    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence and awareness of traditional CVD risk factors, obesity, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk classification using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) among women attending the 2006 Sister to Sister National Woman’s Heart Day event. Results: A total of 8936 participants (mean age 49 ± 14 years) were evaluated. There was a modest prevalence of traditional risk factors on screening, including non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) > 160 mg/dL (27%), HDL-C <40 mg/dL (16%), random glucose level >140 mg/dL (6%), uncontrolled blood pressure ?140/90 mm Hg (12%), current smoking (6%), and a positive family history of CHD (21%). There was a high prevalence of overweight (39%) or obese individuals (35%) (body mass index [BMI] 25–30 and ? 30 kg/m2, respectively), as well as those with high waist circumference (?35 inches) (55%). Women were classified by FRS as low (85%), intermediate (6%), and high risk (9%). When cardiometabolic risk analyses included waist circumference in addition to the FRS, 59% of low-risk and 50% of intermediate-risk women had 1 or 2 risk factors, and 19% and 41% had ? 3 risk factors, respectively. Women were often unaware of risk factors on screening; among women without a previous diagnosis of dyslipidemia or hypertension, 48% and 7%, respectively, were given new diagnoses. Conclusions: Women participating in the 2006 Sister to Sister National Woman’s Heart Day event have a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors, especially dyslipidemia, obesity, and high central adiposity, that place them at higher risk for the development of CVD and other comorbidities. The newly identified multiple risk factors in this population support the value of community health screening in women.
  • Personal Beliefs, the Environment and College Students' Exercise and Eating Behaviors

    Boyle, Jennifer R.; LaRose, Nicole R.; American Cancer Society; The College at Brockport (1/1/2009)
    College students are at risk for overweight/obesity. It was hypothesized that better nutrition and physical activity (PA) would be related to healthy environmental perceptions and personal beliefs. A survey was administered to 169 students. Linear regressions were performed to examine the relationships between PA/healthy dietary habits and perceptions of body weight, self-efficacy, perceived threat of health problems, awareness of and satisfaction with campus services (PA), and availability of healthy foods (nutrition), for overweight and healthy-weight students separately. Among healthy-weight students, greater self-efficacy was associated with more PA and healthier diets. Among overweight students, greater satisfaction with PA services was associated with more PA.
  • Leptospirosis and an Animal Bite

    Bedard, Brenden A.; Kennedy, Byron; Weimer, Anita C.; Petruso, Anthony; Magnussen, Richard; Monroe County Department of Public Health; The College at Brockport; University of Rochester Medical Center (6/1/2014)
    In October 2013, leptospirosis was identified in a 20-year-old male. The male was bitten on his hand by either his canine or a skunk while breaking up a fight between the two animals. Eight days after the bite, the male developed fever, headache, drowsiness, neck pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, malaise and erythematous rash. Diagnosis was confirmed by amplification of Leptospira by DNA from a urine specimen. Veterinarian serology testing of the canine for Leptospira was negative. Leptospira in a human, acquired from an animal bite is a rare occurrence.
  • Using Smartphone Apps in STD Interviews to Find Sexual Partners

    Pennise, Melissa; Inscho, Roxana; Herpin, Kate; Owens, John; Bedard, Brenden A.; Weimer, Anita C.; Kennedy, Byron S.; Younge, Mary; Monroe County Department of Public Health; The College at Brockport (6/1/2015)
    Objectives. Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly used to facilitate casual sexual relationships, increasing the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In STD investigations, traditional contact elicitation methods can be enhanced with smartphone technology during field interviews. Methods. In 2013, the Monroe County Department of Public Health conducted a large, multi-infection STD investigation among men who have sex with men (MSM) using both index case and cluster interviews. When patients indicated meeting sexual partners online, disease intervention specialists (DISs) had access to smartphone apps and were able to elicit partners through access to inboxes and profiles where traditional contact information was lacking. Social network mapping was used to display the extent of the investigation and the impact of access to smartphones on the investigation. Results. A total of 14 index patient interviews and two cluster interviews were conducted; 97 individuals were identified among 117 sexual dyads. On average, eight partners were elicited per interview (range: 1–31). The seven individuals who used apps to find partners had an average of three Internet partners (range: 1–5). Thirty-six individuals either had a new STD (n=7) or were previously known to be HIV-positive (n=29). Of the 117 sexual dyads, 21 (18%) originated either online (n=8) or with a smartphone app (n=13). Of those originating online or with a smartphone app, six (29%) partners were located using the smartphone and two (10%) were notified of their exposure via a website. Three of the new STD/HIV cases were among partners who met online. Conclusion. Smartphone technology used by DISs in the field improved contact elicitation and resulted in successful partner notification and case finding.
  • Meningitis in a School-Aged Child due to Haemophilus influenzae Type E during the Post-Conjugate Vaccine Era—Monroe County, NY, 2011

