• Depth Distribution of Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Relation to Season and Gas-Supersaturated Water

      Gray, Robert H.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1977-01-01)
      Pressure-sensitive radio transmitters were used to determine swimming depths of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in relation to season and gas-supersaturated water in the lower Snake River, southeastern Washington. Thirty radio-tagged fish, 15 with external and 15 with internal transmitters, were monitored in supersaturated water in spring 1976. Nine fish with internal and 30 with external transmitters were monitored in the absence of supersaturation in fall 1976 and spring 1977 respectively. Spring chinook salmon spent about 89% of their time below the critical supersaturation zone in 1976. Swimming depths of fall 1976 and spring 1977 chinook, migrating in normally saturated water, were shallower and differed significantly from those of fish migrating in supersaturated water in spring 1976.
    • Seasonal Movements of White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) in the Mid-Columbia River

      Haynes, James M.; Gray, Robert H.; Montgomery, Jerry C.; The College at Brockport (1978-01-01)
      Twenty-nine white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were instrumented in 1975 and 1976 with separately identifiable radio transmitters to study seasonal movements in the mid-Columbia River, southeastern Washington. Tagged fish remained in free-flowing areas of the river and were inactive in winter. Movements occurred in summer and early fall. Activity appeared related to water temperature and sturgeon size.
    • Structure and Function of the Zooplankton Community of Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Likens, Gene E.; Cornell University; The College at Brockport (1979-03-01)
      An intensive study of the zooplankton community of Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, was undertaken over a 3-yr period. Our objectives in the lake study have included measurements of a number of attributes of the zooplankton community that integrate structure and function at the ecosystem level; among these are dispersion, biomass, productivity, respiration, and nutrient cycling. Eight species of rotifers and 3 species of cladocerans were successfully cultured. Generation time for planktonic rotifers was -8-10 days (170C). The effect of higher food levels on rotifers was to shorten generation time and to increase brood size. In cladocerans, high food levels caused an increase in length and brood size . A curvilinear relationship existed between zooplankton community respiration and temperature in Mirror Lake. Mean monthly zooplankton community respiration ranged from 96.0 kg C/ha/mo in June of 1969 to a low of 20.5 kg C/ha/mo in April of 1970. Over a 3-yr period, respiration was 79.9% of assimilation. The 0 to 4.5-m strata (;epilimnion) contributed 68.5% and 46.5% of the annual zooplankton production and biomass. Zooplankton community production ranged from 22.3 kg C/ha/yr to 29.3 kg C/ha/yr with a 3-yr mean of 25.2 kg C/ha/yr. The annual zooplankton biomass ranged from 1.4 to 2.6 kg C/ha with a 3-yr mean of 2.0 kg C/ha. A linear relationship was found to exist between net phytoplankton and zooplankton production in various lakes of the world. Ecological efficiency apparently increases with the trophic status of the lake. It is recommended that the term ecological efficiency be refined to include both autochthonous and allochthonous inputs of reduced carbon into the lake. Rotifers assume a major role in intrasystem nutrient cycling and energy transfer within the lake ecosystem. Of the total amount of P incorporated into the organic matter of zooplankton community each year, 33.5% is assimilated in rotifer tissue. The annual turnover rate of P by rotifers is 30.9 and is high compared to crustaceans (10.1). Copepods comprise 55.4% of the total zooplankton biomass. However, the copepods, with their slow growth over an entire year, represent only 19.3% of the zooplankton production, while rotifers account for 39.8% of the zooplankton production annually in Mirror Lake. Also, evidence is presented that rotifers play a major role in energy transfer in lakes of varying trophic status (oligotrophic to eutrophic).
    • Formation of Alewife Concretions in Polluted Onondaga Lake

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Effler, Steven W.; Syracuse University; The College at Brockport (1981-01-01)
      The previously reported finding of alewife concretions along the shores of Onondaga Lake in Upstate New York prompted investigation of the field conditions necessary for their formation and laboratory simulation of these conditions to induce concretion formation. Onondaga Lake is shown to be calcium-polluted and continuously supersaturated with respect to CaC03• Anaerobic conditions exist in the hypolimnion in approximately eight months of every year. In controlled laboratory experiments, formation of structure-retaining alewife concretions was successful under anaerobic conditions, and was enhanced by elevated calcium concentrations. Additional chemical analyses of fresh alewives, natural concretions and laboratory-formed concretions were performed. A previously proposed mechanism for concretion formation is evaluated with respect to the presented results. The common occurrence of alewife concretions in Onondaga Lake is a manifestation of the unique polluted state of the ecosystem, combined with the invasion of the lipid-rich alewife.
    • Multivariate Analysis of the Lake Michigan Phytoplankton Community at Chicago

