Recent Submissions

  • A Sault-outlet-referenced mid- to late-Holocene paleohydrograph for Lake Superior constructed from strandplains of beach ridges

    Johnson, John W.; Thompson, Todd A.; Lepper, K.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Forman, S. L.; Johnston, John W.; Argyilan, Erin P.; Baedke, Steve J.; Indiana University; Indiana University Northwest; et al. (2012-10-01)
    The most detailed Lake Superior paleohydrograph relative to the current outlet near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario–Michigan, was constructed from four strandplains of beach ridges. This provides a history of water-level, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and the active outlet prior to monitoring and regulation. Four relative paleohydrographs that are offset and subparallel owing to differences in GIA were produced from 321 basal foreshore elevations and 56 optically stimulated luminescence ages. Subtracting modeled elevations in defined millennial lake phases between relative paleohydrographs and similarity between an inferred Sault Ste. Marie (hereinafter, Sault) paleohydrograph and data near the zero isobase corroborates rates of GIA derived from water-level gauges. A change in trend in the Sault paleohydrograph is related to the final separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Michigan and Huron and is the youngest age reported at 1060 +/- 100 years. A near-horizontal trend in the Sault paleohydrograph for the past millennium has an intercept that is close to the historical average for Lake Superior. A consistently linear trend from about 2 to 1 ka suggests a relatively stable outlet similar to the past millennium, but a decreasing trend from 3 to 1 ka suggests an outlet other than the Sault. Although intercept data beyond the last millennium are similar in elevation to the reported bedrock sill near Chicago (Hansel et al. 1985), we argue that the Port–Huron outlet was the active outlet during this time and the inferred paleohydrograph of Baedke and Thompson (2000) requires reevaluation.
  • Fish Assemblages, Connectivity, and Habitat Rehabilitation in a Diked Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Complex

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Wells, Scott M.; Haynes, James M.; Market, Patrick S.; School of Natural Resources and Environment, U of Michigan; The College at Brockport; U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center (2014-01-01)
    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.
  • Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    Thompson, Todd A.; Lepper, Kenneth; Endres, Anthony L.; Johnston, John W.; Baedke, Steve J.; Argyilan, Erin P.; Booth, Robert K.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Indiana University Northwest; James Madison University; et al. (2011-01-01)
    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1 ka. The first beach ridge formed ~6 ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70 years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5 ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell N4 m during the following 500 years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes.
  • Reproductive Cycle and Plasma Sex Steroid Profiles in Male Eurasian Perch Perca Fluviatilis

    Sulistyo, Isdy; Fontaine, Pascal; Rinchard, Jacques; Gardeur, Jean-Noel; Migaud, Herve; Capdeville, Bruno; Kestemont, Patrick; The College at Brockport (2000-01-01)
    From April 1995 to April 1996, the annual reproductive cycle of male Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis was studied at the Lindre Center (Moselle, France). At monthly intervals, five males (mean body weight of 133 ± 43 g and total length of 175 ± 9 mm) were caught. From sampled organs, the gonadosomatic (GSI), hepatosomatic (HSI) and viscerosomatic indexes (VSI) were calculated and plasma testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were measured. After the spawning period in mid-April, GSI and HSI dropped and VSI increased to 3.8 ± 0.1 %. In September, GSI reached its maximum (8.5 ± 1.8 %). At this time, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa were abundant, whereas in June only spermatogonia were observed. During winter, GSI was stable at approximately 5 %, HSI reached its maximum (1.9 ± 0.3 %) and VSI was low (2.6 ± 0.2 %). From April to November 1995, plasma T and 11KT concentrations were low (< 0.5 ng·mL–1). Plasma T levels increased significantly in December and reached peak levels (12.3 ± 2.1 ng·mL–1) in January, then decreased in February and increased again until spawning in April (6.8 ± 2.1 ng·mL–1). This second elevation could be related to the beginning of a new spermatogenic cycle. Plasma levels of 11KT increased significantly from October to February 1996 (4.9 ± 1.1 ng·mL–1). From February to the spawning period (April 1996), plasma 11KT decreased significantly, but values were significantly higher than those measured in fall. Males were spermiating from January to spawning in April. © 2000 Ifremer/Cnrs/Inra/Ird/Cemagref/Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS
  • Age, Growth, Relative Abundance, and Scuba Capture of a New or Recovering Spawning Population of Lake Sturgeon in the Lower Niagara River, New York