    Kennedy, Byron S.; Weimer, Anita C.; Bedard, Brenden A.; Nayak, Jennifer L.; Sacheli, Drew; Ricci, John; Meyer, Donna D.; Hubbard, Donna; Mendon Pediatrics; Monroe County Department of Public Health; et al. (2/1/2014)
    In late October 2011, the Monroe County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) was notified of a suspected case of meningitis in a 9-year old girl from Monroe County, NY. Laboratory testing at the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) Wadsworth Center confirmed the identification of Haemophilus influenzae serotype e (Hie) isolated from the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The universal immunization of infants with conjugate H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease, including meningitis, one of the most serious complications for infected children. Not surprisingly, as the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae continues to change, non-Hib serotypes will likely become more common. The findings reported here underscore the importance for clinicians, public health officials, and laboratory staff to consider non-Hib pathogens in pediatric cases of meningitis, especially when initial investigations are inconclusive.
  • A Clostridium perfringens Outbreak Traced to Improper Cooking of Prime Rib in Rochester, New York 2011

    McNamara, Caroline; Bedard, Brenden A.; Weimer, Anita C.; Pennise, Melissa; Kennedy, Byron; Monroe County Department of Public Health; The College at Brockport (1/1/2014)
    In December 2011, the Monroe County Department of Public Health investigated a report of gastrointestinal illness from two separate parties that had dined at a restaurant on the same day. An environmental and epidemiological investigation identified 17 individuals who met the outbreak case definition. A detailed questionnaire based on the restaurant’s menu was administered to patrons from both parties and statistically analyzed. Based on this investigation, it was hypothesized that consuming the prime rib (P < 0.001) was associated with becoming ill. The environmental investigation indicated that the prime rib was not cooked to a proper temperature and was held at an improper temperature before being served. A prime rib sample and three stool samples from ill patrons were collected and sent for laboratory testing. Clostridium perfringens was identified in all of the samples by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) Wadsworth Laboratory. This outbreak demonstrates the importance of proper food safety techniques for restaurants to prevent illness.
  • Public safety officer emotional health: addressing the silent killer

    Lumb, Richard C.; Breazeale, Ronald L.; Lumb, Paula J.; Metz, Gary; Evergreen Behavioral Services; Maine Resilience; The College at Brockport (3/1/2010)
    This article focuses on the accumulation of stress and adversity that public safety officer’s experience when carrying out their respective duties. We focus on providing strategies to help officers reduce the impact of danger, adversity, trauma, stress and confronting abnormal situations that may have a deleterious effect on the officer’s health and well-being.
  • Outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae Infection Associated with Tattoo Ink

    Kennedy, Byron; Bedard, Brenden A.; Younge, Mary; Tuttle, Deborah; Ammerman, Eric; Ricci, John; Doniger, Andrew S.; Escuyer, Vincent E.; Mitchell, Kara; Noble-Wang, Judith A.; et al. (8/22/2012)
    Background In January 2012, on the basis of an initial report from a dermatologist, we began to investigate an outbreak of tattoo-associated Mycobacterium chelonae skin and softtissue infections in Rochester, New York. The main goals were to identify the extent, cause, and form of transmission of the outbreak and to prevent further cases of infection. Methods We analyzed data from structured interviews with the patients, histopathological testing of skin-biopsy specimens, acid-fast bacilli smears, and microbial cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We also performed DNA sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), cultures of the ink and ingredients used in the preparation and packaging of the ink, assessment of source water and faucets at tattoo parlors, and investigation of the ink manufacturer. Results Between October and December 2011, a persistent, raised, erythematous rash in the tattoo area developed in 19 persons (13 men and 6 women) within 3 weeks after they received a tattoo from a single artist who used premixed gray ink; the highest occurrence of tattooing and rash onset was in November (accounting for 15 and 12 patients, respectively). The average age of the patients was 35 years (range, 18 to 48). Skin-biopsy specimens, obtained from 17 patients, showed abnormalities in all 17, with M. chelonae isolated from 14 and confirmed by means of DNA sequencing. PFGE analysis showed indistinguishable patterns in 11 clinical isolates and one of three unopened bottles of premixed ink. Eighteen of the 19 patients were treated with appropriate antibiotics, and their condition improved. Conclusions The premixed ink was the common source of infection in this outbreak. These findings led to a recall by the manufacturer.
  • Tattoo-Associated Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Skin Infections - Multiple States, 2011–2012

