• Cultural Validity in Assessment Instruments for Children with Autism from a Chinese Cultural Perspective.

      Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.; Richey, Dean; Tennessee Technological University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2006)
      Autism is a chronic developmental disorder characterized by impairments in the areas of social interaction, communication, and repetitive behavior. Early detection followed by early intervention is likely to provide the best chance of long-term beneficial outcome for those children with autism. As demonstrated from research findings, it is important to use developmentally appropriate assessment tools for early detection, diagnosis, and evidence-based interventions. In a diversified society as the United States, it is extremely important to provide cultural competent services to children with autism and their families from diverse cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to examine from a Chinese cultural perspective the qualities of cultural validity in four assessment instruments designed for young children with autism.
    • Students With Disabilities In Urban Massachusetts Charter Schools: Access To Regular Classrooms

      Wilkens, Christian P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2011)
      This paper examines the access of students with disabilities to regular classrooms in charter and traditional schools in cities across Massachusetts. Public school enrollment and placement data are examined for 2003-07; overall, access to regular classrooms showed high variability by city. Urban charter schools educated significantly lower percentages of students with disabilities in substantially separate classrooms (0-5.7%), compared to urban traditional schools (15.0%-45.8%); however, charter schools enrolled significantly fewer students who are not easily included in regular classes. Both charter and traditional schools have increased regular classroom access considerably from 2003-2007. Discussion focuses on the challenges of interpreting variability in regular classroom access, given major enrollment gaps of students with disabilities between charter and traditional schools. Future policy and regulatory work should emphasize improving charter school access among students with disabilities.
    • Using Course Assessments to Train Teachers in Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavioral Intervention Plan Techniques

      Fallon, Moira; Zhang, Jie; Kim, Eun-Joo; The College at Brockport (1/1/2011)
      As the need to train more teachers to work in inclusive classrooms increases, college instructors should identify and implement course assessments measuring their effectiveness in training practices. Skills in managing the challenging behaviors of students with disabilities, such as autism and emotional disturbances are important for teachers worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of a course assessment to develop Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP). The course assessment used in this study was developed, revised, and then implemented to evaluate participants‘ knowledge to identify, assess and develop plans to improve challenging behaviors of students with behavior disabilities. The course assessment was used in training teachers who currently hold general education certification in obtaining special education training. All participants were new teachers, previously certified in childhood education, and seeking additional certification in special education. Results show there were significant differences across the years of implementation of the study. The paper includes recommendations for other institutions of higher education to utilize similar course assessments into their teacher training programs.
    • Blogging and Emergent L2 Literacy Development in an Urban Elementary School: A Functional Perspective

      Gebhard, Meg; Shin, Dong-Shin; Seger, Wendy; The College at Brockport; University of Massachusetts - Amherst (1/1/2011)
      This study analyzes how a teacher in the United States used systemic functional linguistics to design a blog-mediated writing curriculum to support second grade English language learners' (ELLs) literacy development and abilities to use computer-mediated communication tools for social and academic purposes in and out of school. The questions posed by this study relate to how blogging practices shaped a focus student's emergent uses of print over nearly two years in a U. S. urban school serving a large Puerto Rican community. This study is informed by Halliday's theory of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) and Vygotskian conceptions of appropriation and mediation. Using a combination of ethnographic methods and the tools of genre analysis, the findings indicate that blog-mediated writing practices afforded students an expanded audience and range of purposes for literacy activities. These practices, coupled with genre-based instruction, supported the focal student's emergent literacy development. The implications of this study relate to conceptualizing how ideational, interpersonal, and textual metafunctions of language intersect through computer-mediated communication to support L2 language development.
    • Supporting the language development and service needs of young children from Chinese immigrant families: Utilizing best practices from international education.

      Zhang, Jie; Fallon, Moira; The College at Brockport (1/1/2013)
      As many more families emigrate to the United States (US) and other countries from China, it becomes vital that families, service providers, and professionals understand the basic demographic characteristics of these families. Early detection followed by culturally competent intervention services is more likely to provide the best chance of longterm beneficial outcomes for children with varying educational needs. This research investigation aims to provide more detailed information and cultural support for evidenced based interventions to school providers so that they will know how to better serve students from Chinese immigrant families. The research investigators used three approaches in this exploratory study: a survey instrument, a follow-up interview, and a case study. The results of this study demonstrate that these immigrant families, especially those from Chinese cultures, possess unique characteristics and strengths. The usefulness of this information to practitioners is two-fold: a more comprehensive summary of the demographic characteristics of Chinese immigrant families and the self-reported concerns and challenges of these families with unmet educational needs.
    • Faculty Learning Community (FLC) on Student Leadership: Applying Student Voices to Leadership Development