      Baybutt, Robert I.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1981-04-01)
      Ordination techniques were used to analyze phytoplankton and water chemistry data collected between 1927 and 1978 from Lake Michigan at Chicago. Ordination analysis summarized the phytoplankton data and illustrated the progression from oligotrophy to eutrophy and the subsequent reversal of cultural eutrophication after 1970 in the nearshore waters of Lake Michigan at Chicago. The analysis highlighted a significant correlation between blue-green algal biomass and Na+ concentration. The increase in mean annual Na+ concentration in Lake Michigan at Chicago and the experimental evidence implying a Na+ requirement for blue-green algae suggested that the increase in blue-greens, although influenced by P enrichment and by other factors, such as CO2 availability, allelopathic effects and N: P ratios, may also be linked with increases in Na+ concentration.
    • Long-Term (1927-1978) Changes in the Phytoplankton Community of Lake Michigan at Chicago

      Baybutt, Robert I.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1981-04-01)
      Fifty-one years of phytoplankton data from the South District Water Intake of the Chicago Water Filtration Plant were analyzed to determine changes in the phytoplankton community related to the eutrophication of Lake Michigan. From 1930 to 1940, a net biomass (~100 mg C/m3) indicative of oligotrophic-mesotrophic conditions were implied by the net algal biomass. By 1961 net algal biomass was ~600 mg C/m3-a biomass indicative of a eutrophic lake. Much of the biomass increase is due to Tabellaria, Stephanodiscus tenuis and S. binderanus. Since the early 1970's, there has been a consistent general decrease in algal biomass to levels associated with oligotrophic-mesotrophic conditions. The decrease in net algal biomass, the decrease in abundance of eutrophic species, the small but general increase in genera that were decreasing in relative abundance until ~ 1972, and the increase in dissolved reactive silica concentrations in Lake Michigan suggest a reversal of cultural eutrophication of Lake Michigan near Chicago. Only the increase in the relative abundance (22% of the total community biomass in 1978) of blue-green algae, mostly Oscillatoria and Gomphosphaeria, argues for accelerated eutrophication.
    • Cattail Invasion of Sedge Meadows Following Hydrologic Disturbance in the Cowles Bog Wetland Complex, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Apfelbaum, Steven I.; Hiebert, Ronald D.; Applied Ecological Services; The College at Brockport (1984-12-01)
      The vegetation of the 80.7 hectare Cowles Bog Wetland Complex has been altered from its historic mixed sedge-grass domination (Carex stricta, Calamagrostis canadensis) in lower areas and woody growth in slightly elevated areas , as based on archival aerial photographs from 1938-1982 and recent field data. Cattails (Typha spp.) were present in 1938 and made minor gains in cover through 1970. However, the major invasion of cattails appears to be associated with stabilized, increased water levels caused by seepage from diked ponds constructed upgradient from the wetland in the early 1970s. The water level increases are assumed to have been of a magnitude which adversely affected the sedge-grass community but did not preclude cattail growth. The cattail vegetation type increased in cover from 2.0 ha in 1938 to 9.7 ha in 1970 to 37.5 ha in 1982. The sedge-grass vegetation type correspondingly decreased from 56.4 ha to 43.0 ha to 5.7 ha. Cattail invasion appears to have occurred through establishment of disjunct colonies by seed reproduction; followed by vegetative expansion and merging of the colonies.
    • New Records for Sphagnum in Indiana

      Andrus, Richard E.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; SUNY Binghamton; The College at Brockport (1985-01-01)
      The Indiana Sphagnum flora is expanded from 10 to 28 species. Sphagnum.henryense, S. recurvum, and S. bartlettianum are more southerly species reaching northern limits while S.centrale, S. papillosum, S. squarrosum, S. teres, S. contortum, S. platyphyllum, S. fallax, S.flexuosum, S. augustifolium, S. pulchrum, S. riparium, S. capillifolium, S. subtile, S. rubellum, S.fuscum, S. girgensohnii, S. russowii, S. fimbriatum, and S. wulfianum are northern species which reach a southern limit in Indiana. One half of the northern species are limited to the three northern counties bordering Lake Michigan, but the occurrence of the other half in an apparently recently colonized abandoned sandstone quarry in the middle of the state suggests that the limiting factor may be habitat more than climate. The most extensive peatland in the state, Pinhook Bog, is briefly characterized.
    • The Effects of Deicing Salts on Water Chemistry in Pinhook Bog, Indiana.

