• Depth Distribution of Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Relation to Season and Gas-Supersaturated Water

      Gray, Robert H.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1977)
      Pressure-sensitive radio transmitters were used to determine swimming depths of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in relation to season and gas-supersaturated water in the lower Snake River, southeastern Washington. Thirty radio-tagged fish, 15 with external and 15 with internal transmitters, were monitored in supersaturated water in spring 1976. Nine fish with internal and 30 with external transmitters were monitored in the absence of supersaturation in fall 1976 and spring 1977 respectively. Spring chinook salmon spent about 89% of their time below the critical supersaturation zone in 1976. Swimming depths of fall 1976 and spring 1977 chinook, migrating in normally saturated water, were shallower and differed significantly from those of fish migrating in supersaturated water in spring 1976.
    • Seasonal Movements of White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) in the Mid-Columbia River

      Haynes, James M.; Gray, Robert H.; Montgomery, Jerry C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1978)
      Twenty-nine white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were instrumented in 1975 and 1976 with separately identifiable radio transmitters to study seasonal movements in the mid-Columbia River, southeastern Washington. Tagged fish remained in free-flowing areas of the river and were inactive in winter. Movements occurred in summer and early fall. Activity appeared related to water temperature and sturgeon size.
    • Formation of Alewife Concretions in Polluted Onondaga Lake

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Effler, Steven W.; Syracuse University; The College at Brockport (1/1/1981)
      The previously reported finding of alewife concretions along the shores of Onondaga Lake in Upstate New York prompted investigation of the field conditions necessary for their formation and laboratory simulation of these conditions to induce concretion formation. Onondaga Lake is shown to be calcium-polluted and continuously supersaturated with respect to CaC03• Anaerobic conditions exist in the hypolimnion in approximately eight months of every year. In controlled laboratory experiments, formation of structure-retaining alewife concretions was successful under anaerobic conditions, and was enhanced by elevated calcium concentrations. Additional chemical analyses of fresh alewives, natural concretions and laboratory-formed concretions were performed. A previously proposed mechanism for concretion formation is evaluated with respect to the presented results. The common occurrence of alewife concretions in Onondaga Lake is a manifestation of the unique polluted state of the ecosystem, combined with the invasion of the lipid-rich alewife.
    • New Records for Sphagnum in Indiana

      Andrus, Richard E.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; SUNY Binghamton; The College at Brockport (1/1/1985)
      The Indiana Sphagnum flora is expanded from 10 to 28 species. Sphagnum.henryense, S. recurvum, and S. bartlettianum are more southerly species reaching northern limits while S.centrale, S. papillosum, S. squarrosum, S. teres, S. contortum, S. platyphyllum, S. fallax, S.flexuosum, S. augustifolium, S. pulchrum, S. riparium, S. capillifolium, S. subtile, S. rubellum, S.fuscum, S. girgensohnii, S. russowii, S. fimbriatum, and S. wulfianum are northern species which reach a southern limit in Indiana. One half of the northern species are limited to the three northern counties bordering Lake Michigan, but the occurrence of the other half in an apparently recently colonized abandoned sandstone quarry in the middle of the state suggests that the limiting factor may be habitat more than climate. The most extensive peatland in the state, Pinhook Bog, is briefly characterized.
    • The Role of Sphagnum Fimbriatum in Secondary Succession in a Road-Salt Impacted Bog

