• A Meta-Analysis of Peer-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

      Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.; The College at Brockport; Western Michigan University (3/1/2011)
      This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated interventions for promoting social interactions among children from birth to eight years of age diagnosed with ASD. Forty-five single-subject design studies were analyzed and the effect sizes were calculated by the regression model developed by Allison and Gorman (1993). The overall effect sizes suggest that peer-mediated interventions were highly effective. Further categorical comparisons suggest that these interventions were more effective in enhancing social responses in younger boys, when older male siblings served as interventionists, when the interventions took place in the home, when peer modeling was used, and when consideration was given to maintenance and generalization across participants, behaviors and activities, and in involving collaboration among all researchers, peers/siblings, school staff, and parents/families.
    • Acomparison of Mathematics Teachers' and Professors' Views on Secondary Preparation for Tertiary Calculus

      Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Hazari, Zahra; Watson, Cherrie; Florida International University; Harvard University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      This article compares the views of teachers and professors about the transition from secondary mathematics to tertiary calculus. Quantitative analysis revealed five categories where teachers and professors differed significantly in the relative frequency of addressing them. Using the rite of passage theory, the separation and incorporation phases were investigated by carrying out thematic analyses on these five categories. For the professors, the analysis revealed specific content within algebra and precalculus that they viewed as vital preparation for students’ tertiary calculus success. For the teachers, the analysis highlighted the classroom environment realities of teaching in the separation phase. The rite of passage and professional turf theories are used to discuss and interpret the findings.
    • An Analysis of Evidence-Based Practices in the Education of Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders

      Mayton, Michael R.; Wheeler, John J.; Menendez, Anthony L.; Zhang, Jie; Cleveland State University; The College at Brockport; West Virginia University; Western Michigan University (12/1/2010)
      Horner et al. (2005) present a review substantiating how single-subject research methodology can be utilized to determine whether interventions are evidence-based practices (EBPs). The current study utilized the Horner et al. research piece to: (a) systematically identify a set of quality standards for the evaluation of single-case research methodology used with learners with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), (b) operationalize these standards for evaluators, (c) investigate three additional quality indicators related to external validity (multiple studies, locations, and researchers), (d) create a protocol for evaluators, and (e) gather and analyze data from studies that meet a set of predefined criteria. Published in seven journals across ten years, identified studies (N = 160) were subjected to an analysis across 23 EBP quality standards that revealed increasing compliance with EBP standards over time yet persistent and pervasive difficulty in adequately satisfying at least five indicators integrally tied to external validity.
    • An Experimental Comparison of the Effect of Teacher Versus Self?Evaluation/Self?Reflection Feedback on College Students’ Behavioral Observation Skills

      Desrochers, Marcie N.; Zhang, Jie; Caron, Stacey L.; Steinmiller, Jenna; La Salle University; The College at Brockport (12/19/2018)
      An experimental investigation of the effectiveness of two types of feedback on college students’ acquisition of behavioral observation skills was conducted. Special education and psychology students completed two training assignments involving behavioral observations of students engaging in problem behavior. Depending on the condition to which they were randomly assigned, participants experienced either teacher or self-evaluation/self-reflection feedback immediately after each assignment was completed. Participants in the teacher feedback condition scored higher on the post-training assignments and viewed it more positively than those in the self- evaluation/self-reflection condition. Additional research is needed to identify the relevant variables contributing to effective teacher feedback since it is a frequent component of instructional situations.
    • Are Homeschoolers Prepared for College Calculus?

      Wade, Carol H.; Wilkens, Christian P.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Harvard University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2015)
      Homeschooling in the United States has grown considerably over the past several decades. This article presents ?ndings from the Factors In?uencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) survey, a national study of 10,492 students enrolled in tertiary calculus, including 190 students who reported homeschooling for a majority of their high school years. The authors found that, compared with students who received other types of secondary schooling, students who homeschooled: (a) were demographically similar to their peers, (b) earned similar SAT Math scores, and (c) earned higher tertiary calculus grades.
    • Blogging and Emergent L2 Literacy Development in an Urban Elementary School: A Functional Perspective