      Zhang, Jie; LeSavoy, Barbara; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Barrett, Leah; The College at Brockport (1/1/2014)
      While college student leadership is well studied, the faculty’s role in developing student leaders is an area that is underexplored. Twenty students joined eleven members of a faculty learning community (FLC) in a mid-sized college to discuss their perspectives on student leadership. The FLC members/researchers used semi-structured focus group interviews and a phenomenological approach to identify traits of student leaders and to explore opportunities colleges can offer to promote students’ growth as leaders. Using thematic analysis, this study discusses the ways colleges can use FLCs as a platform to facilitate student leadership effectively.
    • Are Homeschoolers Prepared for College Calculus?

      Wade, Carol H.; Wilkens, Christian P.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Harvard University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2015)
      Homeschooling in the United States has grown considerably over the past several decades. This article presents ?ndings from the Factors In?uencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) survey, a national study of 10,492 students enrolled in tertiary calculus, including 190 students who reported homeschooling for a majority of their high school years. The authors found that, compared with students who received other types of secondary schooling, students who homeschooled: (a) were demographically similar to their peers, (b) earned similar SAT Math scores, and (c) earned higher tertiary calculus grades.
    • Imagination and Literacy Instruction: A Content Analysis of Literature within Literacy-Related Publications

      Pelttari, Carole; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Through content analysis of research conducted during the last 25 years, this paper identifies five vital uses of imagination within literacy instruction. First, readers use imagination to comprehend text. Second, readers use imagination to engage in the world depicted through the text. Third, readers use imagination to make sense of both narrative and expository texts. Fourth, readers use imagination to learn about self and others. Finally, readers benefit from instruction regarding the use of imagination to enhance reading. A compilation of instructional methods is presented. This analysis establishes the need for classroom instruction connecting imagination and literacy.
    • Acomparison of Mathematics Teachers' and Professors' Views on Secondary Preparation for Tertiary Calculus

      Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Hazari, Zahra; Watson, Cherrie; Florida International University; Harvard University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      This article compares the views of teachers and professors about the transition from secondary mathematics to tertiary calculus. Quantitative analysis revealed five categories where teachers and professors differed significantly in the relative frequency of addressing them. Using the rite of passage theory, the separation and incorporation phases were investigated by carrying out thematic analyses on these five categories. For the professors, the analysis revealed specific content within algebra and precalculus that they viewed as vital preparation for students’ tertiary calculus success. For the teachers, the analysis highlighted the classroom environment realities of teaching in the separation phase. The rite of passage and professional turf theories are used to discuss and interpret the findings.
    • Implementing Portfolios Using Tk20: An Educational Assessment System

      Zhang, Jie; Fallon, Moira; Wright, Allison; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      The purpose of this paper is to share results of collaborative effort introducing special education portfolios into an inclusive teacher education program using the Tk20 assessment system. Tk20 is an assessment system for both providing evidence of educational skills and achieving that evidence in such a way as to demonstrate growth of teacher candidates. This is not only important for the teacher candidates as they push themselves professionally, but it is also a crucial aspect of accreditation requirements for teacher education programs. Therefore, the focus of the paper is on the usefulness of standards based, working and exit electronic special education portfolios in teacher education. The three instructors report teacher candidates’ learning outcomes and professional development by analyzing data in a special education portfolio via Tk20 from special education courses in three phases of a teacher preparation program prior to student teaching practicum. We describe the lessons learned and focus on victories and challenges in our planning and implementation process. We also suggest recommendations for others to implement the interdisciplinary efforts for effective collaboration into a college wide, electronic educational assessment system in order to track the performances of teacher candidates over time.
    • Evaluating the Readiness of Special Education Doctoral Students to Apply the Standards of Evidence-Based Practice to Single-Case Research

      Mayton, Michael R.; Zhang, Jie; Carter, Stacy L.; Suppo, Jennifer L.; Seton Hill University; Texas Tech University; The College at Brockport; West Virginia University (1/1/2017)
      How well doctoral students in special education are prepared to evaluate research as evidence-based practice (EBP) is likely to impact their careers, as well as the teachers they will train. In developing a method for evaluating the readiness of small cohort groups of doctoral students to apply a research-based model of EBP, an instrument and procedure were refined in a pilot evaluation and implemented within a multiple baseline design across participants. Participants’ independent and instrument-guided performance in rating published research was compared to the ratings of two experts in single-case research design, yielding proportions of agreement across evaluation conditions. Results indicated group readiness to independently conduct the EBP evaluation and individual differences in readiness indicating the need for remediation.
    • Expanding the Box: Characters Lead the Way