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Andrus, Richard E.; SUNY Binghamton; The College at Brockport (1/1/1987)
      Secondary succession of Sphagnum mosses was studied for 7 years along a belt transect in a bog that had been impacted by sodium chloride highway deicing salts. Laboratory studies on Sphagnumfimbriatum Wils., the dominant recolonizing species, were conducted to determine its salt tolerance level and ability to reproduce from spores and fragments across a salt gradient. Vegetative reproduction was also compared with that of four other recolonizing species. Sphagnumfimbriatum represented a high percentage of all recolonizing Sphagnum and generally began growing on low hummocks in quadrats where the salt content of the interstitial peat pore waters had dropped to about 300 mg/L as chloride. This salt concentration was also found to be the basic tolerance limit for mature plants and reproducing spores and fragments. The success of Sphagnum fimbriatum as a pioneer species seems to be associated with its prolific production and probable dispersal of spores, its superior vegetative reproduction, its tolerance of mineralized waters, and its ability to grow on hummocks out of direct contact with mineralized waters.
    • A Chronosequence of Aquatic Macrophyte Communities in Dune Ponds.

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Simonin, Howard A.; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; The College at Brockport (1/1/1987)
      Differences in macrophyte community composition in a chronosequence of spatially separated dune ponds near the south shore of Lake Michigan were examined and related to environmental variables. Five ponds from each of five pond rows were sampled. In each pond, the cover of each plant species and water and sediment depth were sampled using a stratified random design. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from selected ponds. Ordination of the vegetation data by detrended correspondence analysis revealed similarities in the plant communities of ponds in the same row and community differences between ponds in different rows. Younger ponds (< 300 years) were dominated by Chara spp. and Najas flexilis, middle-age ponds (2100 years) by Myriophyllum spp. and Nymphaea tuberosa, and older ponds (3000 years) by Typha angustifolia. Distribution of macrophyte communities was most closely correlated with water depth, which generally decreased with increasing age of the pond row. Some sediment chemistry differences were found between pond rows, but there were no significant differences in water chemistry. Although a linear succession pattern is suggested, we think that anthropogenic disturbance played a major role in determining the vegetation differences observed. Thus, a chronosequence of spatially separated ponds can provide valuable information on hydrarch succession, but it may be misleading and actually represent succession affected by disturbance history.
    • A Model For Assessing Interdisciplinary Approaches to Wetland Research

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1987)
      An interdisciplinary approach to research in wetlands is necessary to avoid incorrect extrapolations and projections about broad wetland functions based on limited knowledge. The values of several lesser-used disciplines or fields of study are often overlooked and therefore not incorporated into study designs. To address this problem, a model was developed that relates ten ecological and environmental science disciplines to each other (geohydrology, surface water hydrology, water chemistry, soil/sediment chemistry, stratigraphy/sedimentology, paleoecology, plant ecology, animal ecology, remote sensing, and seedbank studies). A matrix and compartmentalized model cross-identify each discipline as a research tool and as a type of study for which a given tool can be used in data collection. Use of the model is demonstrated by assessing the research approach utilized in the study of three wetland systems (shallow dune ponds, bog, fen) at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and the study of the pocosin wetlands as presented in a comprehensive volume on that subject.
    • The Stratigraphy and Development of a Floating Peatland, Pinhook Bog, Indiana

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Simonin, Howard A.; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; The College at Brockport (1/1/1988)
      Pinhook Bog is an acidic, weakly-minerotrophic peatland that occupies an ice block depression in the Valparaiso Moraine in northwest Indiana. It has a floating mat approximately 22 ha in area but no central pond. Detailed stratigraphic descriptions of the peatland were made to analyze its developmental history and determine what factors may be responsible for mat formation. Stratigraphic data along four transects identified a clay-lined basin with three major sub-basins 18, 14, and 14m deep. The deeper parts of the sub-basins contain fibrous limnic peats with some intermixed lacustrine sediments deposited between 12000 and 4200 years ago. The younger, upper peat layers are composed primarily of Sphagnum and consist of the fibrous surface peat and two underlying layers of fluid, fibrous peat separated by a water layer about one meter thick. Peat materials from above the water layer have fallen through the water to form the lower layer of detritus peat. In addition to the obvious factors of climate and presence of mat-forming species, the development of extensive floating peatland mats is considered to be largely a function of deep, steep-sided basins that allow horizontal mat growth to exceed vertical peat accumulation. Other important contributing factors are clay-lined basins and the Jack of inlets or outlets. These factors may result in water-level changes in the basin and weakly-minerotrophic waters conducive to Sphagnum growth.
    • The Necessity of Interdisciplinary Research in Wetland Ecology: the Cowles Bog Example