    Hughes, Thomas C.; Lowie, Christopher E.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2005-08-29)
    The objective of our study was to collect age, growth, and catch-per-unit-effort information from a new or recovering population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the lower Niagara River, New York. From July 1998 through August 2000, we captured 67 lake sturgeon by use of gill nets, baited setlines, and scuba diving. Active capture by scuba divers (1.50 fish/ h) was much more effective than passive capture with gill nets (0.07 fish/h) and setlines (0.06 fish/h). Eggs of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were more effective as setline bait than were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, but neither bait differed in effectiveness from rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax. Ages of captured lake sturgeon ranged from 1 to 23 years; 47 of the 61 aged fish were younger than age 10. Strong relationships were found between weight, W, and length, L (W = 0.0000005 L3.5564: R2 = 0.977) and between L and age (L = 394.05.log e[age] + 248.77; R2 = 0.878). The lake sturgeon population in the lower Niagara River is probably small relative to its historic abundance. This naturally reproducing population should remain listed as threatened by New York State, and commercial and recreational fisheries should remain closed so that the population can rebuild adult numbers and reproductive potential.
  • Croissance ovocytaire et régulation stéroïdienne chez les poissons àpontes unique et multiples

    Rinchard, Jacques; Poncin, P.; Kestemont, P.; The College at Brockport (1998-01-01)
  • Reproductive Cycle and Plasma Levels of Sex Steroids in Female Eurasian Perch Perca Fluviatilis

    Sulistyo, Isdy; Rinchard, Jacques; Fontaine, Pascal; Gardeur, Jean-Noel; Capdeville, Bruno; Kestemont, Patrick; The College at Brockport (1998-01-01)
    From April 1995 to April 1996, the annual reproductive cycle of the Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis was studied at the Fishfarming Lindre Center (Moselle, France). At monthly intervals (at intervals of 10 days during the periovulatory period), 5 females were caught and dissected. From sampled organs, the gonado-, hepato- and viscerosomatic indexes (GSI, HSI, VSI) were calculated, oocyte diameters (OD) and the plasma levels of testosterone (T), 17P-estradiol (E2), 17,20P-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,2Op-P) and protein-phosphorus (PPP) were measured. After the sexual resting period observed from May to August (GSI < 1 %, OD < 200 urn, VSI = 4-6 %), oogenesis began in September when the water temperature decreased from 26.4 to 14.1 “C. The GSI increased progressively until mid March (15 %), then rapidly until spawning (25 %, OD = 850 urn) which occurred in April (14- 15 “C). The plasma levels of T, E,, 17,2Op-P and PPP were low during the sexual resting period. E, and PPP levels increased significantly at the onset of the oogenesis in September, then the E, level raised abruptly in November (3-4 ng mL-‘). In December, the T level increased rapidly to 15-20 ng . mL-’ The testosterone, E, and PPP levels remained very high until spawning, indicating the existence of active vitellogenesis. The highest HSI (2.1-2.2 %) recorded in winter confirmed this. During the periovulatory period, a peak of E, (4 ng . mL-‘) appeared, whereas T level diminished. In this study, 17,2Op-P levels remained low (0.2-0.6 ng mL-‘) and relatively constant. No 17,2Op-P peak was observed during the periovulatory period. Sampling at 10 day intervals was probably inadequate to specify the hormonal variations related to the final oocyte maturation and the ovulation. 0 Ifremer-Elsevier, Paris.
  • A Basin-Wide Survey of Coastal Wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes: Development and Comparison of Water Quality Indices

    Harrison, Anna M.; Reisinger, Alexander J.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Brady, Valerie J.; Siborowski, Jan J. H.; O'Reilly, Katherine E.; Ruetz, Carl R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Uzarski, Donald G.; Central Michigan University; et al. (2019-08-05)
    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are vital habitats for biota of ecological and economic importance. These habitats are susceptible to water quality impairments driven by runoff from the landscape due to their location along the shoreline. Monitoring of the overall status of biotic and abiotic conditions of coastal wetlands within the Great Lakes has been ongoing for over a decade. Here, we utilize measurements of aquatic physicochemical and land cover variables from 877 vegetation zones in 511 coastal wetland sites spanning the US and Canadian shorelines of the entire Great Lakes basin. Our objective is to develop water quality indices based on physicochemical measures (Chem-Rank), land use/land cover (LULC-Rank), and their combined effects (Sum-Rank and Simplified Sum-Rank), for both vegetation zones and wetland sites.We found that water quality differed among wetland vegetation types and among Great Lakes regions, corroborating previous findings that human land use alters coastal wetland water quality. Future monitoring can use these straightforward, easy-to-calculate indices to assess the abiotic condition of aquatic habitats. Our data support the need for management efforts focused on reducing nutrient and pollution loads that stem from human activities, particularly in the developed southern portions of the Great Lakes basin.
  • Seasonal Movements of White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) in the Mid-Columbia River