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (1986-02-01)
      A five-year study was conducted to identify the effects of road salt intrusion on the water chemistry of Pinhook Bog following operation of an uncovered salt storage pile adjacent to the bog for ten years. A distinct pattern of elevated salt concentrations was observed in the interstitial waters of the surface peat that corresponded to observed alterations in the bog vegetation. Yearly mean salt concentrations as high as 468 mg/1 sodium and 1215 mg/1 chloride were recorded in the plant root zone .of the peat mat. The salt concentrations decreased significantly each year from 1979 to 1981 throughout the impacted area. Some increases of a lesser magnitude occurred in 1982 and 1983. Analysis of salt movements suggested that vertical transport by water movement was responsible for concentration changes. The major declines in salt levels occurred in the spring following snowmelt and heavy precipitation events. Evapotranspiration during periods of drought resulted in the gradual increases in surface peat salt concentrations. Diverted highway runoff was shown to be the major continuing source of sodium chloride contamination and was the likely source of the elevated calcium, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonate, and pH levels also observed in the impacted area.
    • Ecology and Management Potential for Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Seeling, Martin K.; Edwards, Keith R.; Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; The College at Brockport (1986-07-01)
      Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), an exotic wetland plant from Eurasia, has become widespread in the northeast and northcentral regions of the U.S. and Canada. When it becomes established in a wetland, it crowds out most native plant species, and can form dense stands either in standing water or on moist soil. This results in decreased plant diversity and the loss of food and cover species valuable to wildlife. Some attempted control methods, such as controlled burning and water-level manipulation have proven to be unsuccessful. Other control measures, including mechanical cutting, replacement, and cattail competition, have shown encouraging, but inconclusive, results. This study was therefore initiated to further explore the possibility of controlling purple loosestrife through competition with cattails (Typha angustifolia) in mixed stands. A competitive edge was given to Typha by cutting Lythrum and selectively fertilizing Typha. First-year results of the study showed a significant decrease in Lythrum biomass as a result of cutting treatments. Cutting did not significantly reduce resprouting Lythrum stems, as Lythrum resprouted in greater numbers than Typha, but Typha sprouts grew faster and increased in biomass more quickly than Lythrum sprouts. With carbohydrate replenishment to the roots reduced, it is expected that Lythrum biomass will be reduced in subsequent years. The stress caused by cutting, and increased shade by the Typha canopy, may help to control purple loosestrife spread.
    • Vegetation Patterns in and among Pannes (Calcareous Intradunal Ponds) at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

      Hiebert, Ronald D.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; The College at Brockport; U.S. Geological Survey (1986-10-01)
      The relationships between plant species composition and dispersion, water chemistry and water depth/depth to water table were studied in five calcareous intradunal ponds (pannes) bordering the southern tip of Lake Michigan. The panne systems contained eight plant species threatened and endangered in Indiana. The aquatic zone was dominated by Chara, the pond edge by Rhynchospora capillacea, Juncus balticus and Utricularia cornuta, and the area surrounding the pond by Hypericum kalmianum. The water chemistry was typical of hardwater ponds in the area, probably affecting species composition but not species dispersion within the pannes. A significant correlation between the first axis scores from a reciprocal-averaging ordination and water depth/depth to water was demonstrated. Panne species are fitted to a model based on hydrology proposed by van der Laan for dune-slack vegetation in the Netherlands.
    • Hydrology, Water Chemistry and Ecological Relations in the Raised Mound of Cowles Bog

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Shedlock, Robert J.; Hendrickson, William H.; The College at Brockport (1986-12-01)
      The Cowles Bog National Natural Landmark and the wetlands between the dunes near the south shore of Lake Michigan, in Indiana, contain plant species that are typical of circum-neutral fens. The distribution of eight, rather sharply delineated, vegetation types correlates most strongly with water level variations resulting from the presence of a 4.1-ha convex peat mound. A network of shallow ground-water wells installed in the wetland has identified an upwelling of water under artesian pressure at sites underlying the mound. The well-buffered water, containing high concentrations of inorganic solutes, is derived from an aquifer that is recharged on an upland moraine and is confined beneath a clay till sheet. A breach in this clay layer beneath the mound allows water to flow upward and radially outward as the hydraulic head is dissipated in the overlying marl and peat. The marl and organic lake sediments in the wetland were formed during the Nipissing level of ancestral Lake Michigan (4000-6000 years ago) when the wetland basin was probably a small bay of the lake. The peat mound developed when the lake level fell from the Algoma through to modern times. This increased the difference in hydraulic head and increased spring flows, which in turn induced peat formation.
    • A Model For Assessing Interdisciplinary Approaches to Wetland Research