      Gebhard, Meg; Shin, Dong-Shin; Seger, Wendy; The College at Brockport; University of Massachusetts - Amherst (1/1/2011)
      This study analyzes how a teacher in the United States used systemic functional linguistics to design a blog-mediated writing curriculum to support second grade English language learners' (ELLs) literacy development and abilities to use computer-mediated communication tools for social and academic purposes in and out of school. The questions posed by this study relate to how blogging practices shaped a focus student's emergent uses of print over nearly two years in a U. S. urban school serving a large Puerto Rican community. This study is informed by Halliday's theory of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) and Vygotskian conceptions of appropriation and mediation. Using a combination of ethnographic methods and the tools of genre analysis, the findings indicate that blog-mediated writing practices afforded students an expanded audience and range of purposes for literacy activities. These practices, coupled with genre-based instruction, supported the focal student's emergent literacy development. The implications of this study relate to conceptualizing how ideational, interpersonal, and textual metafunctions of language intersect through computer-mediated communication to support L2 language development.
    • Cultural Validity in Assessment Instruments for Children with Autism from a Chinese Cultural Perspective.

      Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.; Richey, Dean; Tennessee Technological University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2006)
      Autism is a chronic developmental disorder characterized by impairments in the areas of social interaction, communication, and repetitive behavior. Early detection followed by early intervention is likely to provide the best chance of long-term beneficial outcome for those children with autism. As demonstrated from research findings, it is important to use developmentally appropriate assessment tools for early detection, diagnosis, and evidence-based interventions. In a diversified society as the United States, it is extremely important to provide cultural competent services to children with autism and their families from diverse cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to examine from a Chinese cultural perspective the qualities of cultural validity in four assessment instruments designed for young children with autism.
    • Effectiveness of gluten-free and casein-free diets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: An evidence-based research synthesis.

      Zhang, Jie; Mayton, Michael R.; Wheeler, John J.; East Tennessee State University; The College at Brockport; West Virginia University (6/1/2013)
      In order to better assist practitioners and better serve persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families, it is vital for professionals to systematically evaluate the existing body of literature and synthesize its scientific evidence, so that the efficacy of research can be translated to evidence-based practices (EBPs) (Wheeler, 2007; Zhang & Wheeler, 2011). This research synthesis evaluated adherence to EBP standards and analyzed the effectiveness of gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diets for individuals with ASD. Four hundred and seventy articles were screened among peer-reviewed journals in English language published through 2010 using the Academic Search Complete search database. Twenty-three studies were selected, and the researchers used a systematic analysis model developed by Mayton, Wheeler, Menendez, and Zhang (2010) to investigate the degree of adherence to specific evidence-based practice standards. In addition, the study utilized quality indicators proposed by (a)Horner et al (2005) for single-subject design studies and (b) Gersten et al. (2005) for group experimental design, to evaluate the efficacy of GFCF diet interventions. Results of this synthesis indicated that the efficacy of GFCF diet interventions for individuals with ASD is inconclusive, and the field needs better controlled studies to provide the scientific evidence base for the intervention.
    • Evaluating the Readiness of Special Education Doctoral Students to Apply the Standards of Evidence-Based Practice to Single-Case Research

      Mayton, Michael R.; Zhang, Jie; Carter, Stacy L.; Suppo, Jennifer L.; Seton Hill University; Texas Tech University; The College at Brockport; West Virginia University (1/1/2017)
      How well doctoral students in special education are prepared to evaluate research as evidence-based practice (EBP) is likely to impact their careers, as well as the teachers they will train. In developing a method for evaluating the readiness of small cohort groups of doctoral students to apply a research-based model of EBP, an instrument and procedure were refined in a pilot evaluation and implemented within a multiple baseline design across participants. Participants’ independent and instrument-guided performance in rating published research was compared to the ratings of two experts in single-case research design, yielding proportions of agreement across evaluation conditions. Results indicated group readiness to independently conduct the EBP evaluation and individual differences in readiness indicating the need for remediation.
    • Expanding the Box: Characters Lead the Way

      Pelttari, Carole; Marchetti, Jan; The College at Brockport (1/1/2017)
      In our recent study, upper elementary students engaged in reading and writing outside the box when presented with novels that included character-writers. Students of varying backgrounds and ability levels revealed close connections and wide-ranging responses to authors and characters. These students accomplished three outcomes as they read, wrote, and discussed novels including characters portrayed as writers (character-writers). First, the students imitated the writing styles and genres of the authors and characters. Second, the students continued writing for themselves and others. Third, the students produced work of greater quality than they previously presented in their school journals. In this article, we illustrate one method that teachers of adolescents may initiate to engage adolescents in relevant curriculum. It is based on a study to answer the following research questions: 1. How do character-writers influence students' interest in writing, the amount of writing, and the quality of writing? 2. What other characteristics of these books do students report as influential or motivating in regard to writing?
    • Exploring the emotions and needs of English Language Learners: Facilitating pre-service and in-service teachers’ recognition of the tasks facing language learners