    Haynes, James M.; Gray, Robert H.; Montgomery, Jerry C.; The College at Brockport (1978-01-01)
    Twenty-nine white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were instrumented in 1975 and 1976 with separately identifiable radio transmitters to study seasonal movements in the mid-Columbia River, southeastern Washington. Tagged fish remained in free-flowing areas of the river and were inactive in winter. Movements occurred in summer and early fall. Activity appeared related to water temperature and sturgeon size.
  • Concentration of Selected Priority Organic Contaminants in Fish Maintained on Formulated Diets in Lake Ontario Waters

    Buttner, Joseph K.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1995-01-01)
    Fish were grown in Lake Ontario water under conditions simulating commercial aquaculture and then analyzed for 10 priority organic contaminants. Black bullheads (Ameiurus meias) were grown in cages placed in a bay of Lake Ontario. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were grown in terrestrial raceways served with Lake Ontario water. Yearlings were reared on a commercial ration in these systems, which partially isolated them from the contaminant-laden food web and bottom sediments, to an average weight of 93 g for black bullheads (range, 31-220 g) and 213 g (29-558 g) for rainbow trout. Concentrations of contaminants in skinless fillets of both rainbow trout cultivated 6 months and black bullheads cultured 3.5 months in Lake Ontario waters were nondetectable or less than one-sixth the "action levels" defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Contaminant levels in rainbow trout were consistently less than concentrations observed in black bullheads. Of the 10 priority contaminants surveyed, 7 were nondetectable in rainbow trout and 3 were nondetectable in black bullheads. Concentrations of contaminants in both species were generally much lower than levels observed in wild fish from Lake Ontario. This investigation demonstrated that bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants by fish cultured under simulated commercial conditions in Lake Ontario was not significant. These findings have implications for commercial aquaculture, regulatory decisions, and fish consumers in the Great Lakes basin and elsewhere.
  • Linking Egg Thiamine and Fatty Acid Concentrations of Lake Michigan Lake Trout with Early Life Stage Mortality

    Czesny, Sergiusz; Dettmers, John M.; Rinchard, Jacques; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ohio State University; The College at Brockport; University of Illinois (2009-01-01)
    The natural reproduction of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan is thought to be compromised by nutritional deficiency associated with inadequate levels of thiamine (vitamin B1) in their eggs. However, mortality driven by thiamine deficiency (commonly referred to as early mortality syndrome [EMS]) is not the only significant cause of low lake trout survival at early life stages. In this study, we sought to better understand the combined effects of variable levels of thiamine and fatty acids in lake trout eggs on prehatch, posthatch, and swim-up-stage mortality. We sampled the eggs of 29 lake trout females from southwestern Lake Michigan. The concentrations of free thiamine and its vitamers (e.g., thiamine monophosphate [TMP] and thiamine pyrophosphate [TPP]) as well as fatty acid profiles were determined in sampled eggs. Fertilized eggs and embryos were monitored through the advanced swim-up stage (1,000degree-days). Three distinct periods of mortality were identified: prehatch (0–400 degree-days), immediately posthatch (401–600 degree-days), and swim-up (601–1,000 degree-days). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed (1) that cis-7-hexadecenoic acid in both neutral lipids (NL) and phospholipids (PL) correlated with prehatch mortality, (2) that docosapentaenoic acid in PL and docosahexaenoic acid in NL correlated with posthatch mortality, and (3) that total lipids, TPP, and palmitoleic acid in NL, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid in PL correlated with the frequency of EMS. These results indicate the complexity of early life stage mortality in lake trout and suggest that inadequate levels of key fatty acids in eggs, along with variable thiamine content, contribute to the low survival of lake trout progeny in Lake Michigan.
  • Great Lakes Marshes