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (1987-01-01)
      An interdisciplinary approach to research in wetlands is necessary to avoid incorrect extrapolations and projections about broad wetland functions based on limited knowledge. The values of several lesser-used disciplines or fields of study are often overlooked and therefore not incorporated into study designs. To address this problem, a model was developed that relates ten ecological and environmental science disciplines to each other (geohydrology, surface water hydrology, water chemistry, soil/sediment chemistry, stratigraphy/sedimentology, paleoecology, plant ecology, animal ecology, remote sensing, and seedbank studies). A matrix and compartmentalized model cross-identify each discipline as a research tool and as a type of study for which a given tool can be used in data collection. Use of the model is demonstrated by assessing the research approach utilized in the study of three wetland systems (shallow dune ponds, bog, fen) at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and the study of the pocosin wetlands as presented in a comprehensive volume on that subject.
    • The Role of Sphagnum Fimbriatum in Secondary Succession in a Road-Salt Impacted Bog

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Andrus, Richard E.; SUNY Binghamton; The College at Brockport (1987-01-01)
      Secondary succession of Sphagnum mosses was studied for 7 years along a belt transect in a bog that had been impacted by sodium chloride highway deicing salts. Laboratory studies on Sphagnumfimbriatum Wils., the dominant recolonizing species, were conducted to determine its salt tolerance level and ability to reproduce from spores and fragments across a salt gradient. Vegetative reproduction was also compared with that of four other recolonizing species. Sphagnumfimbriatum represented a high percentage of all recolonizing Sphagnum and generally began growing on low hummocks in quadrats where the salt content of the interstitial peat pore waters had dropped to about 300 mg/L as chloride. This salt concentration was also found to be the basic tolerance limit for mature plants and reproducing spores and fragments. The success of Sphagnum fimbriatum as a pioneer species seems to be associated with its prolific production and probable dispersal of spores, its superior vegetative reproduction, its tolerance of mineralized waters, and its ability to grow on hummocks out of direct contact with mineralized waters.
    • A Chronosequence of Aquatic Macrophyte Communities in Dune Ponds.

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Simonin, Howard A.; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; The College at Brockport (1987-01-01)
      Differences in macrophyte community composition in a chronosequence of spatially separated dune ponds near the south shore of Lake Michigan were examined and related to environmental variables. Five ponds from each of five pond rows were sampled. In each pond, the cover of each plant species and water and sediment depth were sampled using a stratified random design. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from selected ponds. Ordination of the vegetation data by detrended correspondence analysis revealed similarities in the plant communities of ponds in the same row and community differences between ponds in different rows. Younger ponds (< 300 years) were dominated by Chara spp. and Najas flexilis, middle-age ponds (2100 years) by Myriophyllum spp. and Nymphaea tuberosa, and older ponds (3000 years) by Typha angustifolia. Distribution of macrophyte communities was most closely correlated with water depth, which generally decreased with increasing age of the pond row. Some sediment chemistry differences were found between pond rows, but there were no significant differences in water chemistry. Although a linear succession pattern is suggested, we think that anthropogenic disturbance played a major role in determining the vegetation differences observed. Thus, a chronosequence of spatially separated ponds can provide valuable information on hydrarch succession, but it may be misleading and actually represent succession affected by disturbance history.
    • The Stratigraphy and Development of a Floating Peatland, Pinhook Bog, Indiana

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Simonin, Howard A.; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; The College at Brockport (1988-01-01)
      Pinhook Bog is an acidic, weakly-minerotrophic peatland that occupies an ice block depression in the Valparaiso Moraine in northwest Indiana. It has a floating mat approximately 22 ha in area but no central pond. Detailed stratigraphic descriptions of the peatland were made to analyze its developmental history and determine what factors may be responsible for mat formation. Stratigraphic data along four transects identified a clay-lined basin with three major sub-basins 18, 14, and 14m deep. The deeper parts of the sub-basins contain fibrous limnic peats with some intermixed lacustrine sediments deposited between 12000 and 4200 years ago. The younger, upper peat layers are composed primarily of Sphagnum and consist of the fibrous surface peat and two underlying layers of fluid, fibrous peat separated by a water layer about one meter thick. Peat materials from above the water layer have fallen through the water to form the lower layer of detritus peat. In addition to the obvious factors of climate and presence of mat-forming species, the development of extensive floating peatland mats is considered to be largely a function of deep, steep-sided basins that allow horizontal mat growth to exceed vertical peat accumulation. Other important contributing factors are clay-lined basins and the Jack of inlets or outlets. These factors may result in water-level changes in the basin and weakly-minerotrophic waters conducive to Sphagnum growth.
    • Resource Partitioning in Summer by Salmonids in South-Central Lake Ontario