    Bedard, Brenden A.; The College at Brockport (8/24/2012)
    Permanent tattoos have become increasingly common, with 21% of adults in the United States reporting having at least one tattoo (1). On rare occasions, outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) skin infections have been reported after tattooing (2,3). In January 2012, public health officials in New York received reports of Mycobacterium chelonae skin infections in 14 New York residents who received tattoos during September–December 2011. All infections were associated with use of the same nationally distributed, prediluted gray ink manufactured by company A. CDC disseminated an Epi-X public health alert to identify additional tattoo-associated NTM skin infections; previously identified cases were reported from three states (Washington, Iowa, and Colorado). Public health investigations by CDC, state and local health departments, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found NTM contamination in tattoo inks used in two of five identified clusters. All infected persons were exposed to one of four different brands of ink. NTM contamination of inks can occur during the manufacturing process as a result of using contaminated ingredients or poor manufacturing practices, or when inks are diluted with nonsterile water by tattoo artists. No specific FDA regulatory requirement explicitly provides that tattoo inks must be sterile. However, CDC recommends that ink manufacturers ensure ink is sterile and that tattoo artists avoid contamination of ink through dilution with nonsterile water. Consumers also should be aware of the health risks associated with getting an intradermal tattoo.
  • November Photo Quiz 360, Which Animal Bite Could Cause This Patient's Fever and Shortness of Breath?

    Huth, Paula A.; Laguio-Vila, Maryrose; Bedard, Brenden A.; The College at Brockport (11/1/2014)
  • The Association Between Parent Communication and College Freshmen's Alcohol Use

    Boyle, Jennifer R.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.; The College at Brockport; University of Maryland - College Park (1/1/2009)
    Using a cross-sectional survey, data were collected from 265 first-year college students to determine if parent-student alcohol communication is associated with college drinking or drinking consequences and if this relationship is mediated by students’ parental subjective norms, attitudes toward drinking, and perceived risk. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses. Students whose parents talked with them more about the negative effects of alcohol reported more extensive college drinking (ß = 0.12, p < 0.05). Favorable alcohol attitudes were significantly related to both more extensive college drinking (ß = 0.49, p < 0.05) and more drinking consequences (ß = 0.39, p < 0.05). Lower reported perceived risk was significantly related to more drinking consequences (ß = –0.24, p < 0.05). Findings indicate that parental communication regarding the negative effects of alcohol may be ineffective at reducing college drinking or drinking consequences.
  • Compliance with a New York State 2010 HIV Testing Law: Is There Racial/Ethnic Bias in HIV Testing? Experience of Monroe County, New York, 2012

    Kennedy, Byron S.; Kern, Anne; Ricci, John; Younge, Mary; Carelock, Kathy; Bedard, Brenden A.; Smith, Kim; Inscho, Roxana; Monroe County Department of Public Health; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
    Background: While routine HIV testing in the general population is a national recommendation, actual practice may vary. Purpose: To determine risk factors associated with HIV testing after the adoption of a New York State law in 2010 mandating that healthcare providers offer HIV testing in all clinical settings. Methods.: Survey data from Monroe County, New York, were collected in 2012 for adults aged 18-64 years and analyzed in 2014. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors independently associated with HIV testing and high-risk behavior. Results: Among adults aged 18-34 years, fewer Whites were offered HIV testing in the past year by their doctors compared with Blacks (34% vs 64%) despite having similar rates of any HIV high-risk behavior (20% overall). For adults aged 35-64 years, fewer Whites than Blacks were ever tested for HIV (42% vs 71%), offered HIV testing in past year (17% vs 40%), and reported any HIV high-risk behavior (3% vs 13%). Latinos showed intermediate levels. With logistic regression analysis, ever tested for HIV was independently associated with only race/ethnicity; offered HIV testing in the past year was associated with females, Blacks and Latinos, aged 18-34 years, and having a routine health checkup in past year; any HIV high-risk behavior was associated with only younger age. Conclusions: To improve HIV testing rates as well as compliance with state laws and national guidelines, targeted efforts should be considered that improve perceptions of risk and emphasize the value of routine HIV screening, including those directed at white adults and their health care providers.
  • December Photo Quiz 360, Answer: Rat Bite

    Huth, Paula A.; Laguio-Vila, Maryrose; Bedard, Brenden A.; The College at Brockport (12/1/2014)
  • Q-fever in a Refugee After Exposure to a Central New York State Livestock Farm

    Qazi, Mustafa; Weimer, Anita C.; Bedard, Brenden A.; Kennedy, Byron S.; Monroe County Department of Public Health; The College at Brockport; University of Rochester (7/1/2016)
    Q-fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii that can create an acute or chronic form of the illness. In March 2014, Q-fever was identified by serology and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), in a 62 year-old male that was a Nepalese refugee. The male visited a livestock farm with a slaughterhouse in rural Central New York State, twenty-two days prior to onset of symptoms. He had direct handling of goats on this farm prior to slaughter. We describe the case presentation of his illness and the public health epidemiological investigation.