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1988)
      The importance of incorporating results from a number of scientific disciplines into the interpretation of wetland functions and processes was assessed by reviewing the history of research conducted in the Cowles Bog Wetland Complex in northwest Indiana. Early twentieth century work consisted primarily of descriptive studies that provided a historical reference for later work. The major research effort in the wetland was in direct response to hydrologic disturbances associated with industrial development adjacent to the site in the 1960s and 1970s. Geohydrology, surface-water hydrology, water chemistry, soil chemistry, stratigraphy, plant ecology, and animal ecology studies were all initiated at that time. These studies were continued after the industrial threats had lessened in an effort to better understand the wetland and ensure wise management of its resources. The studies also provided a framework for research on the developmental history of the wetland and its vegetation. Paleoecology, sedimentology, and remote sensing studies were added to the overall research effort to help delineate that history. The many disciplines used in the study of Cowles Bog were interrelated, and each provided information necessary for accurate interpretation of results from other studies.
    • Effects Of Coal Fly-Ash Disposal On Water Chemistry in an Intradunal Wetland at Indiana Dunes

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Hardy, Mark A.; The College at Brockport; U.S. Geological Survey (1/1/1988)
      An intradunal wetland within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore on the south shore of Lake Michigan was flooded for 15 years by seepage from fly-ash settling ponds located adjacent to the park. Studies were undertaken to determine the effects of the seepage on water chemistry in the flooded wetlands. These water chemistry conditions have been correlated to ongoing studies of soil contamination and secondary succession in the wetland basin following cessation of seepage. The seepage increased the concentrations of calcium, potassium, sulfate, aluminum, boron, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, strontium, and zinc in ground water and surface water downgradient from the settling ponds. Chemical interactions with aquifer materials, particularly organic matter, significantly limit the transport of aluminum, iron, nickel, and zinc in this system. The organic soils of the dewatered wetland basin now contain elevated concentrations of aluminum, boron, manganese, and zinc that are potentially phytotoxic under the low pH (<4) conditions that exist. Plant growth and secondary succession were affected by the soil chemistry of the dewatered wetlands.
    • Resource Partitioning in Summer by Salmonids in South-Central Lake Ontario

      Olson, Robert A.; Winter, Jimmy D.; Nettles, David C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1988)
      During the summers of 1981 and 1982, we studied resource partitioning by stocked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, brown trout Salmo trutta, and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by fishing vertical gill nets at six distances from shore in south-central Lake Ontario. The nets were set at depths of approximately 15-45 m (nearshore stations,offshore) and more than 55 m (offshore stations, 4-24 km offshore). Salmonids were concentrated near shore, where they partitioned available habitat and, thus, food resources. Horizontal habitat was partitioned with respect to distance from shore; vertical habitat was partitioned in relation to temperature and the thermocline. Salmonids foraged for the most available prey items within their habitat. Overlaps in both food use and horizontal habitat use were inversely related to overlap in use of vertical habitat. There was increased habitat separation between sexes for those species caught farther from shore. At the salmonid stocking and prey density levels existing during our study, lake trout, brown trout, and chinook salmon appeared to partition resources and minimize deleterious trophic interactions during thermal stratification.
    • Migration and Control of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) along Highway Corridors

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1989)
      The east-west density gradient and the pattern and mode of migration of the wetland exotic, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.), were assessed in a survey of populations along the New York State Thruway from Albany to Buffalo to determine if the highway corridor contributed to the spread of this species. During the peak flowering season of late July to early August, individual colonies of purple loosestrife were identified and categorized into three size classes in parallel belt transects consisting of the median strip and highway rights-of-way on the north and south sides of the road. Data were also collected on the presence of colonies adjacent to the corridor and on highway drainage patterns. Although a distinct east-west density gradient existed in the corridor, it corresponded to the gradient on adjacent lands and was greatly influenced by a major infestation at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The disturbed highway corridor served as a migration route for purple loosestrife, but topographic features dictated that this migration was a short distance rather than long-distance process. Ditch and culvert drainage patterns increased the ability of purple loosestrife to migrate to new wetland sites. Management strategies proposed to reduce the spread of this wetland threat include minimizing disturbance, pulling by hand, spraying with glyphosate, risking, and mowing.
    • Disturbance Effects on Aquatic Vegetation in Regulated and Unregulated Lakes in Northern Minnesota

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Meeker, James E.; The College at Brockport; University of Wisconsin - Madison (1/1/1991)
      The effects of water-level regulation on aquatic macrophyte communities were investigated by comparing two regulated lakes in northern Minnesota with a nearby unregQlated lake. Natural annual fluctuations of about 1.8 m were replaced with fluctuations of 1.1 m and 2. 7 m in the regulated lakes, and the timing of water-level changes was also altered. Quadrats were sampled along transects that followed depth contours representing different plant habitats in the unregulated lake. Ordinations showed that the macrophyte communities at all sampled depths of the regulated lakes differed from those in the unregulated lake. The unregulated lake supported structurally diverse plant communities at all depths. In the lake with reduced fluctuations, only four taxa were present along transects that were never dewatered; all were erect aquatics that extended through the entire water column. In the lake with increased fluctuations, rosette and mat-forming species dominated transects where drawdown occurred in early winter and disturbance resulted from ice formation in the sediments. The natural hydrologic regime at the unregulated lake resulted in intermediate disturbance and high diversity. There was either too little or too much disturbance from water-level fluctuations in the regulated lakes, both resulting in reduced structural diversity.
    • Uptake and Retention of Mirex By Fish Maintained on Formulated and Natural Diets in Lake Ontario Waters

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Buttner, Joseph K.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1993)
      Fish with no detectable levels of the contaminant mirex were grown in Lake Ontario waters under conditions simulating commercial aquaculture. Benthic black bullheads (Ameiurus me/as) were grown in cages placed in a bay of the lake. Pelagic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were grown in terrestrial raceways served with Lake Ontario waters. Contaminant-free fingerlings were reared to a large size on a commercial ration in these systems, which partially isolated them from the contaminant-laden food web and bottom sediments. Black bullheads fed a mirex-spiked, commercially prepared food had mirex concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level of 0.1 p,g/g, significantly higher than concen, trations in fish receiving the same commercial food without mirex. Ninety percent offish receiving the unspiked ration had nondetectable levels of mirex (values below 0.002 p,g/g). The 10% containing mirex had concentrations 94% below FDA action level. In the rainbow trout study, 97% of the fish had no detectable levels ofmirex. This investigation demonstrated that bioaccumulation of the lipophilic contaminant mirex by fish cultured under simulated commercial conditions in Lake Ontario waters was not significant. These findings have implications for commercial aquaculture, regulatory decisions, and health-conscious fish consumers in the Great Lakes Basin.
    • Interactions Between Ground Water and Wetlands, Southern Shore of Lake Michigan, USA