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (1998-01-01)
    This is a section from an EPA Final Report whose purpose was to evaluate proposed Structured Marsh Management projects and identify priority research questions based on particular regional characteristics of the wetland resource to be managed and a historical perspective on how and why the resource has been altered. This section addresses the Great Lake Marshes.
  • Depth Distribution of Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Relation to Season and Gas-Supersaturated Water

    Gray, Robert H.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1977-01-01)
    Pressure-sensitive radio transmitters were used to determine swimming depths of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in relation to season and gas-supersaturated water in the lower Snake River, southeastern Washington. Thirty radio-tagged fish, 15 with external and 15 with internal transmitters, were monitored in supersaturated water in spring 1976. Nine fish with internal and 30 with external transmitters were monitored in the absence of supersaturation in fall 1976 and spring 1977 respectively. Spring chinook salmon spent about 89% of their time below the critical supersaturation zone in 1976. Swimming depths of fall 1976 and spring 1977 chinook, migrating in normally saturated water, were shallower and differed significantly from those of fish migrating in supersaturated water in spring 1976.
  • Uptake and Retention of Mirex By Fish Maintained on Formulated and Natural Diets in Lake Ontario Waters

    Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Buttner, Joseph K.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1993-01-01)
    Fish with no detectable levels of the contaminant mirex were grown in Lake Ontario waters under conditions simulating commercial aquaculture. Benthic black bullheads (Ameiurus me/as) were grown in cages placed in a bay of the lake. Pelagic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were grown in terrestrial raceways served with Lake Ontario waters. Contaminant-free fingerlings were reared to a large size on a commercial ration in these systems, which partially isolated them from the contaminant-laden food web and bottom sediments. Black bullheads fed a mirex-spiked, commercially prepared food had mirex concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level of 0.1 p,g/g, significantly higher than concen, trations in fish receiving the same commercial food without mirex. Ninety percent offish receiving the unspiked ration had nondetectable levels of mirex (values below 0.002 p,g/g). The 10% containing mirex had concentrations 94% below FDA action level. In the rainbow trout study, 97% of the fish had no detectable levels ofmirex. This investigation demonstrated that bioaccumulation of the lipophilic contaminant mirex by fish cultured under simulated commercial conditions in Lake Ontario waters was not significant. These findings have implications for commercial aquaculture, regulatory decisions, and health-conscious fish consumers in the Great Lakes Basin.
  • Habitat Selection and Dispersal of the Cobblestone Tiger Beetle (Cincidel marginipennis Dejean) along the Genesee River, New York

    Hudgins, Rhonda; Norment, Christopher J.; Schlesinger, Matthew D.; Novak, Paul G.; New York Natural Heritage Program; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; The College at Brockport (2011-04-01)
    The goal of this study was to determine ecological, behavioral and environmental factors that would facilitate a management plan for the rare cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis). We used a mark – recapture study to document dispersal distances of the cobblestone tiger beetle along the upper Genesee River in western New York and binomial logistic regression models to compare habitat characteristics measured during occupancy surveys. Cobblestone tiger beetles occupied cobble bars with approximately twice the interior area and difference between minimum and maximum elevation, and higher shrub cover, than unoccupied cobble bars. Beetles occasionally dispersed distances greater than the maximum distance between cobble bars in our study area. In order to preserve cobblestone tiger beetles and riparian habitats along the upper Genesee River, habitats should be managed to reduce impacts from recreational activities and sand/gravel mining.
  • Resource Partitioning in Summer by Salmonids in South-Central Lake Ontario

    Olson, Robert A.; Winter, Jimmy D.; Nettles, David C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1988-01-01)
    During the summers of 1981 and 1982, we studied resource partitioning by stocked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, brown trout Salmo trutta, and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by fishing vertical gill nets at six distances from shore in south-central Lake Ontario. The nets were set at depths of approximately 15-45 m (nearshore stations,offshore) and more than 55 m (offshore stations, 4-24 km offshore). Salmonids were concentrated near shore, where they partitioned available habitat and, thus, food resources. Horizontal habitat was partitioned with respect to distance from shore; vertical habitat was partitioned in relation to temperature and the thermocline. Salmonids foraged for the most available prey items within their habitat. Overlaps in both food use and horizontal habitat use were inversely related to overlap in use of vertical habitat. There was increased habitat separation between sexes for those species caught farther from shore. At the salmonid stocking and prey density levels existing during our study, lake trout, brown trout, and chinook salmon appeared to partition resources and minimize deleterious trophic interactions during thermal stratification.
  • The Effect of Nectar-Thieving Ants on the Reproductive Success of Frasera speciosa (Gentianaceae)