      Pelttari, Carole; Marchetti, Jan; The College at Brockport (1/1/2017)
      In our recent study, upper elementary students engaged in reading and writing outside the box when presented with novels that included character-writers. Students of varying backgrounds and ability levels revealed close connections and wide-ranging responses to authors and characters. These students accomplished three outcomes as they read, wrote, and discussed novels including characters portrayed as writers (character-writers). First, the students imitated the writing styles and genres of the authors and characters. Second, the students continued writing for themselves and others. Third, the students produced work of greater quality than they previously presented in their school journals. In this article, we illustrate one method that teachers of adolescents may initiate to engage adolescents in relevant curriculum. It is based on a study to answer the following research questions: 1. How do character-writers influence students' interest in writing, the amount of writing, and the quality of writing? 2. What other characteristics of these books do students report as influential or motivating in regard to writing?
    • High School Prpearation for College Calculus: Is the Story the Same for Males and Females?

      Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Wilkens, Christian P.; Sadler, Philip M.; Harvard University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2017)
      Usingdatafromthefirst national study on high schoolpreparationfor college calculus, the Factors Including College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project, this paper connects males’ (n53,648) and females’ (n52,033) instructional experiences from their high school precalculus or calculus course to their college calculus performance. A hierarchical linear model identifies several significant instructional experiences that predict college calculus performance. Our findings show that high school instructional practices affect college calculus performance similarly for males and females.
    • The Secondary-Tertiary Transition in Mathematics: What High School Teachers Do to PrepareStudents for Future Success in College-Level Calculus

      Wade, Carol H.; Simbricz, Sandra K.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Gruver, Meaghan; Sadler, Philip M.; Brockport High School; Erie 2-Chautauqua-Ca!araugus Board of Cooperative Educational Services, NY; Harvard University; The College at Brockport (1/1/2018)
      Quantitative analysis of the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) Survey data indicates that high school mathematics teachers’ abilities to teach for conceptual understanding is a significant and positive predictor of student performance in singlevariable college calculus. To explore these findings further, we gathered and analyzed interview data gained from a representative sample of high school precalculus teachers from across the U.S., identified by their students as requiring high levels of conceptual understanding (n=13). Seventeen themes were identified and then combined into five overarching phenomenological themes. These overarching themes suggest that teachers who teach for high conceptual understanding (a) support relational understanding during problem solving, (b) require students to learn how to study to build on prior knowledge and learn from mistakes, (c) use mathematical language and ask critical questions to support learning, (d) focus on content knowledge necessary to make connections, and (e) use technology to support learning concepts but limit calculator use. Comparison of these results to quantitative findings further illuminate that intentional development of disciplinary knowledge, cognition, and language are noteworthy points of intersection for teachers and researchers alike.
    • Matilda Joslyn Gage: Writing and "Righting" the History of Woman Suffrage

      Corey, Mary E.; The College at Brockport (10/1/2001)
      The information in this article is drawn from the writings, correspondence, newspapers, and speeches, etc. of the woman suffrage movement housed and on microfilm in the following archival collections: The Matilda Joslyn Gage Papers, Women's Studies Manuscript Collections, Schlesinger Library; The Records of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress; The Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, edited by Patricia G. Holland and Ann D. Gordon; and the Papers of the New York State Woman Suffrage Association, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, Columbia University.
    • Instruction to Understanding: The Emotional Underpinnings of New Teachers' Professional Development

      Schlosser, Linda Kramer; Balzano, Betsy; Saint John Fisher College; The College at Brockport (10/1/2009)
      This study focuses on the professional development of 54 newly certified, preservice teachers who participated in a masters program that incorporated a 15-hour-per-week internship in an urban school. Perceptual and independent data were collected from 10 cohorts who completed the program between 1998 and 2007. Findings suggest that new teachers' knowledge and practices change when rigorous year-long masters programs are situated in schools. The roots of these changes are the connections between cognition and emotion that emerge from intensive, context-rich professional development.
    • An Analysis of Evidence-Based Practices in the Education of Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders

      Mayton, Michael R.; Wheeler, John J.; Menendez, Anthony L.; Zhang, Jie; Cleveland State University; The College at Brockport; West Virginia University; Western Michigan University (12/1/2010)
      Horner et al. (2005) present a review substantiating how single-subject research methodology can be utilized to determine whether interventions are evidence-based practices (EBPs). The current study utilized the Horner et al. research piece to: (a) systematically identify a set of quality standards for the evaluation of single-case research methodology used with learners with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), (b) operationalize these standards for evaluators, (c) investigate three additional quality indicators related to external validity (multiple studies, locations, and researchers), (d) create a protocol for evaluators, and (e) gather and analyze data from studies that meet a set of predefined criteria. Published in seven journals across ten years, identified studies (N = 160) were subjected to an analysis across 23 EBP quality standards that revealed increasing compliance with EBP standards over time yet persistent and pervasive difficulty in adequately satisfying at least five indicators integrally tied to external validity.

      Wade, Carol Henderson; Wilkens, Christian P.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; The College at Brockport (12/1/2020)
      Cognitive load theory (CLT) was introduced in the 1980s as an instructional theory based on well accepted aspects of human cognitive architecture (Sweller, van Merriënboer, & Paas, 2019). A major premise of the theory is that working memory load from cognitive processes is decreased when domain specific schemas are activated from long term memory. Comprehension, schema construction, schema automation, and problem solving in working memory often create high cognitive load. Hence, schemas transported from long term memory into working memory support learning and transfer of learning (Ginns & Leppin, 2019). One of the key developments from CLT has been the Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model generated from evolutionary theorizing (Geary, 2008; Ginns & Leppink, 2019). Since its creation, the 4C/ID Model has been successfully applied to instruction that requires the learning of complex tasks. Van Merriënboer, Kester, and Paas (2006) defined a complex task as having many different solutions, real world connections, requiring time to learn, and as creating a high cognitive load. Based on this definition, the instruction and learning of mathematics is a complex task. For example, different solutions are algebraic, analytic, numeric, and graphic. Relative to real world connections, mathematics is one of the domains in the broader science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) field and is regarded as the language of the sciences. Regarding taking time to learn and creating a high load on learner’s cognitive systems, mathematics teachers deal with the tension between covering all the required standards and taking the time to teach for understanding. Teachers face challenging decisions about instructional approaches, materials, productive struggle, and the amount of classroom time spent on various standards. Better models for instruction that support transfer of learning could help teachers improve instructional decision making. Although the 4C/ID Model has been used in secondary mathematics education (Sarfo, & Elen, 2007; Wade, 2011), it has never been confirmed as a mathematical instructional theory. The purpose of this research report is to present an empirical confirmation of the 4C/ID Model, using data from the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project from Harvard University.
    • An Experimental Comparison of the Effect of Teacher Versus Self?Evaluation/Self?Reflection Feedback on College Students’ Behavioral Observation Skills

      Desrochers, Marcie N.; Zhang, Jie; Caron, Stacey L.; Steinmiller, Jenna; La Salle University; The College at Brockport (12/19/2018)
      An experimental investigation of the effectiveness of two types of feedback on college students’ acquisition of behavioral observation skills was conducted. Special education and psychology students completed two training assignments involving behavioral observations of students engaging in problem behavior. Depending on the condition to which they were randomly assigned, participants experienced either teacher or self-evaluation/self-reflection feedback immediately after each assignment was completed. Participants in the teacher feedback condition scored higher on the post-training assignments and viewed it more positively than those in the self- evaluation/self-reflection condition. Additional research is needed to identify the relevant variables contributing to effective teacher feedback since it is a frequent component of instructional situations.
    • Mercury and Autism: A Review

      Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.; Tennessee Technological University; The College at Brockport (3/1/2010)
      The prevalence of autism has increased approximately four times in children in nearly one decade (California Health and Human Services Agency, 2003). It has been reported that explanations such as immigration, shifts in the interpretation of diagnostic criteria, improved identification, or diagnostic accuracies cannot explain the observed increase (Geier Geier, 2005). One potential cause that has alarmed many has been the presence of thimersol, the mercury-based preservative found among immunizations. Although many refute this, concern has been leveled by many families and professionals concerning the potential impact of mercury poisoning as a causal factor. Researchers have proposed that autism may be in part caused by mercury, because there was cumulative mercury exposure throng denial amalgam, fish consumption, environment pollution, and additionally, through increased thimerosal-containing vaccines for both mothers and newborns (Mutter, Naumann, Schneider, Walach, Haley, 2005). The purpose of this study is to review the information from studies concerning the relationship between mercury exposure and autism.