      Shedlock, Robert J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Cohen, David A.; Indiana University - Bloomington; The College at Brockport; U.S. Geological Survey (1/1/1993)
      Wetlands between, and within, dune-beach complexes along the south shore of Lake Michigan are strongly affected by ground water. The hydrogeology of the glacial drift aquifer system in a 26 km2 area was investigated to determine the effects of ground water on the hydrology and hydrochemistry of Cowles Bog and its adjacent wetlands. The investigation showed that ground water from intermediate- and regional-scale flow systems discharges to Cowles Bog from confined aquifers that underlie the wetland. These flow systems are recharged in moraines south of the dune- beach complexes. Water from the confined aquifers discharges into the surficial aquifer mainly by upward leakage through a buried till sheet that serves as the confining layer. However, the till sheet is breached below a raised peat mound in Cowles Bog, allowing direct upward discharge from the confined aquifer into the surficial sand, marl, and peat. The shallow ground and wetland water in the area influenced by this leakage is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, with low tritium concentrations consistent with mixing of older ground water and more recent precipitation. Ground water and wetland water from surrounding areas are less mineralized and have higher tritium concentrations characteristic of precipitation in the late 1970s. The results of this study suggest that wetlands in complex hydrogeologic settings may be influenced by multiple ground-water flow systems that are affected by geomorphic features, stratigraphic discontinuities, and changes in sediment types. Discharge and recharge zones may both occur in the same wetland. Multidisciplinary studies incorporating hydrological, hydrochemical, geophysical, and sedimentological data are necessary to identify such complexities in wetland hydrology.
    • Spring Thermal Fronts and Salmonine Sport Catches in Lake Ontario

      Aultman, Dana C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1993)
      The hypothesis that salmonine catches in Lake Ontario are higher at thermal fronts in spring and early summer was tested in 1990 by comparing catches in nonfrontal water and three types of fronts: thermal bar (4°C); spring thermocline (6-8°C); and thermal break (>=9°C). A thermal front in the spring in Lake Ontario is a pronounced temperature cline across the surface of the lake (in this study defined as 0.15Co/min or greater at standard boat speeds) parallel to shore that extends obliquely from the surface toward shore and the bottom. Surface temperature was recorded every 2 min during 45 h of trolling for fish at a standard 3.2-4.8 km/h. Only 20% of the time was spent fishing in thermal fronts, where 35% of the 88 strikes occurred and 37% of the 59 fish were caught. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) for salmonines at thermal fronts was greater than nonfrontal CPUE (P < 0.001 for all strikes; P < 0.05 for fish caught). Catches were better in thermal breaks (P < 0.002) and the spring thermocline (P < 0.05) than in nonfrontal waters. Relative to nonfrontal water, CPUE for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch was greater in the spring thermocline (P < 0.01). Salmonines were caught deeper in nonfrontal waters than in frontal waters (P = 0.014). Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were caught deeper than were coho salmon and steelhead O. mykiss (P < 0.05). Anglers can effectively enhance their catch of salmonines by fishing the spring thermocline and thermal breaks. These results likely are applicable to other pelagic habitats utilized by salmonines.
    • Concentration of Selected Priority Organic Contaminants in Fish Maintained on Formulated Diets in Lake Ontario Waters

      Buttner, Joseph K.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1995)
      Fish were grown in Lake Ontario water under conditions simulating commercial aquaculture and then analyzed for 10 priority organic contaminants. Black bullheads (Ameiurus meias) were grown in cages placed in a bay of Lake Ontario. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were grown in terrestrial raceways served with Lake Ontario water. Yearlings were reared on a commercial ration in these systems, which partially isolated them from the contaminant-laden food web and bottom sediments, to an average weight of 93 g for black bullheads (range, 31-220 g) and 213 g (29-558 g) for rainbow trout. Concentrations of contaminants in skinless fillets of both rainbow trout cultivated 6 months and black bullheads cultured 3.5 months in Lake Ontario waters were nondetectable or less than one-sixth the "action levels" defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Contaminant levels in rainbow trout were consistently less than concentrations observed in black bullheads. Of the 10 priority contaminants surveyed, 7 were nondetectable in rainbow trout and 3 were nondetectable in black bullheads. Concentrations of contaminants in both species were generally much lower than levels observed in wild fish from Lake Ontario. This investigation demonstrated that bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants by fish cultured under simulated commercial conditions in Lake Ontario was not significant. These findings have implications for commercial aquaculture, regulatory decisions, and fish consumers in the Great Lakes basin and elsewhere.
    • Differentiating Climatic And Successional Influences On Long-Term Development Of A Marsh

      Singer, Darren K.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Madsen, Barbara J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Northern Arizona University; The College at Brockport; University of Michigan - Ann Arbor (1/1/1996)
      Comparison of long-term records of local wetland vegetation dynamics with regional, climate-forced terrestrial vegetation changes can be used to differentiate the rates and effects of autogenic successional processes and allogenic environmental change on wetland vegetation dynamics. We studied Holocene plant macrofossil and pollen sequences from Portage Marsh, a shallow, 18-ha marsh in northeastern Indiana. Between 10 000 and 5700 yr BP the basin was occupied by a shallow, open lake, while upland vegetation consisted of mesic forests of Pinus, Quercus, Ulmus, and Carya. At 5700 yr BP the open lake was replaced rapidly by a shallow marsh, while simultaneously Quercus savanna developed on the surrounding uplands. The marsh was characterized by periodic drawdowns, and the uplands by periodic fires. Species composition of the marsh underwent further changes between 3000 and 2000 yr BP. Upland pollen spectra at Portage Marsh and other sites in the region shifted towards more mesic vegetation during that period. The consistency and temporal correspondence between the changes in upland vegetation and marsh vegetation indicate that the major vegetational changes in the marsh during the Holocene resulted from hydrologic changes forced by regional climate change. Progressive shallowing of the basin by autogenic accumulation of organic sediment constrained vegetational responses to climate change but did not serve as the direct mechanism of change.
    • Croissance ovocytaire et régulation stéroïdienne chez les poissons àpontes unique et multiples

      Rinchard, Jacques; Poncin, P.; Kestemont, P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1998)
    • Reproductive Cycle and Plasma Levels of Sex Steroids in Female Eurasian Perch Perca Fluviatilis

      Sulistyo, Isdy; Rinchard, Jacques; Fontaine, Pascal; Gardeur, Jean-Noel; Capdeville, Bruno; Kestemont, Patrick; The College at Brockport (1/1/1998)
      From April 1995 to April 1996, the annual reproductive cycle of the Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis was studied at the Fishfarming Lindre Center (Moselle, France). At monthly intervals (at intervals of 10 days during the periovulatory period), 5 females were caught and dissected. From sampled organs, the gonado-, hepato- and viscerosomatic indexes (GSI, HSI, VSI) were calculated, oocyte diameters (OD) and the plasma levels of testosterone (T), 17P-estradiol (E2), 17,20P-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,2Op-P) and protein-phosphorus (PPP) were measured. After the sexual resting period observed from May to August (GSI < 1 %, OD < 200 urn, VSI = 4-6 %), oogenesis began in September when the water temperature decreased from 26.4 to 14.1 “C. The GSI increased progressively until mid March (15 %), then rapidly until spawning (25 %, OD = 850 urn) which occurred in April (14- 15 “C). The plasma levels of T, E,, 17,2Op-P and PPP were low during the sexual resting period. E, and PPP levels increased significantly at the onset of the oogenesis in September, then the E, level raised abruptly in November (3-4 ng mL-‘). In December, the T level increased rapidly to 15-20 ng . mL-’ The testosterone, E, and PPP levels remained very high until spawning, indicating the existence of active vitellogenesis. The highest HSI (2.1-2.2 %) recorded in winter confirmed this. During the periovulatory period, a peak of E, (4 ng . mL-‘) appeared, whereas T level diminished. In this study, 17,2Op-P levels remained low (0.2-0.6 ng mL-‘) and relatively constant. No 17,2Op-P peak was observed during the periovulatory period. Sampling at 10 day intervals was probably inadequate to specify the hormonal variations related to the final oocyte maturation and the ovulation. 0 Ifremer-Elsevier, Paris.