    Norment, Christopher J.; The College at Brockport (1988-10-01)
    The impact of nectar-thieving ants on the reproductive success of Frasera speciosa (Gentianaceae), a perennial monocarp with periodic, synchronous flowering, was studied in a Wyoming alpine meadow. Plants from which ants were excluded had higher rates of flower visitation by other insects, and higher standing crops of nectar, than did plants visited by ants. However, there were no significant differences in either seed set or seed predation in plants with and without ants. The lack of effect of ants upon the reproductive success of Frasera may be due in part to temporal separation of the activities of ants and some important pollinators and seed predators. However, the abundant nectar produc- tion, large inflorescences and low rates of seed predation in Frasera, which are all related to its habit of periodic synchronous flowering, may reduce the effects of nectar-thieving ants upon the species.
  • Spring Thermal Fronts and Salmonine Sport Catches in Lake Ontario

    Aultman, Dana C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1993-01-01)
    The hypothesis that salmonine catches in Lake Ontario are higher at thermal fronts in spring and early summer was tested in 1990 by comparing catches in nonfrontal water and three types of fronts: thermal bar (4°C); spring thermocline (6-8°C); and thermal break (>=9°C). A thermal front in the spring in Lake Ontario is a pronounced temperature cline across the surface of the lake (in this study defined as 0.15Co/min or greater at standard boat speeds) parallel to shore that extends obliquely from the surface toward shore and the bottom. Surface temperature was recorded every 2 min during 45 h of trolling for fish at a standard 3.2-4.8 km/h. Only 20% of the time was spent fishing in thermal fronts, where 35% of the 88 strikes occurred and 37% of the 59 fish were caught. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) for salmonines at thermal fronts was greater than nonfrontal CPUE (P < 0.001 for all strikes; P < 0.05 for fish caught). Catches were better in thermal breaks (P < 0.002) and the spring thermocline (P < 0.05) than in nonfrontal waters. Relative to nonfrontal water, CPUE for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch was greater in the spring thermocline (P < 0.01). Salmonines were caught deeper in nonfrontal waters than in frontal waters (P = 0.014). Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were caught deeper than were coho salmon and steelhead O. mykiss (P < 0.05). Anglers can effectively enhance their catch of salmonines by fishing the spring thermocline and thermal breaks. These results likely are applicable to other pelagic habitats utilized by salmonines.
  • Lake-level Variability and Water Availability in the Great Lakes

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J. R.; Indiana University - Bloomington; Lehigh University; The College at Brockport; U.S. Geological Survey (2007-01-01)
    Key components of water availability in a hydrologic system4 are the amount of water in storage and the variability of that amount. In the Great Lakes Basin, a vast amount of water is stored in the lakes themselves. Because of the lakes’ size, small changes in water levels cause huge changes in the amount of water in storage. Approximately 5,439 mi3 of water, measured at chart datum, is stored in the Great Lakes. A change of 1 ft in water level over the total Great Lakes surface area of 94,250 mi2 means a change of 18 mi3 of water in storage. Changes in lake level over time also play an important role in human activities and in coastal processes and nearshore ecosystems, including development and maintenance of beaches, dunes, and wetlands. The purpose of this report is to present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. Reconstructed water-level changes have not been completed for all Great Lakes; consequently, this report presents these changes primarily for Lakes Michigan and Huron, with some reference to Lake Superior also.
  • Vegetation Patterns in and among Pannes (Calcareous Intradunal Ponds) at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    Hiebert, Ronald D.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; The College at Brockport; U.S. Geological Survey (1986-10-01)
    The relationships between plant species composition and dispersion, water chemistry and water depth/depth to water table were studied in five calcareous intradunal ponds (pannes) bordering the southern tip of Lake Michigan. The panne systems contained eight plant species threatened and endangered in Indiana. The aquatic zone was dominated by Chara, the pond edge by Rhynchospora capillacea, Juncus balticus and Utricularia cornuta, and the area surrounding the pond by Hypericum kalmianum. The water chemistry was typical of hardwater ponds in the area, probably affecting species composition but not species dispersion within the pannes. A significant correlation between the first axis scores from a reciprocal-averaging ordination and water depth/depth to water was demonstrated. Panne species are fitted to a model based on hydrology proposed by van der Laan for dune-slack vegetation in the Netherlands.

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