      Zhang, Jie; Pelttari, Carole; The College at Brockport (8/1/2013)
      The population in the United States has become more diverse, but the number of teachers in public schools who are fluent in another language is limited. Furthermore, statistics attest that few teachers have adequate training to work with English language learners (ELLs). Teachers who lack training and have not struggled to learn another language may not realize the complexity faced daily by ELLs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to apply instructional methods, which mirror experiences faced by real children in real classrooms, in order to allow pre-service and/or in-service teachers to be subjected to the mixed emotions experienced by English language learners in their class. In six different classes, the researchers immersed a total number of 155 undergraduate and graduate students in a 15-minute oral presentation in Dutch. Data from a post-survey indicated that teacher candidates developed empathy and extrapolated the message that ELL students in classrooms in the United States face serious but surmountable challenges that take time to overcome. As a result of the findings, we recommend teacher preparation programs include language requirements and interactions between teacher candidates and language learners.
    • Faculty Learning Community (FLC) on Student Leadership: Applying Student Voices to Leadership Development

      Zhang, Jie; LeSavoy, Barbara; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Barrett, Leah; The College at Brockport (1/1/2014)
      While college student leadership is well studied, the faculty’s role in developing student leaders is an area that is underexplored. Twenty students joined eleven members of a faculty learning community (FLC) in a mid-sized college to discuss their perspectives on student leadership. The FLC members/researchers used semi-structured focus group interviews and a phenomenological approach to identify traits of student leaders and to explore opportunities colleges can offer to promote students’ growth as leaders. Using thematic analysis, this study discusses the ways colleges can use FLCs as a platform to facilitate student leadership effectively.
    • FOUR COMPONENT INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (4C/ID) MODEL CONFIRMED FOR SECONDARY TERTIARY MATHEMATICS

      Wade, Carol Henderson; Wilkens, Christian P.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; The College at Brockport (12/1/2020)
      Cognitive load theory (CLT) was introduced in the 1980s as an instructional theory based on well accepted aspects of human cognitive architecture (Sweller, van Merriënboer, & Paas, 2019). A major premise of the theory is that working memory load from cognitive processes is decreased when domain specific schemas are activated from long term memory. Comprehension, schema construction, schema automation, and problem solving in working memory often create high cognitive load. Hence, schemas transported from long term memory into working memory support learning and transfer of learning (Ginns & Leppin, 2019). One of the key developments from CLT has been the Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model generated from evolutionary theorizing (Geary, 2008; Ginns & Leppink, 2019). Since its creation, the 4C/ID Model has been successfully applied to instruction that requires the learning of complex tasks. Van Merriënboer, Kester, and Paas (2006) defined a complex task as having many different solutions, real world connections, requiring time to learn, and as creating a high cognitive load. Based on this definition, the instruction and learning of mathematics is a complex task. For example, different solutions are algebraic, analytic, numeric, and graphic. Relative to real world connections, mathematics is one of the domains in the broader science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) field and is regarded as the language of the sciences. Regarding taking time to learn and creating a high load on learner’s cognitive systems, mathematics teachers deal with the tension between covering all the required standards and taking the time to teach for understanding. Teachers face challenging decisions about instructional approaches, materials, productive struggle, and the amount of classroom time spent on various standards. Better models for instruction that support transfer of learning could help teachers improve instructional decision making. Although the 4C/ID Model has been used in secondary mathematics education (Sarfo, & Elen, 2007; Wade, 2011), it has never been confirmed as a mathematical instructional theory. The purpose of this research report is to present an empirical confirmation of the 4C/ID Model, using data from the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project from Harvard University.
    • High School Prpearation for College Calculus: Is the Story the Same for Males and Females?

      Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Wilkens, Christian P.; Sadler, Philip M.; Harvard University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2017)
      Usingdatafromthefirst national study on high schoolpreparationfor college calculus, the Factors Including College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project, this paper connects males’ (n53,648) and females’ (n52,033) instructional experiences from their high school precalculus or calculus course to their college calculus performance. A hierarchical linear model identifies several significant instructional experiences that predict college calculus performance. Our findings show that high school instructional practices affect college calculus performance similarly for males and females.
    • Imagination and Literacy Instruction: A Content Analysis of Literature within Literacy-Related Publications