      Olson, Robert A.; Winter, Jimmy D.; Nettles, David C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1988-01-01)
      During the summers of 1981 and 1982, we studied resource partitioning by stocked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, brown trout Salmo trutta, and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by fishing vertical gill nets at six distances from shore in south-central Lake Ontario. The nets were set at depths of approximately 15-45 m (nearshore stations,offshore) and more than 55 m (offshore stations, 4-24 km offshore). Salmonids were concentrated near shore, where they partitioned available habitat and, thus, food resources. Horizontal habitat was partitioned with respect to distance from shore; vertical habitat was partitioned in relation to temperature and the thermocline. Salmonids foraged for the most available prey items within their habitat. Overlaps in both food use and horizontal habitat use were inversely related to overlap in use of vertical habitat. There was increased habitat separation between sexes for those species caught farther from shore. At the salmonid stocking and prey density levels existing during our study, lake trout, brown trout, and chinook salmon appeared to partition resources and minimize deleterious trophic interactions during thermal stratification.
    • Effects Of Coal Fly-Ash Disposal On Water Chemistry in an Intradunal Wetland at Indiana Dunes

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Hardy, Mark A.; The College at Brockport; U.S. Geological Survey (1988-01-01)
      An intradunal wetland within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore on the south shore of Lake Michigan was flooded for 15 years by seepage from fly-ash settling ponds located adjacent to the park. Studies were undertaken to determine the effects of the seepage on water chemistry in the flooded wetlands. These water chemistry conditions have been correlated to ongoing studies of soil contamination and secondary succession in the wetland basin following cessation of seepage. The seepage increased the concentrations of calcium, potassium, sulfate, aluminum, boron, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, strontium, and zinc in ground water and surface water downgradient from the settling ponds. Chemical interactions with aquifer materials, particularly organic matter, significantly limit the transport of aluminum, iron, nickel, and zinc in this system. The organic soils of the dewatered wetland basin now contain elevated concentrations of aluminum, boron, manganese, and zinc that are potentially phytotoxic under the low pH (<4) conditions that exist. Plant growth and secondary succession were affected by the soil chemistry of the dewatered wetlands.
    • The Necessity of Interdisciplinary Research in Wetland Ecology: the Cowles Bog Example

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (1988-01-01)
      The importance of incorporating results from a number of scientific disciplines into the interpretation of wetland functions and processes was assessed by reviewing the history of research conducted in the Cowles Bog Wetland Complex in northwest Indiana. Early twentieth century work consisted primarily of descriptive studies that provided a historical reference for later work. The major research effort in the wetland was in direct response to hydrologic disturbances associated with industrial development adjacent to the site in the 1960s and 1970s. Geohydrology, surface-water hydrology, water chemistry, soil chemistry, stratigraphy, plant ecology, and animal ecology studies were all initiated at that time. These studies were continued after the industrial threats had lessened in an effort to better understand the wetland and ensure wise management of its resources. The studies also provided a framework for research on the developmental history of the wetland and its vegetation. Paleoecology, sedimentology, and remote sensing studies were added to the overall research effort to help delineate that history. The many disciplines used in the study of Cowles Bog were interrelated, and each provided information necessary for accurate interpretation of results from other studies.
    • A Paleoecological Test of a Classical Hydrosere in the Lake Michigan Dunes

      Jackson, Stephen T.; Futyma, Richard P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (1988-08-01)
      Aquatic vegetation varies along a chronosequence of dune ponds at Miller Woods, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Submersed and floating-leaved macrophytes dominate the vegetation of the youngest ponds. Older ponds contain mixed assemblages of submersed, floating-leaved, and emergent plant taxa. The oldest ponds are dominated by emergent plants, especially Typha angustifolia. We conducted paleoecological studies at one of the oldest ponds to test the hypothesis that the modern vegetational array along the pond chronosequence represents a hydrarch successional sequence. Macrofossil stratigraphy of the 3000-yr-old pond indicates no significant changes in pond vegetation following early colonization until < 150 BP. Pond vegetation before 150 BP consisted of a diverse assemblage of submersed, floating-leaved, and emergent macrophyte taxa. Pollen and macrofossil data indicate a major, rapid vegetational change at < 150 BP, evidently in response to local human disturbance. Pollen data reveal that the extensive Typha stands in the older ponds have developed recently, following postsettlement disturbance. Modern vegetational differences along the chronosequence reflect differential effects of disturbance rather than autogenic hydrarch succession. This study illustrates a major pitfall in inferring successional trends from spatial sequences of vegetation.