      Pelttari, Carole; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Through content analysis of research conducted during the last 25 years, this paper identifies five vital uses of imagination within literacy instruction. First, readers use imagination to comprehend text. Second, readers use imagination to engage in the world depicted through the text. Third, readers use imagination to make sense of both narrative and expository texts. Fourth, readers use imagination to learn about self and others. Finally, readers benefit from instruction regarding the use of imagination to enhance reading. A compilation of instructional methods is presented. This analysis establishes the need for classroom instruction connecting imagination and literacy.
    • Implementing Portfolios Using Tk20: An Educational Assessment System

      Zhang, Jie; Fallon, Moira; Wright, Allison; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      The purpose of this paper is to share results of collaborative effort introducing special education portfolios into an inclusive teacher education program using the Tk20 assessment system. Tk20 is an assessment system for both providing evidence of educational skills and achieving that evidence in such a way as to demonstrate growth of teacher candidates. This is not only important for the teacher candidates as they push themselves professionally, but it is also a crucial aspect of accreditation requirements for teacher education programs. Therefore, the focus of the paper is on the usefulness of standards based, working and exit electronic special education portfolios in teacher education. The three instructors report teacher candidates’ learning outcomes and professional development by analyzing data in a special education portfolio via Tk20 from special education courses in three phases of a teacher preparation program prior to student teaching practicum. We describe the lessons learned and focus on victories and challenges in our planning and implementation process. We also suggest recommendations for others to implement the interdisciplinary efforts for effective collaboration into a college wide, electronic educational assessment system in order to track the performances of teacher candidates over time.
    • Influence of perceived technology use of university students on academic and social performance in college.

      Russo, Theresa J.; Zhang, Jie; Fallon, Moira; SUNY Oneonta; The College at Brockport (6/1/2015)
      Many believe we are in the midst of one of the most dramatic technological revolutions in history. As such, education is evolving to meet the demands of a global society. Colleges and universities act as a cultural bridge to those new literacies empowering individuals and groups traditionally excluded from education thereby reconstructing the classroom to make it responsive to the challenges of an ever-changing society. A convenience sample of 390 students was surveyed to investigate the perceived influences of technology on relationships, including preferences, usage and time with technologies. Results of this study suggest positive influences of technology on academic work, performance and maintenance of relationships, but disadvantages such as increased stress, addictive feelings toward technologies, and increased misunderstandings in relationships and conflict. These findings suggest technology has a mixed impact on students. Although technology will continue to be a significant influence in the lives of individuals, we need to consider how these forms of communication are best used in university classrooms. Discussion and recommendations to university instructors include suggestions on facilitating the use of technology to connect with college students in positive ways, while ameliorating the negative influences in the college classroom.
    • Instruction to Understanding: The Emotional Underpinnings of New Teachers' Professional Development

      Schlosser, Linda Kramer; Balzano, Betsy; Saint John Fisher College; The College at Brockport (10/1/2009)
      This study focuses on the professional development of 54 newly certified, preservice teachers who participated in a masters program that incorporated a 15-hour-per-week internship in an urban school. Perceptual and independent data were collected from 10 cohorts who completed the program between 1998 and 2007. Findings suggest that new teachers' knowledge and practices change when rigorous year-long masters programs are situated in schools. The roots of these changes are the connections between cognition and emotion that emerge from intensive, context-rich professional development.
    • Instructional Experiences that Align with Conceptual Understanding in the Transition from High School Mathematics to College Calculus

      Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Hazari, Zahra; Florida International University; Harvard University; The College at Brockport (4/1/2017)
      Using data from the first National study on high school preparation for college calculus success, the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project, this article connects student high school instructional experiences to college calculus performance. The findings reported here reveal that students were better prepared for college calculus success by high school instructional experiences that emphasized mathematical definitions, vocabulary, reasoning, functions, and hands-on activities. These findings serve to inform high school mathematics teachers about promising instructional practices. They can also inform teacher education programs about how to better prepare secondary mathematics educators to discuss conceptual understanding on the widely used Educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA).
    • Intrusiveness of behavioral treatments for children with autism and developmental disabilities: An initial investigation.

      Mayton, Michael R.; Carter, Stacy L.; Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.; East Tennessee State University; Texas Tech University; The College at Brockport; West Virginia University (3/1/2014)
      The behaviors frequently displayed by students with autism can place them at risk for overly reactive behavior interventions with unwanted side effects. The current study examined the level of intrusiveness of behavioral treatments developed for 198 students with disabilities from 13 different states. Results demonstrated that students diagnosed with autism had proportionally more intrusive behavior interventions when compared to students in five other disability categories and indicated that many students with autism were unnecessarily subjected to highly intrusive behavior interventions. The implications of these findings are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided.